Priming the role of volunteers in development


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Building social capital for effective citizen and state institutions;
Promotion of dialogue, public enlightenment, cultural renaissance, tradition, and renewal
Local Governance and Development

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Priming the role of volunteers in development

  1. 1. Priming The Role Of Volunteers BT Costantinos, PhD [email_address] , Presented to the VSO Ethiopia – In country training for new intakes, Addis Ababa, Feb 8, 2008 Leadership Solutions to Stem the Crises in Human Development
  2. 2. Flash points and areas of cooperation for Peace & Development in the Greater Horn Ethiopia Sudan Democratic Republic of Congo Uganda Somalia Somaliland Kenya Tanzania Sudan
  3. 3. Our vulnerabilities <ul><li>33% of all displaced peoples in the world are in the Horn </li></ul><ul><li>More than 20 million people need international food assistance – 8 million in Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><li>There are more people living under the poverty line than any other part of the world </li></ul><ul><li>This in spite of the highest potential in agriculture, water resources and mining </li></ul><ul><li>THE ISSUES – GOVERNNACE, CONFLICT, PEACE </li></ul>
  4. 4. Challenges to Leadership and the African State of the Nation <ul><li>Authoritarian traditions … </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty, famine and under development … </li></ul><ul><li>HIV AIDS, TB, Malaria, and ORID … </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources Management 1.9 billon tonnes of soil is eroded … </li></ul><ul><li>Water tower of North Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture –out of a staggering 70 million hectares only 14% is cultivated … </li></ul><ul><li>Resettlement … </li></ul><ul><li>Emasculated Youth – </li></ul><ul><li>IDP, refugees, </li></ul><ul><li>Combatants </li></ul>
  5. 5. MDGs Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger <ul><li>Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day </li></ul><ul><li>Halve, between 1990 and 2015, proportion of people who suffer from hunger </li></ul>Achieve universal primary education <ul><li>Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling </li></ul>Promote gender equality <ul><li>Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and to all levels of education no later than 2015 </li></ul>Reduce child Mortality <ul><li>Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate </li></ul>Maternal health <ul><li>Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio </li></ul>Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and ORID <ul><li>Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse malaria and ORID </li></ul>
  6. 6. MDGs (cont) Ensure environmental sustainability <ul><li>Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources </li></ul><ul><li>Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to water and sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>By 2020, significant improvement in the lives of 100 million slum dwellers </li></ul>Develop a Global Partnership for Development <ul><li>Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system [Includes a commitment to good governance, development, and poverty reduction – both nationally and internationally] </li></ul><ul><li>Address the Special Needs of the Least Developed Countries </li></ul><ul><li>Address the Special Needs of landlocked and Small Island States </li></ul><ul><li>Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable </li></ul><ul><li>In co-operation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth </li></ul><ul><li>In co-operation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable, essential drugs in developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>In co-operation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ethiopia – Domestic resources for development
  8. 8. Ethiopia: aid commitment
  9. 9. Ethiopia: aid disbursement
  10. 11. Total resources for development
  11. 13. Cultural barriers to Human Development and Leadership tenets to stem the tide Poverty Moving on….
  12. 14. Cultural and behavioural Challenges to volunteerism <ul><li>Personalization of issues (leba tat) </li></ul><ul><li>Parochialism (weganawinet) </li></ul><ul><li>Paranoia, chronic suspicion and mistrust (tiretare): we view everyone as a threat </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of empathy and empathetic understanding : ability to identify with or understand others’ situation, feelings, and actions </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of suspending judgement fundamental to effective communication or giving others the benefit of the doubt </li></ul><ul><li>Character assassination (sem matfat and alubalta) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of openness (Hamet) </li></ul><ul><li>Holding grudges (qim and mequeyem) </li></ul><ul><li>Envy (mequegnenet) </li></ul><ul><li>Stubbornness and lack of compromise (getterenet) </li></ul>The 10 Commandments of Ethiopian politics Ref. Dessalegn Asfaw
  13. 15. What is “VOLUNTEERISM”? <ul><li>Voluntarism is a non-remunerated service that adds value and results in substantial gains to organisational endeavours, community goodwill and other intrinsic benefits; providing real cost savings. </li></ul><ul><li>Volunteers enrich citizenship and serve as an effective conduit for civic education; interjecting public participation in decision-making that promotes social harmony and public trust </li></ul><ul><li>Volunteers add values, quality and capacity and provide enthusiasm, extra resources and very much needed skills </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>Human security and human development are both fundamentally concerned with the lives of human beings -- longevity, education, and opportunities for participation . </li></ul><ul><li>Human development &quot;is about people, about expanding their choices to lead lives they value&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Human security complements human development by deliberately focusing on &quot;downside risks.” It recognises the conditions that menace survival, the continuation of daily life and the dignity of human beings. </li></ul>Volunteer leadership for Human Security and Human Development
  15. 17. Volunteers’ contribution to human security and development <ul><li>Education, </li></ul><ul><li>Health (RH and HIV/AIDS, Malaria, ORID etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Food security, </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation of natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Economic diversification, </li></ul><ul><li>Urban and rural physical infrastructures </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational and human resource development </li></ul><ul><li>Political contestation and participation </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational and institutional development, </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency assistance. </li></ul>
  16. 18. “ Volunteerism and LEADERSHIP” “ To become a centre of influence holding people together is a grave matter and fraught with great responsibility. It requires greatness of spirit, consistency and strength. Therefore let them who wishes to gather others about him ask himself whether they are equal to the undertaking” I Ching , or Chinese Book of Changes , ...
  17. 19. Consciousness precedes being Vaclav Havel Vaclav Havel, the Czechoslovakian philosopher and statesman, asserts that &quot;Matter... is not the fundamental factor in human history... Consciousness is. Human awareness is... Those are the deep sources of freedom and power with which people have been able to move boulders and create change by treating institutional and economic realities as absolute constraints, but rather recognises that we &quot;co-create the world&quot; Thus, while we are indeed acted upon, we are also free to act; leadership lies in the complex interaction between the two.
  18. 20. VDOs’ contribution in Ethiopia <ul><li>Themes addressed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food security, conservation of natural resources and afforestation, economic diversification, health and domestic water supplies that includes: health facilities, health care/services, development of ‘safe’ water sources, reproductive health and family planning and HIV/AIDS, education facilities, human resource development, organisational and institutional development, urban and rural physical infrastructures and emergency assistance. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beneficiaries reached : 16,816,912 people </li></ul><ul><li>Funds mobilised: Birr 3.53 billion. </li></ul><ul><li>Employment: 9803 permanent employees (as of 2002) </li></ul>
  19. 21. Leadership outcomes, tools… Capital formation and accumulation: Human, spiritual, natural, physical/material social capital: political, psychosocial, organisational, cultural Tools: Multi-track communications, participatory assessment and planning, policy, institution and strategic analysis and programme review Leadership For Sustainable Livelihoods <ul><li>Process and strategic elements </li></ul><ul><li>Preconditions and preparedness, </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory and wise decision making, </li></ul><ul><li>Production and availability of resources, </li></ul><ul><li>Access / control of livelihood resources, </li></ul><ul><li>Stability and sustainability </li></ul>Benchmarks Resilience, economic efficiency, social equitability, ecological sustainability
  21. 23. LEADERSHIP: Citizen – State relations – <ul><li>Humility and Optimism </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy and Pluralism, rule of law, accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Macroeconomic Prudence and transparency </li></ul><ul><li>Scope for Mutual Support between Government and Voluntary Organisations Relations </li></ul><ul><li>The right to development </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary Action as a Human Right: Indeed, voluntary action is one of the highest forms of citizenship as it represents action in the service of the community without expectation or pursuit of personal economic or political gain. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Development Governance in Ethiopia: The Defining Role Of Volunteers <ul><li>Building social capital for effective citizen and state institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of dialogue, public enlightenment, cultural renaissance, tradition, and renewal </li></ul><ul><li>Local Governance and Development Management and education for democratic citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>The human factor and civic education for strengthening civil society and rights culture </li></ul><ul><li>Gender, human rights, population, AIDS, environment, democracy mainstreaming </li></ul>
  23. 25. Paradigms of LEADERSHIP <ul><li>leadership is above all about responsibility; requiring acceptance of the importance of one's self, coupled with an appreciation of the greater importance of others over oneself. It entails liability for those who are led. Leadership is a discipline in its own right. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no set of techniques, rules or series of commandments with which the leader can arm themselves and be assured of success; nonetheless, they must always interrelate, familiarize, change & transform themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>leaders are expected to develop the capacity, through their statements and actions, including symbolic actions, to shape debate and dialogue </li></ul>
  24. 26. Paradigms of LEADERSHIP <ul><li>An inspiring ‘job description’ of leaders must be not only the power over discourse but also their ability to shape morality, to determine what is socially acceptable, culturally sound and politically uplifting . Indeed, leadership is more than a job; it is a calling . </li></ul><ul><li>Political leadership requires intimate knowledge of public policy analysis, formulation and management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>analysis, formulation and management of policy, strategy, process and organisation; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>obtaining policy consensus and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ensuring that the public service and ancillary organisations can actually carry out the stated policy, and not see it subverted, neglected or undermined; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consistency and commitment: ensuring that the policy is implemented with sufficient energy to actually work. This implies mechanisms for monitoring and accountability. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. Nuances of LEADERSHIP <ul><li>Leaders are responsible for breaking the boundaries of inward bound wisdom, of &quot;common sense&quot;, of patterns which have built themselves into routines which pacify people to dormancy. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders maintain continuity whilst simultaneously promoting change; such is the nature of leadership ambiguity and contradiction that comes as part of the same deal. </li></ul><ul><li>The allusion of the foregoing is that the leader is responsible for change management, and change in a transition implies some degree of anarchy. The nexus between the old and the new, between letting go of the old and adopting the new order, is most often a place where rules are bent, and habit and routine are replaced with periods of chaos - which are indeed pieces of good fortune and opportunities for change. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders must have the zeal, commitment, diligence, greatness of spirit, consistency to transform transitional chaos into development opportunities that history will remember them for. </li></ul>
  26. 28. We know there exist enormous obstinacies to Ethiopia’s development within the life of this generation, nevertheless a skilled and committed citizenry, think tanks and leadership can mitigate such state of affairs and project the nation to the 21 st century with the attendant benefits that would accrue to the citizens from its rich resources and vibrant cultures. Conclusion Here is where volunteer’s LEADERSHIP – the shared values, vision and resources of community, the demanding common tasks that build a community and the momentum they generate for radical citizen’s participation that creates the realism of what it means to be human: the means, shared values, vision and resources for humanity.
  27. 29. END [email_address] ,