Political Science 5 – Western Political Thought - Power Point #1
Western Political Thought Dr. John Paul Tabakian Political Science 5 Fall 2012 – Power Point #1
WELCOME TO THE FIRST WEEK!New semesters bring various hiccups foreveryone. This also goes for yourinstructor. We are all adjusting to newsituations, course schedule conflicts andother adjustments. This course utilizesvarious methods to deliver information.Many of our materials are media driven.You will find many to be humorous,thought provoking , or even interesting.This first clip is presented merely for fun.It is titled “Welcome To School”.
COURSE LECTURE: WEEK #1Today’s Lecture Covers The Following:• Introduction To Course• Syllabus Review• Classical Political Thought• Modern Political Thought• Organic Roots Of The United States• Early Elite Influence In American History• American Persona• Transparency• Minor Paper Assignment #1• Final-Major Paper
PLAGIARISM POLICYStudents are advised that plagiarism will not be tolerated. Yourinstructor has adopted the following definition of plagiarism that isfollowed by Cleveland Chiropractic College: “Plagiarism is definedas the act of appropriating the literary composition of another, orparts or passages of writings of another, or the ideas or language ofthe same, and passing them off as the product of one’s own mind.To be liable for ‘plagiarism’ it is not necessary to exactly duplicateanother’s writing; it is sufficient if unfair use of such work is made bylifting of a substantial portion of the work, including material from theinternet. If plagiarism is detected in the final draft of a student’swork, he/she will be given a final grade of F.” My personal advice toall students is the same that one of my graduate professors offeredto my class, “When in doubt, cite!”
CLASSICAL POLITICAL THOUGHTAristotle states that inherent within man’s natural state of being,there exist different roles that are designated according to the needof any community. Special virtues are rewarded to those who accepttheir roles without question, beginning with those terms identified byAristotle in the household, where the roles of husbands, wives,children and slaves are defined. Roles are assigned, for no man isable to exercise the same talents while producing exact levels ofquality in their finished work (Politics, Book 1, Chapter 4, 1253b1).As the polis consists of citizens with enough leisure time toparticipate in government functions, it is the citizenry thatdetermines those roles to be filled. Government itself has noemotions, or soul. Rather, it is the political activism of a few elitesaccording to Aristotle that makes all government decisions.
MODERN POLITICAL THOUGHTClassical liberalism refers to the beginning in terms of ahistorical rendition of the periods capable of being identified inwhich man existed. John Locke is recognized as being one ofthe first to anticipate the rise of liberal thought in his time.American political thought has been heavily influenced byLockean principle. Simply put, liberalism derived comes fromthe straightforward ideology of capitalism, as one cannot haveone without the other. Locke justifies capitalism by utilizingliberalism to criticize inequality, shaping everything around thepremises of liberty and equality, thus coming to the conclusionthat society cannot have one without the other.
ORGANIC ROOTS OF THE UNITED STATES (1)In their quest for designing a viable representativegovernment, the founding fathers dedicated themselves tocareful study of the political philosophy of Europeans.Focusing primarily on British political thinkers from the 16thand 17th century, the founding fathers focused primarily on thenatural rights of man, which in turn varied according to theindividual philosopher studied. Over the course of their study,the founding fathers openly discussed their opinions with oneanother so as to properly bring forth differing views in order toprudently construct a government that would protect individualliberty, as well as determine what was required of governmentto protect civil liberties.
ORGANIC ROOTS OF THE UNITED STATES (2)The theory of singular government deeply influenced foundingfathers Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Alexander Hamiltonand even later political leaders like Abraham Lincoln, to presentleaders of today. John Locke’s articulation of human nature, inturn relating the law of nature, which is reason, emphasized thata state of inconvenience results in a state of war (SecondTreatise, Locke). The most acceptable alternative to a state ofnature is a civil society or government, as long as theestablished authority protects equality. As the fundamentaldesire of mankind is life itself, government’s foremost priority isto protect property. Alexander Hamilton further propounded thisposition in that government is indeed a reflection on humannature (Federalist Paper #51).
TECHNOLOGICAL MEANS OF DISTRIBUTIONCulture is influenced through variousmeans that include print, radio andtelevision. We will also examine how thecommon individual may use technologyto distribute ideas in a cost effectivemanner. This video is just one example ofhow technology allows practically anyonethe ability to influence their fellow man.Technological advancements haveempowered common citizens withcreative minds to produce their ownpropaganda. “The War On Terror”sparked a great deal of media distributedvia the Internet. Elites no longer maintaintotal control over distribution.
ELITES AND MASSES IN EARLY AMERICA THE LAYERS ELITE DOMINATED SOCIAL, CULTURAL, ECONOMIC, & POLITICAL LIFE MIDDLE CLASS SUCCESSFUL BODY OF INDIVDUALS FARMERS GREAT MASS OF WHITE AMERICANS WHO HAD LITTLE INTEREST IN PUBLIC AFFAIRS.
ELITE PREFERENCES:INSPIRATION FOR A NEW CONSTITUTION • Government Under The Articles Of Confederation • Established A “Firm League Of Friendship” • Identified Powers Belonging To The National Government • Reassured Each State Of Its • Sovereignty • Freedom • Independence • Repayment Of Loans Made To Congress • Investors Who Backed The American War Effort Had Difficulty Securing Their Loans • Without The Power To Ta, The Future Of The American Government Looked Bleak
ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATIONThough the American Revolution was that of ideas, it was a fullout war. Victorious, the thirteen colonies established and livedunder the Articles of Confederation until the adoption of theConstitution of 1787. Revolutionary itself, the Articles ofConfederation provided little assistance for a nation absent ofleaders who possessed experience in governing the wholecountry. The Articles of Confederation linked the thirteen coloniesin mainly defensive guarantees. Though a congress with typicalauthority associated with a central government was establishedwith normal duties including the right to declare war, engage intreaties and coin money, there lacked an executive branch toenforce decisions. Congress was state directed, with each statehaving a single vote. Nine out of thirteen states had to agree ifanything were to be passed.
ELITE PREFERENCES:INSPIRATION FOR A NEW CONSTITUTION • Protection Of Bankers And Creditors • State-Issued Paper Money Permitted Debtors To Pay Off Creditors With Money Worth Less Than They Originally Owned • Opening Western Land To Speculation • Need A Strong Central Government • With Enough Military Power To Oust The British From The Northwest • To Protect Settlers Against Indian Attacks • The Protection And Settlement • Cause Land Values To Increase • Make Land Speculators Rich
ELITE PREFERENCES:INSPIRATION FOR A NEW CONSTITUTION Protection Of Shipping And Manufacturing Strong Navy Important To American Commercial Interests Tariff Barriers Not Adequate Against Foreign Goods Ensuring The Return Of Runaway Slaves Protection Of Human “Property” Sought In 1787, Slavery Was Lawful Everywhere Except In Massachusetts Nation’s Founders Prepared To Protect Slavery Southern Economy Highly Dependent On Slaves Exercising Powers In World Affairs Confederation Held In Contempt By Britain And Barbary States Elite Wanted To Assume Role In The International Community And Exercise Power In World Affairs
FORMATION OF A NATIONAL ELITE • An Annapolis Convention • Report That Outlined Defects In The Articles Of Confederation • Called Upon States To Send Delegates To New Convention To Suggest Remedies • George Washington’s Prestige • 55 Men Chose George Washington In The Summer Of 1787 • Stood At The Apex Of American Elite Structure
FORMATION OF A NATIONAL ELITE • Founders’ Governing Experience—Wealthy Individuals • Wealth Assumed A Variety Of Forms: • Land, Ships, Business Inventories, Slaves, • Credit, Bonds, Paper Money • Founders’ “ Continental” View • Cosmopolitanism Distinguished The Men Of Philadelphia From The Masses • “Continental” Point Of View For Political, Economic, & Military Issues • Members Of The Elite Extended Their Loyalties Beyond Their States
ELITE CONSENSUS IN 1787 • Goal Of Government Is To Protect Liberty And Property • Origin Of Government Is Implied Contract Among People • Elites Believed In • A Republican Government • Limited Government Could Not Threaten Liberty Or Property • A Strong National Government Could • “Establish Justice, • Insure Domestic Tranquility, • Provide For The Common Defense, • Promote The General Welfare, And • Secure The Blessings Of Liberty”
AN ELITE IN OPERATION:CONCILIATION AND COMPROMISE • Representation Compromise • Addressed Representation In The National Legislature • Slavery Compromise –The Three-fifths Compromise • For Tax And Representation Purposes: Slaves Counted As Three-fifths of A Person • Export Tax Compromise –Between Planters And Merchants • Articles Exported From Any State Should Not Bear Tax Or Duty • Imports Could Only Be Taxed By The National Government • Voter Qualification Compromise • Concerned Qualifications For Voting And Holding Office • Electors In States Should Qualify For Electors Of The Most Numerous Branch Of The State Legislatures • Women Could Not Participate In Government
THE CONSTITUTION AS ELITIST DOCUMENT • Elites Benefited More Directly And Immediately Than Did Nonelites • Levying Taxes • Congress Given Power To Tariff • Regulating Commerce –The Interstate Commerce Clause & The Provision In Article I, Section 9 • Created Free Trade Area Over The Thirteen States • The Arrangement Was Beneficial For American Merchants. • Protecting Money And Property • Congress Gains Control Over Currency And Credit
THE CONSTITUTION AS ELITIST DOCUMENT • Creating The Military –Two Purposes • Army and Navy Promote Commercial and Territorial Ambitions • Protection From Invasion • Protecting Against Revolution • Protect The Government From Revolution By Providing Military • Protect Slaveholders From Slave Revolt • Protecting Slavery • Congress Outlawed The Import Of Slaves After 1808 • Protect Existing Property And Slaves
THE CONSTITUTION AS ELITIST DOCUMENT • Limiting States In Business Affairs • Prevents States “Impairing The Obligation Of Contracts” • Limiting States In Monetary Affairs • Provided Protection To Elite • States Could Not • Coin Money • Issue Paper Money • Make Money Other Than Gold Or Silver Coin Legal Tender In Payment Of Debt
ELITISM AND THE STRUCTURE OF THENATIONAL GOVERNMENT • Structure Reflects Desire To Protect Liberty And Property • Elite Control Government and Policy Decisions • National Supremacy – Congressional Control Of Decisions • Republicanism – Representative Government • Separated Powers In The National Government • Bulwark Against Majoritarianism • Additional Safeguard For Elite Liberty & Property • Divides Responsibilities • Difficult To Hold Government Accountable For Public Policy
RATIFICATION: AN EXERCISE IN ELITEPOLITICAL SKILLS • Ratification Rules Designed To Give Clear Advantage To Supporters Of Constitution • Special Ratifying Conventions Called • Extraordinary Ratification Procedure • Minority Of Population Participated In Ratifying The Constitution • Emergence Of Anti-federalist Opposition • Feared A Strong Federal Government’s Control • Confidence In Ability To Control State Government • The Bill Of Rights An An Afterthought • Most Effective Criticism Centered On The Absence Of Bill Of Rights
AMERICAN PERSONA (1)America has enjoyed a comparable advantage in terms of itscontinental location. It has been insulated from major powersby the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and bordered between twofriendly neighbors, Canada and Mexico, who are heavilydependent on the well-being of its neighbor. Over the courseof the early federalist period of the U.S., realism remained theprevalent form of political thinking among Americanstatesmen. The basic underpinnings of the early nationsensed the apparent dangers of the great European powersreigning at the time, including an outright acceptance over thefact that the young republic was in constant danger of attack,never to escape the crosshairs of foreign politics.
AMERICAN PERSONA (2)Over the course of the early federalist period of the U.S.,realism remained the prevalent form of political thinking amongAmerican statesmen. The basic underpinnings of the earlynation sensed the apparent dangers of the great Europeanpowers reigning at the time, including an outright acceptanceover the fact that the young republic was in constant danger ofattack, never to escape the crosshairs of foreign politics.America’s leaders from past to present have maintained acosmopolitan belief system. This entails viewing the powerposition of the United States from the eyes of foreign powers.public policy makers for the most part maintain a cosmopolitanbelief system.
AMERICAN PERSONA (3)Embedded within the American persona is a belief that theU.S. was not solely an experiment in republican government,but a nation blessed with superior principles and institutions,which in time would be adopted throughout the world.American policy makers have maintained an idealist ideologyin order to formulate foreign, as well as domestic policy,though its foreign policy is based inherently on realist dogma.U.S. foreign policy is thus utilized as an avenue in which topromote American ideals, combining practical capacity forrealizing the evils of man, yet continuing to remain devoted tothe idealistic notions of the American success story.
AMERICAN PERSONA (4)America’s political wisdom grew rapidly following its inception as anindependent nation. The country never lost sight of its politicalinsight, historic perspective and the common sense approach of theAmerican spirit in relation to its standing among other nations.Maintaining a quest for simplistic solutions in disregard ofconcurrent external forces is a trait of the American persona.Relations among neighbors in the international system are focusedon an unbridled philanthropy through apparent selfish inwardimprovement, as a training method for world improvement.Accordingly, it is idealism that promotes unbounded philosophicalphilanthropy as a selfish desire of American policy. In more extremeterms, idealism promotes the notion that the U.S., through itscoaching of nation states, serves as the premiere example that iffollowed, will produce unbridled prosperity for all.
TRANSPARENCY (1)America has grown from the days of a colony to major power,superpower, and hegemon, to its present empire status.American power is felt throughout the international community.Playing poker requires one to adopt what is commonly knownas a “poker face”. Players will hide their true emotions, evenfaking their true intentions to catch other players off guard.Some have even taken to wearing sunglasses. The exactopposite tactic that the United States has adopted is“Transparency”. This involves disclosing all routes the nation-state will undertake with regards to all forms of public policypertaining to its political, economic and military strategies.
TRANSPARENCY (2)Alexander Hamilton initiated thispolicy as the chief financialphilosopher of the United Stateseven if he did not coin the term.Hamilton is regarded as the chiefarchitect of our economic policy,which in turn was developed inorder to win the confidence ofdomestic US business andfinancial elites as well as gainingthe confidence of internationalbusiness.
TRANSPARENCY EXAMPLE #1America possesses the mosttechnologically advancedmilitary hardware. This videodemonstrates one of the firstdeployable force fields forlight armored vehicles(LAVs). Welcome to the 21stCentury.
TRANSPARENCY EXAMPLE #2America is not the onlynation that utilizesTransparency. This videoshows the Israeli DefenseForce demonstrating a newtype of gun that can shootaround corners. A briefinterview with the inventorof this amazing weaponfollows the demonstration.
TRANSPARENCY EXAMPLE (3)Some forms of transparency areboth political and military innature. The military sponsoredthe development of the MassiveOrdinance Aerial Burst (MOAB). Itis commonly referred to as “TheMother Of All Bombs”. It is thelargest conventional bomb in ourarsenal. There is a psychologicalcomponent to this bomb. Amushroom cloud forms followingsuccessful detonation. It lookssomewhat like a nuclear devicebeing detonated.
TRANSPARENCY EXAMPLE (4)Javelin is a fire-and-forgetmissile with lock-on beforelaunch and automatic self-guidance. The system takes atop-attack flight profile againstarmored vehicles (attacking thetop armor which is generallythinner) but can also take adirect-attack mode for useagainst buildings or fortifications.This missile also has the abilityto engage helicopters. Javelin issupplied by Raytheon/LockheedMartins JAVELIN Joint Venture.