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Introduction to Political Science
DANILO F. MARIBAO
PALIPARAN III SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
What is Political Science?
• Political science is defined as the study of
the state and government.
• It comes from the Greek word polis, which
means city-state, and ciencia, which means
knowledge or study.
Stages in the Study of Political
Science
• Religious Stage – the government, it’s leaders and
laws was considered as divine or divinely inspired.
• Metaphysical Stage – the state was considered as
a human institution and it is therefore absolute
(cannot be changed).
• Modern Stage – the state was deemed capable of
being improved by rulers and subjects according
to certain principles and laws.
DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL
SCIENCE
• Aristotle
– wrote “Politics”, the first systematic work on political
affairs.
– Father of Political Science
• Niccolo Machiavelli
– wrote “The Prince”, a handbook for rulers in the art of
government.
– Father of Modern Political Science
• Prof. Francis Lieber
– wrote “Manual of Political Ethics”; the first systematic
treatise in political science
What is a state?
• A group of persons, more or less
numerous, permanently occupying a
definite portion of territory, independent
of external control, and possessing a
government to which a great body of
inhabitants render habitual obedience.
Elements of a State
• People
• Territory
• Government
• Sovereignty
What is the difference between
Nation and State?
• State is a legal or juristic concept, while
Nation is an ethnic or racial concept.
• Nasci = to be born indicates a relation of
birth or origin and implies a common race.
• Thus, a nation may comprise several states
Example: Egypt, Iraq, Saudi, Lebanon,
Jordan, etc. belong to Arab nation.
• It is also possible for a single state to be
made up of more than one nation, e.g. US
which was the “melting pot” of many
nations that were eventually combined into
the “American nation”
What is the difference
between Nation and State?
A. People
• Different meanings as used in the 1987
Constitution:
– Inhabitants (sec. 2, Art III; sec. 1, Art. XIII);
– Citizens (secs. 1 & 4, Art II; sec 7, art. III);
– Electors (sec. 4, Art. VII)
• As a requisite for Statehood, there should
be an adequate number for self-
sufficiency and defense; of both sexes for
perpetuity.
What is the Difference between
Citizenship and Nationality?
Citizenship
• Legal or juristic
• Can be changed
or taken-back
Nationality
• Ethnic or racial
• Absolute, Innate
Citizens
• “A people bound together by common
attractions and repulsions into a living
organism possessed of a common pulse, a
common intelligence and inspiration, and
destined apparently to have a common
history and a common fate.” (Malcom)
B. Territory
The National Territory
Sec. 1, Art. I: The national territory comprises the
Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and
waters embraced therein, and all other
territories over which the Philippines has
sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its
terrestrial, fluvial and aerial domains, including
its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the
insular shelves, and other submarine areas.”
• Terrestrial = land
• Fluvial = internal waters
• Aerial domains = aerospace
• Marine = external waters both
surface and sub-aquatic
Components of Philippine Territory :
C. Government
• The agency or instrumentality through
which the will of the State is formulated,
expressed and realized.
• Our Constitution, however, requires our
government to be democratic and
republican.
Section 1, Art II. The Philippines is a democratic
and republican State. Sovereignty resides in the
people and all government authority emanates
from them.
REPUBLICAN
• It is one wherein all government authority
emanates from the people and is exercised by
representatives chosen by the people.
C. Government
C. Government
DEMOCRATIC
• This emphasizes that the Philippines has
some aspects of direct democracy such as
initiative and referendum.
D. Sovereignty
• The supreme and uncontrollable power
innate in a State by which that State is
governed.
• Sovereignty resides in the people and all
government authority emanates from
them. (Sec. 1 Art.II)
Sovereignty vs. Independence
• Sovereignty is the broader term. It has two
aspects:
– Internal – freedom of the State to manage
its own affairs;
– External – freedom of the State to direct its
foreign affairs.
• Independence is synonymous with external
sovereignty. It is defined as the power of a State
to manage its external affairs without direction
or inference form another State.

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introduction to political science.ppt

  • 1. Introduction to Political Science DANILO F. MARIBAO PALIPARAN III SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
  • 2. What is Political Science? • Political science is defined as the study of the state and government. • It comes from the Greek word polis, which means city-state, and ciencia, which means knowledge or study.
  • 3. Stages in the Study of Political Science • Religious Stage – the government, it’s leaders and laws was considered as divine or divinely inspired. • Metaphysical Stage – the state was considered as a human institution and it is therefore absolute (cannot be changed). • Modern Stage – the state was deemed capable of being improved by rulers and subjects according to certain principles and laws.
  • 4. DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE • Aristotle – wrote “Politics”, the first systematic work on political affairs. – Father of Political Science • Niccolo Machiavelli – wrote “The Prince”, a handbook for rulers in the art of government. – Father of Modern Political Science • Prof. Francis Lieber – wrote “Manual of Political Ethics”; the first systematic treatise in political science
  • 5. What is a state? • A group of persons, more or less numerous, permanently occupying a definite portion of territory, independent of external control, and possessing a government to which a great body of inhabitants render habitual obedience.
  • 6. Elements of a State • People • Territory • Government • Sovereignty
  • 7. What is the difference between Nation and State? • State is a legal or juristic concept, while Nation is an ethnic or racial concept. • Nasci = to be born indicates a relation of birth or origin and implies a common race. • Thus, a nation may comprise several states Example: Egypt, Iraq, Saudi, Lebanon, Jordan, etc. belong to Arab nation.
  • 8. • It is also possible for a single state to be made up of more than one nation, e.g. US which was the “melting pot” of many nations that were eventually combined into the “American nation” What is the difference between Nation and State?
  • 9. A. People • Different meanings as used in the 1987 Constitution: – Inhabitants (sec. 2, Art III; sec. 1, Art. XIII); – Citizens (secs. 1 & 4, Art II; sec 7, art. III); – Electors (sec. 4, Art. VII) • As a requisite for Statehood, there should be an adequate number for self- sufficiency and defense; of both sexes for perpetuity.
  • 10. What is the Difference between Citizenship and Nationality? Citizenship • Legal or juristic • Can be changed or taken-back Nationality • Ethnic or racial • Absolute, Innate
  • 11. Citizens • “A people bound together by common attractions and repulsions into a living organism possessed of a common pulse, a common intelligence and inspiration, and destined apparently to have a common history and a common fate.” (Malcom)
  • 12. B. Territory The National Territory Sec. 1, Art. I: The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other submarine areas.”
  • 13. • Terrestrial = land • Fluvial = internal waters • Aerial domains = aerospace • Marine = external waters both surface and sub-aquatic Components of Philippine Territory :
  • 14. C. Government • The agency or instrumentality through which the will of the State is formulated, expressed and realized. • Our Constitution, however, requires our government to be democratic and republican.
  • 15. Section 1, Art II. The Philippines is a democratic and republican State. Sovereignty resides in the people and all government authority emanates from them. REPUBLICAN • It is one wherein all government authority emanates from the people and is exercised by representatives chosen by the people. C. Government
  • 16. C. Government DEMOCRATIC • This emphasizes that the Philippines has some aspects of direct democracy such as initiative and referendum.
  • 17. D. Sovereignty • The supreme and uncontrollable power innate in a State by which that State is governed. • Sovereignty resides in the people and all government authority emanates from them. (Sec. 1 Art.II)
  • 18. Sovereignty vs. Independence • Sovereignty is the broader term. It has two aspects: – Internal – freedom of the State to manage its own affairs; – External – freedom of the State to direct its foreign affairs. • Independence is synonymous with external sovereignty. It is defined as the power of a State to manage its external affairs without direction or inference form another State.