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Edited by
DEGONTO ISLAM
Noakhali Science & Technology University
What is amino acid ?
 Is an organic acid
Contain both amino group (-NH2)
and carboxyl group (-COOH)
Both amino and carboxyl groups are
attached to the same carbon atom
Proteins are the most abundant
molecules in living systems
Every life process depends on this class
of molecules. E.g:-digestion,
absorption and metabolism etc
All proteins are linear polymers of
AMINO ACIDS that are linked together
by covalent PEPTIDE BONDS
Amino acids
•More than 300 different amino acids have been
described in nature
•Only as 20 are commonly found constituents of
mammalian proteins.
•Standard amino acids
General structure of amino acid
Physiologic pH
 the carboxyl group is dissociated, forming the
negatively charged carboxylate ion (–COO-),
and the amino group is protonated (–NH3+).
General structure of amino acid
General structure of amino acid
Generally amino acids present in
proteins are L-amino acid
Classification of amino acids
 Amino acids may be classified in different
ways as follows:
According to their functional groups
I. Monoamino monocarboxylic acid :
Glycine
II. Monoamino dicarboxylic acid : Aspartic
acid
III. Diamino monocarboxylic acid:Lysine
IV. Imino acids: proline
Classification of amino acids
According to their biological value
Essential amino acids: valine
Non essential amino acids: Aspartic acid
Classification of amino acids
According to the nature of their
metabolic and products
Ketogenic amino acids: lysine
Glucogenic amino acids: aspertic acid
Both ketogenic and glucogenic
amino acids: isoleucine
Classification of amino acids
According to the polarity of their
side chains (R group)
 Nonpolar amino acids : Alanine
 polar amino acids :Histidine
Essential and non-essential amino
acid
 Essential amino acid
I. cannot be synthesized
II. Needed for the growth and maintenance of
the body
III. have to be supplied in the diet
e.g. valine
Non-essential amino acid
 Can be synthesized by the body
 May not be the requisite components of the
diet
e.g. Aspartic acid
Functions of amino acids
Building blocks of protein
precursors
Hormone
purines
pyrimidines
Some vitamins
Pantothenic,folic acid
Function of amino acids
Appear to be involved in the
transmission of impulses in the nervous
system
Support growth in infants and
maintain health in adults
Properties of amino acids
Amphoteric in reaction
Colourless crystalline substances
Soluble in water but insoluble in ether or
benzene
Optically active except glycine
Depending on the pH , they may have no
net charge , or may have either a positive or
a negative charge
Importance of amino acids
1. Building blocks
2. Different important molecules
3. Precursors
4. Metabolism functiions
Peptide
 Formed covalent chemical bond when
the carboxyl group of one amino acid reacts with the
amino group of another
 Needed minimum 2 amino acids consisting a singla
peptide bond
Formation
Characteristics
 The C-N bond in the peptide bond has partial double
bond properties that make it rigid and prevent the
adjacent groups from rotating freely.
 Neither the C=O nor the N-H in the peptide bond can
dissociate .
Peptide classes
Peptides are divided into several classes, depending on
how they are produced:
Milk peptides
Ribosomal peptides
Nonribosomal peptides
Importance
 It is the peptide bond that holds various amino acids
together in a specific sequence and number
 Important in biologically. (Insulin. Glucagon.ADH)
What we have learned???
General structure of amino acid
Classification of amino acids
Importance of amino acids
Peptide bond
Biologically important peptides
Thank you

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Feature amino acid and peptide

  • 1. Edited by DEGONTO ISLAM Noakhali Science & Technology University
  • 2. What is amino acid ?  Is an organic acid Contain both amino group (-NH2) and carboxyl group (-COOH) Both amino and carboxyl groups are attached to the same carbon atom
  • 3. Proteins are the most abundant molecules in living systems Every life process depends on this class of molecules. E.g:-digestion, absorption and metabolism etc All proteins are linear polymers of AMINO ACIDS that are linked together by covalent PEPTIDE BONDS
  • 4. Amino acids •More than 300 different amino acids have been described in nature •Only as 20 are commonly found constituents of mammalian proteins. •Standard amino acids
  • 5. General structure of amino acid
  • 6. Physiologic pH  the carboxyl group is dissociated, forming the negatively charged carboxylate ion (–COO-), and the amino group is protonated (–NH3+).
  • 7. General structure of amino acid
  • 8. General structure of amino acid Generally amino acids present in proteins are L-amino acid
  • 9. Classification of amino acids  Amino acids may be classified in different ways as follows: According to their functional groups I. Monoamino monocarboxylic acid : Glycine II. Monoamino dicarboxylic acid : Aspartic acid III. Diamino monocarboxylic acid:Lysine IV. Imino acids: proline
  • 10. Classification of amino acids According to their biological value Essential amino acids: valine Non essential amino acids: Aspartic acid
  • 11. Classification of amino acids According to the nature of their metabolic and products Ketogenic amino acids: lysine Glucogenic amino acids: aspertic acid Both ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids: isoleucine
  • 12. Classification of amino acids According to the polarity of their side chains (R group)  Nonpolar amino acids : Alanine  polar amino acids :Histidine
  • 13. Essential and non-essential amino acid  Essential amino acid I. cannot be synthesized II. Needed for the growth and maintenance of the body III. have to be supplied in the diet e.g. valine
  • 14. Non-essential amino acid  Can be synthesized by the body  May not be the requisite components of the diet e.g. Aspartic acid
  • 15. Functions of amino acids Building blocks of protein precursors Hormone purines pyrimidines Some vitamins Pantothenic,folic acid
  • 16. Function of amino acids Appear to be involved in the transmission of impulses in the nervous system Support growth in infants and maintain health in adults
  • 17. Properties of amino acids Amphoteric in reaction Colourless crystalline substances Soluble in water but insoluble in ether or benzene Optically active except glycine Depending on the pH , they may have no net charge , or may have either a positive or a negative charge
  • 18. Importance of amino acids 1. Building blocks 2. Different important molecules 3. Precursors 4. Metabolism functiions
  • 19. Peptide  Formed covalent chemical bond when the carboxyl group of one amino acid reacts with the amino group of another  Needed minimum 2 amino acids consisting a singla peptide bond
  • 21. Characteristics  The C-N bond in the peptide bond has partial double bond properties that make it rigid and prevent the adjacent groups from rotating freely.  Neither the C=O nor the N-H in the peptide bond can dissociate .
  • 22. Peptide classes Peptides are divided into several classes, depending on how they are produced: Milk peptides Ribosomal peptides Nonribosomal peptides
  • 23. Importance  It is the peptide bond that holds various amino acids together in a specific sequence and number  Important in biologically. (Insulin. Glucagon.ADH)
  • 24. What we have learned??? General structure of amino acid Classification of amino acids Importance of amino acids Peptide bond Biologically important peptides