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Histological characteristics of
alimentary canals
Presented by
Degonto Islam
FIMS
Noakhali Science & Technology
University
Alimentary canal is a pathway by which food posses through the
body from mouth to anus during digestion
What is alimentary canal ?
Alimentary canal includes:
Mouth
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small intestine
Large intestine
Rectum
Anus
1. Mucosa,
2. Submucosa
3. Muscularis
4. Serosa
Alimentary canal of vertebrates is composed
of four distinct concentric layer
 known as mucus membrane
 the innermost layer of tissue.
moist epithilial membrane
lumen from mouth to the anus.
The Mucosa
Major functions :
1. Secrete (mucus, digestive enzymes, and hormones)
2. Absorb the end products of digestion into the blood
3. Protect against infectious disease.
The Submucosa
 just external to the mucosa
 areolar connective tissue containing a rich supply of blood and
lymphatic vessels, lymphoid follicles, and nerve fibers which
supply the surrounding tissues of the GI tract wall
Function of muscular
con mix food with digestive juices and to put contents down by
peristaltic waves of construction.
The Muscularis
an inner circular layer and an outer longitudal layer of smooth
muscle cells
 also called the muscularis externa
Function
responsible for segmentation and peristalsis
control food passage from one organ to the next
The Serosa
the outermost layer of the intraperitoneal organs (it’s also
considered the visceral peritoneum
made up of areolar connective tissue covered with mesothelium
a single layer of squamous epithelial cells
Function
fibrous connective tissue binds the surrounding structures
 The esophagus commonly known
as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is
an organ in vertebrates through
which food passes, aided by
peristaltic contractions, from the
pharynx to the stomach.
Esophagus
 esophagus is a fibromuscular
tube, about 25 centimetres long in
adults
 which travels behind
the trachea and heart, passes
through the diaphragm and
empties into the uppermost region
of the stomach
Structure of esophagus
Histology
Food is ingested through the mouth and when swallowed passes
first into the pharynx and then into the esophagus.
After food passes through the esophagus, it enters the
stomach. When food is being swallowed, the epiglottis moves
backward to cover the larynx, preventing food from entering
the trachea.
 At the same time, the upper esophageal sphincter relaxes, allowing
a bolus of food to enter. Peristaltic contractions of the esophageal
muscle push the food down the esophagus. These rhythmic
contractions occur both as a reflex response to food that is in the
mouth, and also as a response to the sensation of food within the
esophagus itself. Along with peristalsis, the lower esophageal
sphincter relaxes.
Function of Esophagus
 The stomach is a muscular, hollow
organ in the gastrointestinal tract of
humans and many other animals, including
several invertebrates. The stomach has a
dilated structure and functions as a
vital digestive organ. In the digestive
system the stomach is involved in the
second phase of digestion,
following mastication (chewing).
Stomach
Stomach of fish
This shows an image through the wall of the body of the stomach
at low power. You should be able to identify the three major layers
seen here the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis externa.
The mucosa is full of gastric glands and pits, and there is a
prominent layer of smooth muscle the muscularis mucosa. The
contraction of this muscle helps to expel the contents of the gastric
glands.
Layers of the stomach
Histology of stomach
 The muscularis externa layer
has three layers of muscle. An innner
oblique layer , a middle circular and
an external longitudinal layer. The
contraction of these muscle layers
help to break up the food
mechanically.
 The stomach has three anatomical regions:
cardiac, which contains mucous secreting glands (called cardiac
glands) and is closest to the oesophagus
Anatomical regions of stomach
 Fundus, the body or
largest part of the
stomach which
contain the gastric
(fundic) glands
 pyloric, which
secretes two types of
mucus, and the
hormone gastrin.
Function:
The stomach secretes acid and enzymes that digest food
The stomach muscles contract periodically; churning
food to enhance digestion
The pyloric sphincter is a mascular valve that opens to
allow food to pass from the stomach to the small
intestine
It produces chyme
Pituitary Gland
Pituitary gland
What is the pituitary gland?
The pituitary gland is a small
gland that dangles from the base
of the brain like a pea on a string
Several hormones produced by
the hypothalamus are stored
here and released into the blood
Anterior pituitary gland
1.Size of a pea
2.The anterior pituitary gland is the
front lobe of the pituitary gland,
which is found at the floor of the
brain called the sellaturcica
The digestive glands comprise of
 Liver and
pancreas.
Digestive glands:
Liver
Liver is a bilobed gland
usually yellowish brown in
color. The liver is divided
into a narrow right lobe and
a broader left lobe. The two
lobes of the liver are
connected at three regions,
anteriorly by a median lobe,
medially by a median
connective lobe and
posteriorly by a median
mass.
 The liver is a large vital organ present in all fish. It has a wide range
of functions.
Function of liver:
The liver in fish produces bile which is stored in the gall bladder.
Key storage of food energy in the form of glycogen.
Liver synthesizes various enzymes, vitamins and lymph
It stores vitamins, glucose, inorganic salt of iron and copper and
ribonucleoproteins.
It produces red blood cells in embryos.
It helps in glycogenesis.
Liver
Pancreas
Pancreas is a diffuse gland, but is well developed around the blood
vessels between the lobes of the liver. The pancreas is a glandular
organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
Histology of structure of pancrease
Pancreas has two digestive
functions:
1. Source of exocrine
secretion into the intestine.
2. Endocrine secretion of the
hormones insulin and
glucagon .
Blood of carps
Fish (carps) have a closed-loop circulatory system. The heart pumps
the blood in a single loop throughout the body. In most fish, the heart
consists of four parts, including two chambers and an entrance and
exit. The bulbus arteriosus connects to the aorta, through which blood
flows to the gills for oxygenation.
Blood collection Under microscope
 Blood forms about 2-3% of the body weight of fish
 Form of
watery fluid or plasma having
blood cells
proteins,
albumin ,
 globulin,
 fibrogen,
 salts,
 enzymes,
 antibodies,
hormones and
 other special secretions
Different
minereals
Ca
 Fe
Na
K
Mg
 P
and Cl
• fish blood also has
 R.B.C. and
W.B.C.
Blood of carps
Average Range
pH 7.067 7.65-7.69
Red blood cells, thousands
per
c.mm
841.5 652.0-1133.0
White blood cells,
thousands per
c.mm
3.675 3.245-4.290
Hemoglobin, gm. ye 10.5 9.4-12.4
Globulin, “ % 0.79 0.68-0.89
Fibrinogen, gm. %. .23 0.20-0.26
Uric acid,* mg. % 2.65 2.2-3.0
Creatinine, “ % .............. .56 0.42-.087
Glucose, (‘ %, 111.2 57.3-230.0
Albumin, gm. %. 2.82 2.04-3.35
Total plasma protein, gm.
70
4015 3.25-4.75
Total lipids, %. 1.233 1.048-1.400
Total cholesterol, ye. .662 4.59-0.795
Some information of blood of carps
 Significances of circulation in fishes
The circulatory system transports the materials to the cells needs for
the life and activity of the body organs and for removing waste
materials.
 The body tissues are regularly and continuously supplied with food
materials like proteins, glucose, vitamins and all chemicals from
either the intestine or other organs like liver where these are
synthesized or stored.
The blood carries oxygen from the gills and removes carbon di oxide
, nitrogenous waste and water either through gills or kidneys or both.
 Circulatory system enables the body to adjust to different needs of
life like feeding , defense, reproduction and migration through the
circulation of hormones and working as an auxiliary to the sensory
system.
Thank you

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Histological characteristics of alimentary canals, Degonto islam

  • 1. Histological characteristics of alimentary canals Presented by Degonto Islam FIMS Noakhali Science & Technology University
  • 2. Alimentary canal is a pathway by which food posses through the body from mouth to anus during digestion What is alimentary canal ? Alimentary canal includes: Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Rectum Anus
  • 3. 1. Mucosa, 2. Submucosa 3. Muscularis 4. Serosa Alimentary canal of vertebrates is composed of four distinct concentric layer
  • 4.  known as mucus membrane  the innermost layer of tissue. moist epithilial membrane lumen from mouth to the anus. The Mucosa Major functions : 1. Secrete (mucus, digestive enzymes, and hormones) 2. Absorb the end products of digestion into the blood 3. Protect against infectious disease.
  • 5. The Submucosa  just external to the mucosa  areolar connective tissue containing a rich supply of blood and lymphatic vessels, lymphoid follicles, and nerve fibers which supply the surrounding tissues of the GI tract wall Function of muscular con mix food with digestive juices and to put contents down by peristaltic waves of construction. The Muscularis an inner circular layer and an outer longitudal layer of smooth muscle cells  also called the muscularis externa Function responsible for segmentation and peristalsis control food passage from one organ to the next
  • 6. The Serosa the outermost layer of the intraperitoneal organs (it’s also considered the visceral peritoneum made up of areolar connective tissue covered with mesothelium a single layer of squamous epithelial cells Function fibrous connective tissue binds the surrounding structures
  • 7.  The esophagus commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach. Esophagus  esophagus is a fibromuscular tube, about 25 centimetres long in adults  which travels behind the trachea and heart, passes through the diaphragm and empties into the uppermost region of the stomach
  • 9. Food is ingested through the mouth and when swallowed passes first into the pharynx and then into the esophagus. After food passes through the esophagus, it enters the stomach. When food is being swallowed, the epiglottis moves backward to cover the larynx, preventing food from entering the trachea.  At the same time, the upper esophageal sphincter relaxes, allowing a bolus of food to enter. Peristaltic contractions of the esophageal muscle push the food down the esophagus. These rhythmic contractions occur both as a reflex response to food that is in the mouth, and also as a response to the sensation of food within the esophagus itself. Along with peristalsis, the lower esophageal sphincter relaxes. Function of Esophagus
  • 10.  The stomach is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates. The stomach has a dilated structure and functions as a vital digestive organ. In the digestive system the stomach is involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication (chewing). Stomach Stomach of fish
  • 11. This shows an image through the wall of the body of the stomach at low power. You should be able to identify the three major layers seen here the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis externa. The mucosa is full of gastric glands and pits, and there is a prominent layer of smooth muscle the muscularis mucosa. The contraction of this muscle helps to expel the contents of the gastric glands. Layers of the stomach Histology of stomach  The muscularis externa layer has three layers of muscle. An innner oblique layer , a middle circular and an external longitudinal layer. The contraction of these muscle layers help to break up the food mechanically.
  • 12.  The stomach has three anatomical regions: cardiac, which contains mucous secreting glands (called cardiac glands) and is closest to the oesophagus Anatomical regions of stomach  Fundus, the body or largest part of the stomach which contain the gastric (fundic) glands  pyloric, which secretes two types of mucus, and the hormone gastrin.
  • 13. Function: The stomach secretes acid and enzymes that digest food The stomach muscles contract periodically; churning food to enhance digestion The pyloric sphincter is a mascular valve that opens to allow food to pass from the stomach to the small intestine It produces chyme
  • 15. Pituitary gland What is the pituitary gland? The pituitary gland is a small gland that dangles from the base of the brain like a pea on a string Several hormones produced by the hypothalamus are stored here and released into the blood
  • 16. Anterior pituitary gland 1.Size of a pea 2.The anterior pituitary gland is the front lobe of the pituitary gland, which is found at the floor of the brain called the sellaturcica
  • 17.
  • 18. The digestive glands comprise of  Liver and pancreas. Digestive glands: Liver Liver is a bilobed gland usually yellowish brown in color. The liver is divided into a narrow right lobe and a broader left lobe. The two lobes of the liver are connected at three regions, anteriorly by a median lobe, medially by a median connective lobe and posteriorly by a median mass.
  • 19.  The liver is a large vital organ present in all fish. It has a wide range of functions. Function of liver: The liver in fish produces bile which is stored in the gall bladder. Key storage of food energy in the form of glycogen. Liver synthesizes various enzymes, vitamins and lymph It stores vitamins, glucose, inorganic salt of iron and copper and ribonucleoproteins. It produces red blood cells in embryos. It helps in glycogenesis. Liver
  • 20. Pancreas Pancreas is a diffuse gland, but is well developed around the blood vessels between the lobes of the liver. The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates. Histology of structure of pancrease Pancreas has two digestive functions: 1. Source of exocrine secretion into the intestine. 2. Endocrine secretion of the hormones insulin and glucagon .
  • 21. Blood of carps Fish (carps) have a closed-loop circulatory system. The heart pumps the blood in a single loop throughout the body. In most fish, the heart consists of four parts, including two chambers and an entrance and exit. The bulbus arteriosus connects to the aorta, through which blood flows to the gills for oxygenation. Blood collection Under microscope
  • 22.  Blood forms about 2-3% of the body weight of fish  Form of watery fluid or plasma having blood cells proteins, albumin ,  globulin,  fibrogen,  salts,  enzymes,  antibodies, hormones and  other special secretions Different minereals Ca  Fe Na K Mg  P and Cl • fish blood also has  R.B.C. and W.B.C. Blood of carps
  • 23. Average Range pH 7.067 7.65-7.69 Red blood cells, thousands per c.mm 841.5 652.0-1133.0 White blood cells, thousands per c.mm 3.675 3.245-4.290 Hemoglobin, gm. ye 10.5 9.4-12.4 Globulin, “ % 0.79 0.68-0.89 Fibrinogen, gm. %. .23 0.20-0.26 Uric acid,* mg. % 2.65 2.2-3.0 Creatinine, “ % .............. .56 0.42-.087 Glucose, (‘ %, 111.2 57.3-230.0 Albumin, gm. %. 2.82 2.04-3.35 Total plasma protein, gm. 70 4015 3.25-4.75 Total lipids, %. 1.233 1.048-1.400 Total cholesterol, ye. .662 4.59-0.795 Some information of blood of carps
  • 24.  Significances of circulation in fishes The circulatory system transports the materials to the cells needs for the life and activity of the body organs and for removing waste materials.  The body tissues are regularly and continuously supplied with food materials like proteins, glucose, vitamins and all chemicals from either the intestine or other organs like liver where these are synthesized or stored. The blood carries oxygen from the gills and removes carbon di oxide , nitrogenous waste and water either through gills or kidneys or both.  Circulatory system enables the body to adjust to different needs of life like feeding , defense, reproduction and migration through the circulation of hormones and working as an auxiliary to the sensory system.
  • 25.