POD Unit One

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POD Unit One

  1. 1. Problems of Democracy<br />Ms. Nestico<br />Chapter 1<br />
  2. 2. What is Democracy?<br />Form of government<br />“Rule by the people”<br />Representative or Direct?<br />People have the right to vote <br />Democrat or Republican - political parties<br />Freedom or right to choose<br />
  3. 3. Chapter 1, Section 1<br />Functions of Government<br />Make Laws -- Legislative<br />Enforce Laws -- Executive<br />Interpret & Change Laws - Judicial<br />
  4. 4. Purposes of Government<br />what is governments responsibility to its citizens?<br />Maintain Order<br />Provide Services<br />Protect Us<br />
  5. 5. Maintaining Order<br />How does the government maintain order?<br />Police<br />Courts<br />FBI/CIA<br />Congress and making laws<br />
  6. 6. Providing Services<br />Welfare - cash assistance<br />Food Stamps<br />Healthcare<br /> --Medicaid/Medicare<br /> --Medical Assistance (MA)<br /><ul><li>Social Security
  7. 7. Education
  8. 8. Transportation
  9. 9. Regulatory Agencies</li></ul> --EPA, FDA, FCC<br /><ul><li>Employment</li></li></ul><li>Protecting Us<br />Military<br />Homeland Security<br />Jails/Detention Facilities<br />Police and Fire Departments<br />
  10. 10. I. Origins of Government<br />Aristotle - ancient Greek philosopher 384-322 BCE<br />Coined the term “polis” or city-state<br /> --refers to ancient Greek government<br /> -- serves as the basis for democracy <br />
  11. 11. Characteristics of a “state”(Based on Aristotle’s definition)<br />The term “state” is interchangeable with: country, nation or city-state<br />1. People - population<br />Territory<br />Government<br />Sovereignty - the ability to rule oneself<br />
  12. 12. II. Division of Political Authority - Aristotle<br />Distribution of Power<br /> a. Unitary system<br /> b. Confederate System<br /> c. Federal System<br />Economic 3. Who Rules<br />a. Capitalist a. autocracy<br /> b. Socialist b. oligarchy<br /> c. Communist c. democracy<br />
  13. 13.
  14. 14. Distribution of Powerhow does power flow?A. Unitary System one central government with full authority over all political subdivisions or states<br />
  15. 15. Confederate System states are sovereign and individual but are all working toward a common goal; central government has limited power<br />
  16. 16. Federal Systempower is shared between a central government and its political subdivisions<br />
  17. 17. Capitalism<br />
  18. 18. Socialism<br />
  19. 19. Communism<br />
  20. 20. Who/How Many Rule?<br />Autocracy - one ruler<br />1. Dictatorship - single ruler with absolute power.<br /> --no elections<br /> --may use force to maintain control<br /> 2. Monarchy - single ruler who gains leadership through inheritance<br /> --some have absolute power but not common today<br /> -- Saudi Arabia - example<br />
  21. 21. Despotism - <br /><ul><li>rule by a single authority who holds all the power and everyone else is considered his slave
  22. 22. Implies tyrannical rule</li></ul>Authoritarian<br /><ul><li>Rule by a single authority who requires strict obedience to the state
  23. 23. Maintains social control through oppressive measures (limits resources provided to the </li></ul> people).<br />
  24. 24. Totalitarian<br /><ul><li>The state regulates virtually every aspect of public and private behavior
  25. 25. Maintain power and control by extreme measures
  26. 26. Examples:</li></ul> secret police<br /> propaganda<br /> control of mass media <br /> restriction of free discussion<br /> widespread use of terror<br />
  27. 27. What is the difference between authoritarianism and totalitarianism?<br />
  28. 28. Absolutism - one person with<br /> absolute power<br /><ul><li>from the time of the “nature of law” and “divine right of kings”</li></li></ul><li>Divine Right Theory <br />Identified in the 1600’s<br />Thomas Hobbes wrote Leviathan (1651-1690) in which divine right is initially discussed<br />Divine right = a king’s or ruler’s power comes directly from God<br />Focus on the ruler, not the people<br />
  29. 29. Social Contract Theory<br />Identifies that people do have rights<br />Focus is on the people, not the ruler<br />Government should actually be an “agreement” or “contract” between a people and its government <br />Based on Natural Rights - the “nature of law”<br />Social Contract Theory is extended to acknowledge that people have natural rights:<br />
  30. 30. Natural Rights:Life, Liberty & Property<br />
  31. 31. Social Contract Theory (con’t.)<br />John Locke - Two Treaties of Government (1690)<br />Social contract theory extended further to assume that people agree to obey the government in exchange for the government providing services and protection for the people.<br />
  32. 32. Key to the beginning of US Government: John Locke’s Social Contract Theory says that if the government does not hold up its end of the agreement, people have the right to break the “contract” and revolt<br />
  33. 33. B. Oligarchy - a few/small group of rulers<br />Totalitarianism - small group that rules the government that takes over virtually every aspect of people’s lives.<br />Junta - small military group seizes power and begins their own government<br />Aristocracy - rule by an elite upper class (our founding fathers)<br />
  34. 34. 4. Meritocracy - people with the highest IQ and effort/ability to rule.<br />5. Plutocracy - rule by the wealthy<br />6. Technocracy - run by the highly educated who believe that major business should have the most say in government<br />
  35. 35. 7. Theocracy - rulers rule on behalf of God and religion<br />
  36. 36. Democracy - rule by the people<br />Republic - elected officials vote on policy issues/representatives of the people conduct the government’s business<br />Direct Democracy - every man has a say or vote on every issue<br />Representative Democracy - synonymous with “republic”<br />Social Democracy - capitalist democracy begins incorporating aspects of socialism into its government practices & economy - “controlled capitalism”<br />
  37. 37. Citizenship - 14th Amendment<br />US Citizenship Rights<br /> 1. Vote<br /> 2. Serve on a jury<br /> 3. Hold public office<br /> 4. Public Services/Education<br /> 5. Own property/business<br /> 6. Due Process/legal protection<br />
  38. 38.
  39. 39. Obligations of US Citizen<br /> 1. Pay taxes<br /> 2. Obey the law<br />
  40. 40. Ways to Be a US Citizen<br /> 1. Jus soli - “of the soil”<br /> --anyone born on US territory<br /> (military bases, embassies, etc.)<br /> 2. Jus sanguinis -- “of blood”<br /> --when both parents are US <br /> citizens<br /> --if at least one parent has been a <br /> citizen for a minimum of 10 yrs.<br />
  41. 41. Naturalization<br /> (requirements)<br /> a. Ability to read, write and speak <br /> English<br /> b. Good moral character<br /> c. Working knowledge of Civics/US <br /> History<br /> d. 5 years of permanent residency<br /> (3 years if married to a US citizen)<br /> e. Favorable disposition toward the US <br /> & the Constitution.<br />
  42. 42. Citizenship Status<br />Legal Alien<br /> a. Permanent resident - lives here permanently, has a green card and is working toward citizenship<br /> b. Non-resident - here temporarily, usually for work or education<br /> F-1 Visa = Student visa<br /> H-1 Visa = work visa<br /> c. Illegal Alien - obvious<br />

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