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Noakhali Science & Technology University
Department of Fisheries and Marine Science
Programme planning and evaluation in extension work
prepared by
Degonto Islam
Department of Fisheries and Marine Science
Noakhali Science & Technology University
Session: 2017-18
Date of Submission: 24th
January 2022
2
Index
SL> Content Page
i. Introduction 3
ii. Objectives of Programme 3
iii. Allowance in Extension planning 3
iv. Steps in extension programme planning 4
v. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) 5
vi. Principle of PRA 5
vii. PRA technique 7
viii. Characteristics of programme planning process 8
ix. Relationship of extension worker in Programme planning 8
x. Factor influencing participation in extension work 8
xi. Programme Evaluation Organization 11
xii. Conclusion 13
xiii. Reference 13
3
Introduction
Programme is the total educational job being done in particular settings that forms the basis for
extension plan. Programme planning is decision making process which actually analysis the
existing condition and matter and evaluation the alternative approach to solve the crux with
priorities of the human feeling and needs. Generally initial objectives are peoples participations
at grass roots level.
According to Kelsey and hearne (1967) “an extension programme is a statement of situation,
objectives, problems and solutions.
Objectives of Programme
General objective is to influence people to make change in their behavior. Others are given
bellow
 To have successful operation without wasting time
 To have different approach make the presentation understandable and fascinating to the
root grass people.
 To make the opportunity of making leadership among the client people and help them in
spreading knowledge.
Allowance in Extension planning
Some allowance related to extension planning are :-
 Changing of plan for effective social progress
 Predetermined and democratically acquisition
 Select, organixe and administer a programme that will contribute to the socio
economic progress
 Allow guidelines, leadership and assistance of extension educators to evolve the
problems and planning approach in a systematic way.
4
Principles of extension planning programme and evaluation
Extension programme planning has certain principles which hold good irrespective of the nature
of the clientele and enterprises they may be pursuing.
 Based on philosophy: extension programme ought to be based on the the past,
present and future aspects and exigent.
 Should be opaque: the programme should have clear and significant objectives
that can make people satisfied and socio economically self dependent.
 Fix up priority on the basis of available resources: consideration of all parameters
is essential such limited trained personality, time of the programme planning,
availability of fund, facilities and other resources.
 Should be workable : extension programme ought to be clearly indicate the
availability and utilization of resources. An extension programme should have
clearly state wherefrom the funds, facilities and the needed personal shall be
available and how these shall be utilized. This shall make the programme practical
and workable.
 General agreements for various level: programme prepared for various level such
village, districts, state, national level conform to each other and shall no worl at
cross purpose .
 Peoples participation: extension programme should have involve people at the
local level.
 Should have particular plan of work and predetermined : the programme should
at least broadly indicate how it will be executed. Unless the plan of work is drawn
up , the programme remains a theoretical exercise.
5
Steps in extension programme planning
Figure: Steps in Extension programme plan
i. Collection of facts: information are collected through survey at the grass root level or
pertinent data may be collected from the previous records of several years.
ii. Analysis of situation: the information are analyzed in keeping mind of the feeling of the
client population.
Reconsideration
Collection of facts
(asking,
communication,Li
stening)
Analyze situation
(observing)
Identify problem/
Need
Decide on Objective
Develop plan of
work
Execute plan
Evaluation of process
(checking, feed back)
6
iii. Identification of the problem: analysis and explaination the problem in order to explore
the actual problem. Selection of larger number of problem can not be solved at a time or
properly managed.
iv. Identify needs: finding out what actually the client population have and what they actually
know about their available resource and what they actually need outside from their
territory to make their life easier and make the confident in assumption of the high
technology.
v. Decide on objectives: the objectives and goal are then determine according to the
circumstance of the client population. To make the ojectives realistics and actionable
there is nee to state them in term of specific goals.
vi. Developing plan of work: there must be alternative plan so that in the mean time plan
can be changed according to the situation requirement. Such what arrangements shall be
made fro marketing of the produce, training of the farmers and so on.
vii. Plan execute: In the executing of plan there may be participation of local leaders,
organizational support as well. The plan should be execute according to the pre-
determined measures but where it is needed it can be changed in alternative way.
viii. Evaluation of progress: Evaluation involves criteria in relation to the objectives, collection
of in formation , making judgement .determination of the extent to which objectives has
been accomplished. It is a continuous process not onl to measure the end result but also
to ensure that all the steps are correctly followed. Evaluation can be formal or informal
depending on the necessity of the programme and also the confidence of the man power,
funds, facilities, and time.
Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)
Participatory rural appraisal is the involving local prople in analysis and interpretation of
rural situation. Such local people.
Principle of PRA
Participation: Local people serve as partners in data collection and analysis.
7
Listening and Learning: The local people have their knowledge, their experience, their history
and culture, their views and ideas and their priorities and preferences.
Flexibility: Not a standardized methodology, depends on purpose, resources, skill, time.
Teamwork: Outsiders and insiders, men and women, mix of disciplines.
Optimal Ignorance: Cost and time efficient, but ample opportunity for analysis and planning.
Systematic: For validity and reliability, partly stratified sampling, cross-checking. Example:
Participatory rural appraisals using various PRA tools and techniques are conducted to obtain
information on the topography of the land, soil structure, water resource utilisation, seasonal
crops, rainfall and cropping patterns, preference for trees and history of the area. The PRAs
facilitate rapport building with the community and the entire community decides on common
objectives.
PRA technique
SL. Tools used Features
i.
Interviewing
Not based on questionnaires but issues
(households, individuals, focus groups)
Visualization
ii.
Ranking –-
a means by which they can rank preferences,
problems, wealth
iii.
Mapping
Community members depicting the physical or
social characteristics of their community
8
iv.
Social mapping
i. Used to depict the habitation pattern of
a particular region
ii. Drawn by local people
iii. Not drawn to scale but reveals what is
believed to be relevant and important to
them
v.
Time lines
i. Allows people use their concept of time
ii. Captures the chronology of events as
recalled by local people
iii. Flexible in terms of the time scale
iv. One day, or a lifetime, or history of the
community
vi. Impact diagrams A flow diagram , commonly used to identify and
depict the image of an activity, intervention or
event
9
Interaction cycle among the different participatory rural appraisal (PRA) components
Figure: Interaction cycle in PRA
Identify the
appropriate
solution
Identify the
problem
Find priorities for
development
Identify the need
of the community
Mutual
Learning
Raise
maintainance
Community empowerment
Utilizing the implicit
knowledge of the
community
Secondary
source of
Information
Interdisciplin
ary research
experience
Cross-checking to find
Consensus and varieties
Decision making
(Facilitation the
implemented)
PRA Tools
10
Transfer of technology projects
Study the present
situation
Study the tenure system
Identify technologies
Identify the role of client
population
Find out whether people
need incentive
Involve organization
Support training
Identify the infrastructure
facilities
Provide monitoring and
evaluation
Understand how it has developed
Identify social-culture and historical perspectives
Find out who benefits from the ownership of
the land
Compatible with ecosystem
Needs of the people
Blend technologies with local experience
Social culture, economic perception
Which form, where and when
Government organization,
Non-government organization
Agencies, private sector
Provision of critical inputs and
services, credit, marketiing
Deterioration different stage ,
ecosystem, social system
11
Characteristics of programme planning process
1. Programme planning is an educational process and involves both teaching and
learning.
2. Programme planning is an unifying and intergrating process.
3. Programme planning is a coordinating process
4. Programme planning is an evaluating process.
Relationship of extension worker in Programme planning
 Extension worker create a self nenewing behavior of the client population.
 Repose change and confine discontinuance: take steps to stabilize the new
ehaviours by furnishing reinforceing messages to the client who have adopted.
 Assist the client population to put the recommendations in practice.
 Diagnose and Analyze the problem in order to measure the existing alternatives
do not meet their needs
 Establish a change relationship. The client must confess that the extension
workers are compatible.
Factor influencing participation in extension work
1. Existence of personal interest.
2. Environment create by the extension workers.
3. Future aspects of the client population.
4. Present condition of the client population.
5. Cost ans labour involved in relation to the return.
6. Timelines of the recommendation in relation to operation
7. Consistency of the proposed action in realtion to the perious programmes.
8. Confidence of the extension agent and presentation.
Necessity of Evaluation
 Evaluation help the extension educator to know the progress of plan
 Evaluation helps the extention programme for reconstruction of framework
12
 Evaluation help in decision making to know the right approach
 Evaluation shows the bench-mark, the situation at the start of the programme.
 Evaluation indicates the Utility of the planning programme.
 Evaluation improve the confidence and skills of the educative workers.
 Evaluation helps create satisfaction to the extension work
Failure of the Success of the Extionsion programme
There are many factor related to the extension programme failure. Some are given below:-
1. Lack of organizational support.
2. Lack of experience extension worker
3. Lack of commitment.
4. Communication lacking.
5. Wrong timing of selecting programme.
6. Lack of meaningful objectives and goals.
7. Failure to develop and implement strategies.
8. Failure to see programme planning as a rational process
9. Excessive reliance on experience
10. Failure to identify the limiting factors
11. Lack of organizational support
12. Resistance to change
Programme Evaluation Organization
Evaluation has been an essential aspects of formulation and execution of development plans and
programmes since the beginning of the planning procees. Initially entrusted with the specific task
of evaluating the community development programmes and other intensive area development
schemes, the organizatio’s sphereof work and activities have got extended and diversified.
The main functions of programme Evaluation Organization
 Assessment of programme results against the stated objectives and targets.
 The measurement of their impact on beneficiaries.
13
 The impact on the socio-economic structure of the community
 The evaluation of the adequacy of the administrative structure and procedures adopted.
Conclusion
Nature Extension programme planning are outside the frame of the formal system for the rural
areas. The programme planning seldem arrive in the Metropholis areas. It not only dependent
on the need, characteristics of the client population but also the extension educator approach
and measures. For effective extension education the extension programme must be untestable
and comfortable.
Reference
Al-Qubatee, Wahib, et al. “Participatory Rural Appraisal to Assess Groundwater Resources in Al-
Mujaylis, Tihama Coastal Plain, Yemen.” Water International, vol. 42, no. 7, 11 Sept. 2017, pp.
810–830, 10.1080/02508060.2017.1356997. Accessed 28 Nov. 2020.
Bharat. S. Sontakki,. P. vankatesan, VKJ. Rao., 2019, Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) (tools
&Techniques), researchgate.
Ray, G L. Extension Communication and Management. Ludhiana, Kalyani Publishers, 2017.
Hasanullah, M. Managing Extension Service. The University Press Limited (UPL), 1995.
Shiksha. “Extension Principles and Techniques: Participatory Rural Appraisal.”
Ecoursesonline.iasri.res.in, ecoursesonline.iasri.res.in/mod/page/view.php?id=66031. Accessed
24 Jan. 2022.

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Programme planning and evaluation in extension work

  • 1. 1 Noakhali Science & Technology University Department of Fisheries and Marine Science Programme planning and evaluation in extension work prepared by Degonto Islam Department of Fisheries and Marine Science Noakhali Science & Technology University Session: 2017-18 Date of Submission: 24th January 2022
  • 2. 2 Index SL> Content Page i. Introduction 3 ii. Objectives of Programme 3 iii. Allowance in Extension planning 3 iv. Steps in extension programme planning 4 v. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) 5 vi. Principle of PRA 5 vii. PRA technique 7 viii. Characteristics of programme planning process 8 ix. Relationship of extension worker in Programme planning 8 x. Factor influencing participation in extension work 8 xi. Programme Evaluation Organization 11 xii. Conclusion 13 xiii. Reference 13
  • 3. 3 Introduction Programme is the total educational job being done in particular settings that forms the basis for extension plan. Programme planning is decision making process which actually analysis the existing condition and matter and evaluation the alternative approach to solve the crux with priorities of the human feeling and needs. Generally initial objectives are peoples participations at grass roots level. According to Kelsey and hearne (1967) “an extension programme is a statement of situation, objectives, problems and solutions. Objectives of Programme General objective is to influence people to make change in their behavior. Others are given bellow  To have successful operation without wasting time  To have different approach make the presentation understandable and fascinating to the root grass people.  To make the opportunity of making leadership among the client people and help them in spreading knowledge. Allowance in Extension planning Some allowance related to extension planning are :-  Changing of plan for effective social progress  Predetermined and democratically acquisition  Select, organixe and administer a programme that will contribute to the socio economic progress  Allow guidelines, leadership and assistance of extension educators to evolve the problems and planning approach in a systematic way.
  • 4. 4 Principles of extension planning programme and evaluation Extension programme planning has certain principles which hold good irrespective of the nature of the clientele and enterprises they may be pursuing.  Based on philosophy: extension programme ought to be based on the the past, present and future aspects and exigent.  Should be opaque: the programme should have clear and significant objectives that can make people satisfied and socio economically self dependent.  Fix up priority on the basis of available resources: consideration of all parameters is essential such limited trained personality, time of the programme planning, availability of fund, facilities and other resources.  Should be workable : extension programme ought to be clearly indicate the availability and utilization of resources. An extension programme should have clearly state wherefrom the funds, facilities and the needed personal shall be available and how these shall be utilized. This shall make the programme practical and workable.  General agreements for various level: programme prepared for various level such village, districts, state, national level conform to each other and shall no worl at cross purpose .  Peoples participation: extension programme should have involve people at the local level.  Should have particular plan of work and predetermined : the programme should at least broadly indicate how it will be executed. Unless the plan of work is drawn up , the programme remains a theoretical exercise.
  • 5. 5 Steps in extension programme planning Figure: Steps in Extension programme plan i. Collection of facts: information are collected through survey at the grass root level or pertinent data may be collected from the previous records of several years. ii. Analysis of situation: the information are analyzed in keeping mind of the feeling of the client population. Reconsideration Collection of facts (asking, communication,Li stening) Analyze situation (observing) Identify problem/ Need Decide on Objective Develop plan of work Execute plan Evaluation of process (checking, feed back)
  • 6. 6 iii. Identification of the problem: analysis and explaination the problem in order to explore the actual problem. Selection of larger number of problem can not be solved at a time or properly managed. iv. Identify needs: finding out what actually the client population have and what they actually know about their available resource and what they actually need outside from their territory to make their life easier and make the confident in assumption of the high technology. v. Decide on objectives: the objectives and goal are then determine according to the circumstance of the client population. To make the ojectives realistics and actionable there is nee to state them in term of specific goals. vi. Developing plan of work: there must be alternative plan so that in the mean time plan can be changed according to the situation requirement. Such what arrangements shall be made fro marketing of the produce, training of the farmers and so on. vii. Plan execute: In the executing of plan there may be participation of local leaders, organizational support as well. The plan should be execute according to the pre- determined measures but where it is needed it can be changed in alternative way. viii. Evaluation of progress: Evaluation involves criteria in relation to the objectives, collection of in formation , making judgement .determination of the extent to which objectives has been accomplished. It is a continuous process not onl to measure the end result but also to ensure that all the steps are correctly followed. Evaluation can be formal or informal depending on the necessity of the programme and also the confidence of the man power, funds, facilities, and time. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Participatory rural appraisal is the involving local prople in analysis and interpretation of rural situation. Such local people. Principle of PRA Participation: Local people serve as partners in data collection and analysis.
  • 7. 7 Listening and Learning: The local people have their knowledge, their experience, their history and culture, their views and ideas and their priorities and preferences. Flexibility: Not a standardized methodology, depends on purpose, resources, skill, time. Teamwork: Outsiders and insiders, men and women, mix of disciplines. Optimal Ignorance: Cost and time efficient, but ample opportunity for analysis and planning. Systematic: For validity and reliability, partly stratified sampling, cross-checking. Example: Participatory rural appraisals using various PRA tools and techniques are conducted to obtain information on the topography of the land, soil structure, water resource utilisation, seasonal crops, rainfall and cropping patterns, preference for trees and history of the area. The PRAs facilitate rapport building with the community and the entire community decides on common objectives. PRA technique SL. Tools used Features i. Interviewing Not based on questionnaires but issues (households, individuals, focus groups) Visualization ii. Ranking –- a means by which they can rank preferences, problems, wealth iii. Mapping Community members depicting the physical or social characteristics of their community
  • 8. 8 iv. Social mapping i. Used to depict the habitation pattern of a particular region ii. Drawn by local people iii. Not drawn to scale but reveals what is believed to be relevant and important to them v. Time lines i. Allows people use their concept of time ii. Captures the chronology of events as recalled by local people iii. Flexible in terms of the time scale iv. One day, or a lifetime, or history of the community vi. Impact diagrams A flow diagram , commonly used to identify and depict the image of an activity, intervention or event
  • 9. 9 Interaction cycle among the different participatory rural appraisal (PRA) components Figure: Interaction cycle in PRA Identify the appropriate solution Identify the problem Find priorities for development Identify the need of the community Mutual Learning Raise maintainance Community empowerment Utilizing the implicit knowledge of the community Secondary source of Information Interdisciplin ary research experience Cross-checking to find Consensus and varieties Decision making (Facilitation the implemented) PRA Tools
  • 10. 10 Transfer of technology projects Study the present situation Study the tenure system Identify technologies Identify the role of client population Find out whether people need incentive Involve organization Support training Identify the infrastructure facilities Provide monitoring and evaluation Understand how it has developed Identify social-culture and historical perspectives Find out who benefits from the ownership of the land Compatible with ecosystem Needs of the people Blend technologies with local experience Social culture, economic perception Which form, where and when Government organization, Non-government organization Agencies, private sector Provision of critical inputs and services, credit, marketiing Deterioration different stage , ecosystem, social system
  • 11. 11 Characteristics of programme planning process 1. Programme planning is an educational process and involves both teaching and learning. 2. Programme planning is an unifying and intergrating process. 3. Programme planning is a coordinating process 4. Programme planning is an evaluating process. Relationship of extension worker in Programme planning  Extension worker create a self nenewing behavior of the client population.  Repose change and confine discontinuance: take steps to stabilize the new ehaviours by furnishing reinforceing messages to the client who have adopted.  Assist the client population to put the recommendations in practice.  Diagnose and Analyze the problem in order to measure the existing alternatives do not meet their needs  Establish a change relationship. The client must confess that the extension workers are compatible. Factor influencing participation in extension work 1. Existence of personal interest. 2. Environment create by the extension workers. 3. Future aspects of the client population. 4. Present condition of the client population. 5. Cost ans labour involved in relation to the return. 6. Timelines of the recommendation in relation to operation 7. Consistency of the proposed action in realtion to the perious programmes. 8. Confidence of the extension agent and presentation. Necessity of Evaluation  Evaluation help the extension educator to know the progress of plan  Evaluation helps the extention programme for reconstruction of framework
  • 12. 12  Evaluation help in decision making to know the right approach  Evaluation shows the bench-mark, the situation at the start of the programme.  Evaluation indicates the Utility of the planning programme.  Evaluation improve the confidence and skills of the educative workers.  Evaluation helps create satisfaction to the extension work Failure of the Success of the Extionsion programme There are many factor related to the extension programme failure. Some are given below:- 1. Lack of organizational support. 2. Lack of experience extension worker 3. Lack of commitment. 4. Communication lacking. 5. Wrong timing of selecting programme. 6. Lack of meaningful objectives and goals. 7. Failure to develop and implement strategies. 8. Failure to see programme planning as a rational process 9. Excessive reliance on experience 10. Failure to identify the limiting factors 11. Lack of organizational support 12. Resistance to change Programme Evaluation Organization Evaluation has been an essential aspects of formulation and execution of development plans and programmes since the beginning of the planning procees. Initially entrusted with the specific task of evaluating the community development programmes and other intensive area development schemes, the organizatio’s sphereof work and activities have got extended and diversified. The main functions of programme Evaluation Organization  Assessment of programme results against the stated objectives and targets.  The measurement of their impact on beneficiaries.
  • 13. 13  The impact on the socio-economic structure of the community  The evaluation of the adequacy of the administrative structure and procedures adopted. Conclusion Nature Extension programme planning are outside the frame of the formal system for the rural areas. The programme planning seldem arrive in the Metropholis areas. It not only dependent on the need, characteristics of the client population but also the extension educator approach and measures. For effective extension education the extension programme must be untestable and comfortable. Reference Al-Qubatee, Wahib, et al. “Participatory Rural Appraisal to Assess Groundwater Resources in Al- Mujaylis, Tihama Coastal Plain, Yemen.” Water International, vol. 42, no. 7, 11 Sept. 2017, pp. 810–830, 10.1080/02508060.2017.1356997. Accessed 28 Nov. 2020. Bharat. S. Sontakki,. P. vankatesan, VKJ. Rao., 2019, Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) (tools &Techniques), researchgate. Ray, G L. Extension Communication and Management. Ludhiana, Kalyani Publishers, 2017. Hasanullah, M. Managing Extension Service. The University Press Limited (UPL), 1995. Shiksha. “Extension Principles and Techniques: Participatory Rural Appraisal.” Ecoursesonline.iasri.res.in, ecoursesonline.iasri.res.in/mod/page/view.php?id=66031. Accessed 24 Jan. 2022.