Amphibia classification by deepak rawal

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Amphibia classification by deepak rawal

  1. 1. Presentation by- Deepak Rawal Assistant ProfessorMohanlal Sukhadia University Udaipur India
  2. 2. AMPHIBIACLASSIFICATION
  3. 3. General characters• Amphi- double; bios- life; living on land and breeding in water• Respiration by lungs, skin and buccopharynx• Larval forms with lateral line system• Exclusively fresh-water; no marine forms• Poikilothermic(cold-blooded)• Exoskeleton absent• Soft, moist and glandular skin without scales• Homodont teeth• Skull is dicondylic• Protrusible tongue• Cloaca present• 3-chambered heart(2atrium+1ventricle)• R.B.C. large oval and nucleated• Mesonephric kidneys• Amphibians are ureotelic• Middle ear with single rod like bone collumella auris• Cranial nerves 10 pairs• Sexual dimorphism found• Oviparous and external fertilization• Indirect development through tadpole larva mostly• Anamniotes(extra-embryonic membrane amnion absent)• Batrachology-study of amphibian• Evolved from crossopterygian fishes
  4. 4. Order- † Labyrinthodontia• Maze-toothed• Aquatic forms• Large crocodile like• Stem amphibians(first evolved amphibians)• Teeth like crossopterygian fishes• Evolved from crossopterygian fishes• Example- †Eryops
  5. 5. T.S. OF TOOTH
  6. 6. Order- † Phyllospondyli• Leaf like thin vertebrae• Small salamander like• Ancestors of modern anuran and urodels• Example- †Ichthyostega
  7. 7. Order- † Lepospondyli• Ring like vertebrae• Ancestor of modern caecilians• Example- †Diplocaulus
  8. 8. Subclass-lissamphibiaOrder-apoda Order-urodela Order-anura
  9. 9. Order-Apoda• Also called gymnophiona or caecilians• Burrowing forms• Snake like• Without limbs• Blind• Tail absent• Limb girdles present• Example- Ichthyophis
  10. 10. Order-Urodela• Also called caudata• Lizard like with tail• Larva aquatic• Neoteny may found• Larva breaths through gills which lost in adults• Example- Ambystoma(tiger salamander)
  11. 11. Axolotl larva of salamander
  12. 12. Order-Anura• Also called salientia• Frogs and toads• Tail absent in adults• Vocal sacs present in males• Leaping locomotion• 5 to 9 vertebrae with urostyle• Mandible toothless• Vomer teeth present• Metamorphosis found in most• Tadpole larva• Example- Hoplobatrachus (Rana)
  13. 13. Metamorphosis of frog shown in time interval
  14. 14. PARENTAL CARE IN AMPHIBIAN
  15. 15. • Parents give food shelter and protection to their eggs or offspring is called parental care.• Parental care increase the rate of survival of offspring.• MATERNAL CARE- caring by mother.• PATERNAL CARE-caring by father.
  16. 16. •INDIRECT CARING
  17. 17. Tree nests• Eggs laid on overhanging leaves which protect them from predator• Example- Rhacophorus (flying frog)
  18. 18. Mud nests• Dig a hole in mud and lay eggs in it• example- Hyla faber
  19. 19. Defending eggs• Many species of amphibians guard eggs and attack the invading intruders• Example- Autodax
  20. 20. Foam nests• Many species of amphibians convert their mucus secretion to foam nests.• Example- Leptodactylus
  21. 21. Gelatinous bags• Some make transparent gelatinous bag by their mucus secretion• Example- Salamandra keyserlingi
  22. 22. Direct development• No metamorphosis occurs in some species• Eggs hatch directly into little frogs• Example- Hylodes
  23. 23. DIRECT CARING
  24. 24. Coiling around eggs• Some dig a hole in mud and lay their eggs in that and coiled around them to protect them.• Example- Ichthyophis
  25. 25. Eggs glued to body• Many species glued their eggs to neck, thigh and other parts of body• Example- Desmognathus glued their eggs to neck• Example- Alytes glued their eggs to thigh
  26. 26. Eggs in back pouches• In breeding season skin become thick vascular glandular• Male presses eggs on female back• Amphibian with this characteristic is called marsupials• Example- Pipa (surinam toad)
  27. 27. Eggs develop and hatch in different organ of body• Some use buccal cavity. example- Hylambates• Some use stomach. example- Rheobatrachus• Some use vocal sacs. example- Rhinoderma
  28. 28. ovoviviparity• Eggs laid but retain in oviduct and give birth to young ones.• Exampke- Dermophis

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