Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

birds classification by deepak rawal

3,980 views

Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

birds classification by deepak rawal

  1. 1. Presentation by- Deepak Rawal Assistant ProfessorMohanlal Sukhadia University Udaipur India
  2. 2. AVES CLASSIFICATION
  3. 3. Air sacs
  4. 4. Figure 34.30 Finger 1 (b) Bone structure Palm(a) Wing Finger 2 Forearm Finger 3 Wrist Shaft Shaft BarbVane Barbule Hook (c) Feather structure
  5. 5. General characters• Feathered bipedal vertebrates• Birds are glorified reptiles-Huxley• Feathers are modified scales evolved as heat insulators• Scales present on legs• Claws on toes• Birds have high body temp. (40-44) due to a fast metabolism• Some eat up to ½ their body weight in a day• Bones of birds are thin and hallow• 3- chambered Cloaca present• Heart 4 chambered and R.B.C. nucleated and oval• Study of birds- Ornithology• Body of vertebra are heterocoelous (saddle shaped)• Synsacrum forms by fusion of posterior thoracic, lumbar, sacral and anterior caudal vertebras• Posterior caudal vertebra fused to form pygostyle• Teeth are absent and beak present as flight adaptation• Forelimbs are modified into wings• Long bones are pneumatic or hollow as flight adaptation• Sternum large with keel for the attachment of flight muscles (pectoral muscles)
  6. 6. • Both clavice and one interclavicle fused to form v-shaped furcula or wishbone• Esophagus is dilated into a crop• Stomach is divided into proventriculus and gizzard• Lungs with attached air sacs by which they exchange gases at both inhalation and exhalation• Larynx without vocal cords but syrinx (voice box) present at the junction of trachea and bronchi• Eyes with vascular pecten• Uricotelic metanephric kidneys• right ovary and oviduct is reduced as flight adaptation• Urinary bladder is absent as flight adaptation• Parental care is well developed• Oviparous and eggs with calcareous shell• Amniotic cleidoic egg• Preen glands (oil glands) are located at the end of tail• Skull monocondylic• Beak tells about type of feeding
  7. 7. FLIGHTLESS BIRDS
  8. 8. ORDER – †ARCHAEOPTERYGIFORMES• Ancient crow like birds• Extinct jurassic birds• Teeth present• Fossils found in Germany• Forelimbs with 3-clawed digits• Keel was absent• Tail without pygosyle• Power of flight was poor• Connecting links between reptiles and birds• Example- †Archaeopteryx
  9. 9. Fossil of archaeoptryx
  10. 10. ORDER- † HESPERONITHIFORMES• Teeth present in beak• Extinct flightless marine birds• Sternum without keel• Vertebrae amphicoelous• Pleurodont teeth• Pectoral girdles reduced• E.g.- Hesperonis
  11. 11. ORDER- † ICHTHYORNITHIFORMES• Extinct flightless birds• Teeth present in beak• Sternum with well developed keel• Pectoral girdles well developed• E.g.- Ichthyornis
  12. 12. ORDER- SPHENISCIFORMES• Aquatic flightless birds• forelimbs are paddle like• Feet are webbed• Thick layer of fat present beneath skin• Found in antarctica and galapagos islands• E.g.- Aptenodytes (penguin)
  13. 13. SUPERORDER-PALAEOGNATHAE• Mnemonics-TADACRS• ORDER-TINAMIFORMES• ORDER-AEPYORNITHIFORMES• ORDER-DINOORNITHIFORMES• ORDER-APTERYGIFORMES• ORDER-CASUARIFORMES• ORDER-RHEIFORMES• ORDER-STRUTHIONIFORMES
  14. 14. ORDER- TINAMIFORMES• Eggshells are glossy• Have power of short flight due to short wings• Cursorial terrestrial birds• Pygostyle reduced• Sternum with keel• E.g.- Tinamus
  15. 15. ORDER- AEPYORNITHIFORMES• Recently extinct• Wings vestigial so flightless• 4-toed legs• Example- Aepyornis (elephant bird)
  16. 16. ORDER- DINORNITHIFORMES• Giant birds recently extinct• Wings absent• Sternum without keel• Massive legs with 3-4 toes• Example- Dinornis (moa) of new zealand
  17. 17. ORDER- APTERYGIFORMES• Hair like feathers• Wings vestigial• flightless• Long bill with nostril near the tip• Example- Apteryx (kiwi) of new zealand
  18. 18. ORDER-CASUARIFORMES• 3-toes• flightless• Head bears a comb like structure• Sternum without keel• Example- Casuaris (cassowary) of australia and Dromaius (Emu) of new zealand
  19. 19. ORDER- RHEIFORMES• 3 clawed toes• flightless• Sternum without keel• Head and neck partially feathered• Feathers lack aftershaft• Example- Rhea
  20. 20. ORDER- STRUTHIONIFORMES• Legs with 2 toes• Flightless• Sternum lacks keel• Pygostyle absent• Feathers without aftershafts• Pubic symphysis present• Example- Struthio (ostrich)
  21. 21. SUPERORDER-NEOGNATHAE• ORDER-PSITTACIFORMES• ORDER-PICIFORMES ARBOREAL BIRDS• ORDER-PASSERIFORMES• ORDER-COLUMBIFORMES• ORDER-GALLIFORMES TERRESTRIAL• ORDER-CUCULIFORMES BIRDS• ORDER-ANSERIFORMES• ORDER-CORACIIFORMES• ORDER-GAVIIFORMES SWIMMING BIRDS• ORDER-COLYMBIFORMES• ORDER-PROCELLARIFORMES• ORDER-PELECANIFORMES• ORDER-CHARADRIIFORMES• ORDER-CICONIIFORMES SHORE/WADING• ORDER-GRUIFORMES BIRDS• ORDER-FALCONIFORMES PREDATOR BIRDS• ORDER-STRIGIFORMES• ORDER-MICROPODIFORMES AERIAL BIRDS Mnemonics-• ORDER-CAPRIMULGIFORMES CCCCCCCPPPPPGGGMAFS
  22. 22. ORDER-PSITTACIFORMES• Parrot like birds• Feathers are green, yellow, blue or red• Feet zygodactylus (two toes infront and two toes behind)• Beak stout and hooked at tip• Example- Psittacula (green parrot)
  23. 23. ORDER-PICIFORMES• Protrusible tongue• Two toes infront and one behind• Tail feathers are stiff with pointed tip• Tough beak• Dig insect and larva out of wood• Example- Dendrocopos (wood pecker)
  24. 24. ORDER-PASSERIFORMES• Largest order• Feet adapted for perching and beak for cutting• 3 toes infront and one behind• Example- Passer domesticus (house sparrow)and Corvus splendens (crow)
  25. 25. ORDER-COLUMBIFORMES• Skin thick and soft• Large crop prouce pigeon milk to feed offspring• Graminivorous and frugivorous• Example- columba livia (blue rock pigeon)
  26. 26. ORDER-GALLIFORMES• Short flight• Game birds• Feathers with aftershaft• Feet massive adapted for scratching• Beak is short• Example- Gallus (jungle fowl) and Pavo (peacock)
  27. 27. ORDER-CUCULIFORMES• Tail long• Toes 2 front and 2 behind• Show brood parasitism (female lays eggs in nest of other birds)• Example- Eudynamis (koel)
  28. 28. ORDER-ANSERIFORMES• Aquatic birds• Beak is broad• Tongue is fleshy• Tails and feet are short• Feet are webbed• Example- Anas (duck)
  29. 29. ORDER- CORACIIFORMES• Beak is strong• Third and fourth toes are fused at the base• Long tail• Example- Halcyon (kingfisher)
  30. 30. ORDER-GAVIIFORMES• Marine birds• Legs are at the end of the body• Toes are webbed• Powerful flight• Example- Gavia
  31. 31. ORDER- COLYMBIFORMES/PODICIPEDIFORMES• Good divers• Patella is large• Legs are placed far back at body• Example- Podiceps (GREBES)
  32. 32. ORDER- PROCELLARIFORMES• Long and oily wings• Tubular nostril• Large nasal glands• Marine birds• Example- Diomedea (albatross)
  33. 33. ORDER- PELECANIFORMES• Aquatic fish eating birds• Nostrils are vestigial• Presence of gular pouch on the throat• 4 toed webbed feet• Beak long with wide gap• Example- Pelicanus (pelican)
  34. 34. ORDER-CHARADRIIFORMES• Mud probing beaks• Webbed feet• Dense wings• Hind limbs are slender and elongated• Example- Larus (gull)
  35. 35. ORDER- CICONIIFORMES• Snake like neck• Long legs• Pincer like beak• Toes without web• Feathers are decorative• Example- Phonicopterus (flamingo)
  36. 36. ORDER-GRUIFORMES• Long legs• Feathers with aftershafts• Beaks heavy• Show migration• Example- Antegona (sarus crane)
  37. 37. ORDER- FALCONIFORMES• Sharp hooked beak• Strong curved claws• Diurnal• Example- Aquila (eagle)
  38. 38. ORDER- STRIGIFORMES• Nocturnal birds• Huge frontal yellow eyes• Example- Bubo (owl)
  39. 39. ORDER-MICROPODIFORMES/APODIFORMES• Smallest birds• Legs are very short• Pointed wings• Long slender beak• Example- Humming birds
  40. 40. ORDER-CAPRIMULGIFORMES• Nocturnal• Insectivorous birds• Legs are small• Mouth is with long bristle like sensory feathers• Example- Caprimulgus (goat sucker)

×