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Birds

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Birds

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Birds

  1. 1. Birds Damnjanović Ivana
  2. 2. Evolution and Classification • Birds are Vertebrates of the Class Aves. • The evolution of warm-blooded, has enabled birds to survive in virtually every known environment.
  3. 3. Origin and Early Evolution • Evidence from fossils and from studies of comparative anatomy indicates that birds evolved from reptiles. • Their features and their fragile hollow bones do not preserve well.
  4. 4. Archaeopteryx • The fossil genus Archaeopteryx possessed characters of both reptiles and birds. • Like reptiles it had a large skull with teeth, bones that weren’t hollow, claws on its forelimbs, and a long tail. • Its strong legs and rounded wings indicated that it glided rather than flew.
  5. 5. • Furculum - the fused collarbones commonly called the wishbone, suggest that Archaeopteryx was birdlike.
  6. 6. Characteristics of Birds • The following characteristics distinguish birds from other Vertebrates: • Body covered with feathers. • Bones are thin and hollow. • A toothless, horny beak . • Body temperatures is generated and regulated internally. • The 4-chambered heart has a single right aortic arch. • Amniote eggs are encased in hard, calcium-containing shells. • Most species eggs are incubated in a nest.
  7. 7. • Soft, fluffy down feathers cover body of nestling birds and provide and insulating undercoat for adults. • Contour feathers give adult birds their streamlined shaped and provide coloration and additional insulation. • Flight feathers are specialized contour feathers on the wings and tails. Feathers
  8. 8. Beaks and Feet • Hawks and eagles have powerful beak and clawed talons that help them capture and then rip their prey. • Swifts have a tiny beaks that opens wide like a catcher’s mitt to share insects in midair.
  9. 9. The feet of flightless birds, on the other hand are modified for walking and running
  10. 10. Skeleton • The sternum supports the large breast muscles. • The pygostyle, the terminal vertebra of the spine, support the tail feathers, which also play an important role.
  11. 11. Endothermy • Generate and regulate body heat internally. • Enables birds to inhabit both cold and hot climate. • Body temperature ranges from 40- 46 degrees Celsius. • To help conserve body heat, birds fluff out there feathers to insulation.
  12. 12. • Food passes from the mouth cavity straight to the esophagus. • Enlargement of the esophagus called the crop stores and moistens food. • In the first chamber, the proventriculus, gastric fluids begin breaking down the food. • Then passes through the gizzard, a muscular organ that kneads and crushes the food. Digestive and Excretory system
  13. 13. Respiratory System
  14. 14. Circulatory System 4 chambered heart
  15. 15. Nervous System • Birds have a large brains, relative to their size • Cerebellum coordinates movement. • Cerebrum controls complex behavior patterns such as navigation, mating, and nest building. • Have good color vision. • Birds large eyes are located near the sides of its head, giving a bird a wide field of vision.
  16. 16.  Hearing important to nocturnal species that rely on sounds to help them locate prey.  Birds lack internal ears-ear canal leads to a tympanic membrane, called an eardrum.  Sense of smell is poorly developed except in ducks and flightless birds.  Sense of taste helps birds avoid bitter-tasting or toxic foods.
  17. 17. Reproductive System  A female bird usually lays eggs in the nest.  One or both parents will incubate or warm the eggs by sitting on them.
  18. 18. Order Anseriformes  Swans, geese, and ducks- waterfowl  Aquatic, webbed-feet for swimming  Feed on invertebrates, fish, grass...  Parental care is provided by female
  19. 19. Order Strigiformes  Owls  Sharp, curved beak, claws  Large, forward-facing eyes  Keen eyesight and hearing
  20. 20. Order Psittaciformes  Parrots, parakeets, macaws, cockatoos, & cockatiels  Live in tropics  Eat seeds and fruit  Vocal birds
  21. 21. Order Passeriformes  Over 5,900 species; wrens...  Feed on nectar, insects, seeds & fruits  Song-birds- males produce song  Syrinx- song is produced in this structure
  22. 22. Order Struthioniformes  Ostriches, rheas, emus, and cassowaries.  Ostriches cannot fly.
  23. 23. Order Galliformes  Turkeys, pheasants, chickens, grouse, and quails- fowl  Terrestrial birds- limited flying ability  Strong gizzard  Important part of human diet
  24. 24. Order Columbiformes  Pigeons & doves  Feed on fruits and grain  Crop secretes a nutritious milk-like fluid called crop milk

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