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RELIGION AND BELIEF SYSTEMS
 is defined as “people’s beliefs and opinions
concerning the existence, nature and worship of
a god or holy beings and divine involvement in
the universe and human life” .
 It denotes the belief in, or worship of, a god, gods
or the supernatural (means whatever transcends
the power of nature or human agency).
 The term religion is sometimes used
interchangeably with faith, creed, belief or
conviction.
RELIGION
 Is also viewed as “ organized collection of beliefs,
cultural systems, and worldviews that relate
humanity to an order of existence.
 Many religions possess holy scriptures, narratives or
sacred accounts that aim to explain the origin and
meaning of life and the universe.
 Many religions have clergy, rules on membership,
holy places, religious rites, visual symbols, creeds,
doctrines, mythology, philosophical system and
organized behaviors.
 Religious practices may involve worship services,
prayers, sacrifices, festivals, wedding, baptism, and
other aspects of culture.
RELIGION
1. 1. Religion helps man to bear sufferings – religion
explains and justifies human sufferings and grief.
It teaches that everything happens according to
the will of God.
2. It boosts self-worth and dignity – explains that a
person, regardless of his social and economical
status, is important in the eyes of God.
3. It serves as a foundation of societal harmony – it
is a source of social unity and cohesion. By
providing socially accepted values and ethical
norms, it influences people to control their
behavior.
FUNCTIONS OF RELIGION
 4. It helps create disciplined and beneficial
citizens – because it encourages its members
to live in line of teachings of religious
traditions. They provide models for ideal living.
 5. It promotes social welfare and development
– it also performs selfless services to humanity.
It promotes literacy, education, and research
by putting up academic institutions. Some
religions sponsor charitable institutions for the
poor like hospitals, homes for the orphans and
elderly.
FUNCTIONS OF RELIGION
 Some sociologists and anthropologists
proposed various theories on how religion
began and the stages of its development.
 One theory is that religion started with the
belief in spirit ( animism), then progressed
into the notion that there were numerous
gods (polytheism), and ultimately developed
as the ideal of a single god (monotheism)
EVOLUTION OF RELIGION
 Basically means the belief in spiritual beings.
 The term comes from the Latin word anima, which means
“breath” or “soul”.
 It is the belief that things in nature, example : trees,
mountains and sky have souls and consciousness and that
people have spirits that do exist or can exist separately
from their bodies.
 It also involves the belief that beings have spiritual
essence, that is souls or spirits exist, not only in humans
but also in animals, plants, inanimate objects like rocks,
geographical features such as mountains and rivers,
phenomena of the natural environment including wind,
thunder, lightning and even shadow.
ANIMISM
 The anthropologist Sir Edward Burnett Taylor
explained the origin of primitive beliefs and religions
in terms of animism. He defined animism as the
general belief in spiritual beings and regarded it as “a
minimum definition of religion”.
 “all religions, from simple to complex, involve some
form of animism”.
 According to Taylor, primitive people believe that
spirits or souls are the cause of life in human beings;
they picture souls as phantoms, resembling vapors or
shadows which can transmigrate to person to
person, from the dead to the living, and from and
into plants, animals and lifeless objects.
ANIMISM
 Refers to the worship of or belief in more than one
god, especially several gods usually assembled into a
pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their
own religions and rituals.
 The belief in the existence of many gods or divine
beings has been prevalent in the past and present
cultures and has taken forms.
 Not all polytheists worship all gods equally.
 Some of the examples of polytheistic religions are
Hinduism (India), ancient Egyptian religion, Greek
mythology, Roman mythology and other forms of
paganism.
POLYTHEISM
 Is the belief in single or one god.
 Oxford dictionary of the Christian church
defines it as the “belief in one personal and
transcendent God”.
 From the Greek word mono means single and
theos means god
 Examples are Christianity and Islam
 It is a well founded belief of Muslim and Jew
MONOTHEISM
 Refer to organized system of beliefs and practices
relating to the divine.
 They are established, longstanding, and time-honored
faiths that have attained the status of being world
religions.
 This term is used as opposed to tribal, primitive, and
indigenous religions.
 In modern societies, an institutionalized religion,
though broadly influential, is treated as a separate
institution (from the state for example)
INSTITUTIONALIZED RELIGIONS
 Is the most widely distributed of the world religions,
having substantial representation in all the populated
continents
 In Christianity, Jesus Christ is the supreme preacher,
model of the moral life, and the revealer of human
life in its perfection.
 The Bible is the basis faith of Christianity.
 In theology, it is fundamentally monotheistic.
 It believes that God is omnipotent, just and beyond
time and space and change.
 The creation of human is expression of God’s love
 Christ died and rose again to save the world and have
eternal life
CHRISTIANITY
 The term in the Arabic language means
“surrender” or “submission” to the will of
God.
 A follower is called a Muslim which in Arabic
means “one who surrenders to God”
 The Arabic name for God is Allah
 Islam’s central teaching is that there is only
one all-powerful, all-knowing God, and this
God created the universe
ISLAM
 Is the distance in the relationship between any
religion and the nation state
 Historically, in the Philippines, there was a very
close ties between the Spanish government and
the Catholic church during the colonial period
 The principle of separation of church and state
were introduced during the American
occupation and it has been preserved until today
SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE
 The Phil. Constitution declares, in Article II Section 6 :
“The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable”
(unbreakable)
Article III Section 5
“No law shall be made respecting(in regards) an
establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free
exercise thereof. The free exercise and enjoyment of
religious profession and worship, without discrimination
or preference, shall forever be allowed. No religious test
shall be required for the exercise of civil or political
rights”
SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE

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Religion and Belief Systems Explained

  • 2.  is defined as “people’s beliefs and opinions concerning the existence, nature and worship of a god or holy beings and divine involvement in the universe and human life” .  It denotes the belief in, or worship of, a god, gods or the supernatural (means whatever transcends the power of nature or human agency).  The term religion is sometimes used interchangeably with faith, creed, belief or conviction. RELIGION
  • 3.  Is also viewed as “ organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems, and worldviews that relate humanity to an order of existence.  Many religions possess holy scriptures, narratives or sacred accounts that aim to explain the origin and meaning of life and the universe.  Many religions have clergy, rules on membership, holy places, religious rites, visual symbols, creeds, doctrines, mythology, philosophical system and organized behaviors.  Religious practices may involve worship services, prayers, sacrifices, festivals, wedding, baptism, and other aspects of culture. RELIGION
  • 4. 1. 1. Religion helps man to bear sufferings – religion explains and justifies human sufferings and grief. It teaches that everything happens according to the will of God. 2. It boosts self-worth and dignity – explains that a person, regardless of his social and economical status, is important in the eyes of God. 3. It serves as a foundation of societal harmony – it is a source of social unity and cohesion. By providing socially accepted values and ethical norms, it influences people to control their behavior. FUNCTIONS OF RELIGION
  • 5.  4. It helps create disciplined and beneficial citizens – because it encourages its members to live in line of teachings of religious traditions. They provide models for ideal living.  5. It promotes social welfare and development – it also performs selfless services to humanity. It promotes literacy, education, and research by putting up academic institutions. Some religions sponsor charitable institutions for the poor like hospitals, homes for the orphans and elderly. FUNCTIONS OF RELIGION
  • 6.  Some sociologists and anthropologists proposed various theories on how religion began and the stages of its development.  One theory is that religion started with the belief in spirit ( animism), then progressed into the notion that there were numerous gods (polytheism), and ultimately developed as the ideal of a single god (monotheism) EVOLUTION OF RELIGION
  • 7.  Basically means the belief in spiritual beings.  The term comes from the Latin word anima, which means “breath” or “soul”.  It is the belief that things in nature, example : trees, mountains and sky have souls and consciousness and that people have spirits that do exist or can exist separately from their bodies.  It also involves the belief that beings have spiritual essence, that is souls or spirits exist, not only in humans but also in animals, plants, inanimate objects like rocks, geographical features such as mountains and rivers, phenomena of the natural environment including wind, thunder, lightning and even shadow. ANIMISM
  • 8.  The anthropologist Sir Edward Burnett Taylor explained the origin of primitive beliefs and religions in terms of animism. He defined animism as the general belief in spiritual beings and regarded it as “a minimum definition of religion”.  “all religions, from simple to complex, involve some form of animism”.  According to Taylor, primitive people believe that spirits or souls are the cause of life in human beings; they picture souls as phantoms, resembling vapors or shadows which can transmigrate to person to person, from the dead to the living, and from and into plants, animals and lifeless objects. ANIMISM
  • 9.  Refers to the worship of or belief in more than one god, especially several gods usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.  The belief in the existence of many gods or divine beings has been prevalent in the past and present cultures and has taken forms.  Not all polytheists worship all gods equally.  Some of the examples of polytheistic religions are Hinduism (India), ancient Egyptian religion, Greek mythology, Roman mythology and other forms of paganism. POLYTHEISM
  • 10.  Is the belief in single or one god.  Oxford dictionary of the Christian church defines it as the “belief in one personal and transcendent God”.  From the Greek word mono means single and theos means god  Examples are Christianity and Islam  It is a well founded belief of Muslim and Jew MONOTHEISM
  • 11.  Refer to organized system of beliefs and practices relating to the divine.  They are established, longstanding, and time-honored faiths that have attained the status of being world religions.  This term is used as opposed to tribal, primitive, and indigenous religions.  In modern societies, an institutionalized religion, though broadly influential, is treated as a separate institution (from the state for example) INSTITUTIONALIZED RELIGIONS
  • 12.  Is the most widely distributed of the world religions, having substantial representation in all the populated continents  In Christianity, Jesus Christ is the supreme preacher, model of the moral life, and the revealer of human life in its perfection.  The Bible is the basis faith of Christianity.  In theology, it is fundamentally monotheistic.  It believes that God is omnipotent, just and beyond time and space and change.  The creation of human is expression of God’s love  Christ died and rose again to save the world and have eternal life CHRISTIANITY
  • 13.  The term in the Arabic language means “surrender” or “submission” to the will of God.  A follower is called a Muslim which in Arabic means “one who surrenders to God”  The Arabic name for God is Allah  Islam’s central teaching is that there is only one all-powerful, all-knowing God, and this God created the universe ISLAM
  • 14.  Is the distance in the relationship between any religion and the nation state  Historically, in the Philippines, there was a very close ties between the Spanish government and the Catholic church during the colonial period  The principle of separation of church and state were introduced during the American occupation and it has been preserved until today SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE
  • 15.  The Phil. Constitution declares, in Article II Section 6 : “The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable” (unbreakable) Article III Section 5 “No law shall be made respecting(in regards) an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights” SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE