Social protection linking policy and strategic trajectories social capital development and civic fulfilment


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Using investigative methods of human feelings of wellness via direct survey of economic, environmental, physical, mental, workplace, social and political wellness metrics, the theme of the research underpins the determination of linkages between policy and strategies and civic en-gagement to spawn social protection mechanisms. The research is predicated on developing tools for stemming the stresses and shocks administered by the degree and speed of impoverishment that has posed enormous challenges for nations and peoples. The influence of global competition, social re-engineering, political and military conflicts and power shifts exert enormous pressure on the psyche of the average individual and family. The results from the survey were computed using the seven satisfaction metrics. While more has changed in the last decade technologically, culturally, politically and economically than the entire past century, responses from key informants by and large show a general level of life satisfaction among the selected population of lowest to highest incomes categories, using the Gross National Happiness approach. Life wellness measurement fares better compared to Gross Domestic Product as it shows satisfaction level and helps self-targeting in public works designed as employment generating safety nets.

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Social protection linking policy and strategic trajectories social capital development and civic fulfilment

  1. 1. Social Protection: Linking Policy and Strategic Trajectories in Social Capital Development and Civic Engagement BT Costantinos, PhD School of Graduate Studies, AAUESSSWA 8th Annual conference “Effective Social Protection and Safety Net Schemes:Bedrocks for Economic Growth and Transformation in Ethiopia” Ethiopian Society of Sociologists, Social Workers and Anthropologists
  2. 2. My presentation this morning• Statement of the problem• Paradigmatic notion of social capital and human security• Methodology and research questions and GNH findings• Social Protection and the Developmental State• Public and private entrepreneurial development – Employment Dynamics and Social Harmony – Transforming emergency aid to employment in post-conflicts – Priming human qualities – Real-time State strategy development and economic liberalisation – Knowledge management and Communities of Practice – Entrepreneurship development: Credit and Capital markets – Mainstreaming entrepreneurial employment• Issues for discussion11 December 2011 BT Costantinos 2
  3. 3. Paradigmatic Notions of Social Capital and Human Security11 December 2011 BT Costantinos 3
  4. 4. The Challenges to Social Protection• The need for collective learning about our responses to vulnerability, and the responsibility to those whose suffering provided the basis for that learning will never be more urgent than it is now.• To every human problem in Africa, there is always a solution that is smart, simple and immoral: SAPs, PRSPs, MDGs• The reasons for this criminal negligence of the human security dimension are rooted in human inertia, weakness, self-interest and genuine confusion about how to act effectively in an environment that is growing more complex .11 December 2011 BT Costantinos 4
  5. 5. Social Harmony, Employment and Peace• Human Security: a life free of menace – Freedom from Fear – Freedom from Want• Social capital foundations of protection – Associational life – Civil Society: when does society become civil?• Global frameworks: The UN Universal Declaration of Rights , African Gender & Youth Policy …• Consequences of human insecurity • The Jasmine Revolution • “Arab Spring”11 December 2011 BT Costantinos 5
  6. 6. Analytical Limitations and Dimensions to Social protection1. …narrow social protection thought & practice to terms of immediate, not well considered, political and social action, a naive realism, as it were2. …inattention to problems of articulation of social protection systems within local realties rather than simply as abstract possibilities;3. …a nearly exclusive concern in institutional perspectives of social protection as opposed to operationalising the rules and institutions4. …ambiguity as to whether civil society is the agent or object of social protection5. …inadequate treatment of the Bretton Woods Institutions: GDP measures, SAPs, The Washington Consensus…11 December 2011 BT Costantinos 6
  7. 7. Human Wellness Measures• Growth Domestic Product• Human development : raising human capabilities to lead long and healthy lives, to be knowledgeable and access to resources for decent standard of living. – The Human Development Index : longevity, knowledge and decent standard of living – measured by life expectancy, educational attainment (adult literacy , primary - tertiary enrolment), and adjusted income. – Human Poverty Index (HPI & II): reflects the distribution of progress and measures the backlog of deprivations that still exists;• The GNH concept: fulfilment as a socioeconomic change metric: - Gross National Wellness or second generation Gross National Fulfilment. The metrics measure social protection by tracking seven development areas, including the nations mental and emotional health11 December 2011 BT Costantinos 7
  8. 8. Research Questions and Objective• GNH: While the research has limitations, using structured and semi-structured methods, the following questions were administered in home, work, society, health, economic, politics and environment – What are the top challenges in the life of people? – What are the positive things in the life of people? – What would government and business leaders do to stem the challenges and build on the positives? What should be the most influential local or global governmental and non-government initiatives?• Objective: test the GNH methodology and metric measures of human wellness11 December 2011 BT Costantinos 8
  9. 9. Findings – GNH survey Fig.1 Meskel Square Wellness Survey 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 Mean11 December 2011 BT Costantinos 9
  10. 10. Findings – GNH survey… Fig. 2 Afincho Ber Wellness Survey 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Home Work Society Health Economy Political Habitat Mean R5 R4 R3 R2 R1 Mean11 December 2011 BT Costantinos 10
  11. 11. Findings – GNH survey.. Fig. 3 Arat Kilo Wellness Survey 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 Mean11 December 2011 BT Costantinos 11
  12. 12. Findings – GNH survey… Fig 4 Merkato and Torhailoch 90 Wellness Survey 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 R1 % R2 % R3 % R4 % R5 % Mean %11 December 2011 BT Costantinos 12
  13. 13. Findings – Famine relief -based Employment generation 1995 survey… Merti & Jeju Wobera Kilte Awla alo Addis Abeba Self targeting initiated in indirectly hasnt started none good scale Admin targeting under trial only norm only norm only norm Inclusive M&E None None the Baytos none Organisation could be Need already exists difficulty enhanced enhancing Tenure issues not well inequitable equitable ??? understood Decision making consultative consultative Consultative consultative Staff awareness Need intense Need Have good ??? sensitisation sensitisation awareness Local awareness contact / low Need aware Need aware ??? Knowledge pool exists, exists, pool exists, ??? Participation commendable conflict good ??? efforts beginning Carrying capacity equilibrium exceeded exceeded not defined Cash economy less developed well developed less developed developed Payment cash/food food food/cash cash/food11 December 2011 BT Costantinos 13
  14. 14. Policy and Strategic Arenas for Social Protection and Entrepreneurial Development • Rules and Institutions – Ideology – Agency • System – Structure – Process – Policy – Strategy11 December 2011 BT Costantinos 14
  15. 15. Social Protection and The Developmental State1. DS: development as the top priority of state policy & able to design effective instruments to promote such a goal”.2. A DS is an interventionist state that identifies priorities, develop strategies, targets & facilitates coordination among various sectors and stakeholders, monitor achievement of goals. – Instruments: forging new institutions, weaving formal and informal collaborative networks and new opportunities for profitable production & trade; – Characterization: An effective DS should have political will and capacity to articulate and implement policies to expand human capabilities, enhance equity and promote economic and social transformation.11 December 2011 BT Costantinos 15
  16. 16. 1. The PitfallsCorrecting the pitfalls – The entire state apparatus may be captured of state intervention by powerful political elite and unchecked intervention, which is beyond the level needed to correct market failure, – Weak integrity may lead to rent seeking, breeding waste and inefficiency. – Inappropriate behavior of corrupt regulatory agencies, 2. Correcting the pitfalls – A DS may focus on three groups: • Committed political leadership, • Autonomous & professional bureaucracy, • Stakeholder participation, particularly civil society and the media, which have oversight responsibility – Policy instruments to eliminate, or limit, exposure to these risks.11 December 2011 BT Costantinos 16
  17. 17. Conclusion• With few exceptions, most (39) African nations are members of a bottom billion club of nations structurally insecure and unaccountable – security and accountability are undersupplied public goods• Hence, livelihood security, employment and entrepreneurship generation require a plural set of organisations which promote and protect rules of peaceful political participation and competition.• The necessity to focus on the legal Empowerment of the Poor: – Access to Justice; – Entrepreneurial rights; – Property rights; and – Labour rights;11 December 2011 BT Costantinos 17
  18. 18. Policy Recommendations1) Enhancing the state’s role: achieving rapid and sustained development combined with deep structural transformation, channeled through a disciplined planning approach…2) Building DSs: The above role is best performed by states that are both developmental and democratic that should build transformative rules &institutions such as: – Bill of Rights, the rule of law, independent judiciary, representative political institutions, effective regulatory institutions and property rights enforcement, – Professional bureaucracy: recruitment and advancement are based strictly on merit, – A developmentalist coalition among political leadership, the bureaucracy, private sector and civil society around common national development goals.11 December 2011 BT Costantinos 18
  19. 19. Strategic Trajectories: Public and Private Sector Employment • Public Sector – Policy imperatives • Define the role of the state • Economic Trajectories • KM, CoP, Credit and Capital Markets… – Safety Nets - EGS: FFW & CFW • Private Sector Policy – Capital: human and financial – Enabling Environment11 December 2011 BT Costantinos 19
  20. 20. Mainstreaming Entrepreneurial Development and Social Protection Situation Analysis Evaluation Response Analysis National and regional Strategic Frameworks Monitoring, Strategic Information Management Institutional arrangements Sustained Implementation National and regional of Activities operational Plans Divestiture of state enterprises and decentralised management of businesses and public works Entry points: national and regional frameworks, advocacy, partnership and internal and external domains11 December 2011 BT Costantinos 20
  21. 21. Issues for discussion1) While income is a very important determinant of livelihoods, does GDP growth translate to social protection and human security1) Does the effectiveness of CSOs in social protection depend on their autonomy, capacity, complexity, and coherence2) Has the application of the rules of the Washington consensus – weakened the state to an extent that it was unable to transform its institutions as social protection agencies? – Or strengthened social movements in favour of social protection (because it weakened the state) or the opposite (because it weakened social accountability of the state?3) How can a developmental state emerge in Ethiopia? Which features does it already have?11 December 2011 BT Costantinos 21
  22. 22. Acknowledgements: The John Hopkins University MARCH Research Team and AAU – 2011 MPA candidates (MPMP-609) field survey 1. Abayneh Demissie, GSR/0255/01, 2. Alemu Tereda Nisrane, GSR/2053/02, Thank 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Asfaw Gidey, GSR/2035/02, Ataklti Solomon, GSR/2036/02, Bekele Haile Mekonnen, GSR/2037/02, Chala Deyessa Fita, GSR/2038/02, Defferew Kebebe, GSR/2039/02, 8. Demis Alamirew, GSR/2040/02, you 9. 10. 11. 12. Ellenie T/Mariam, GSR/1245/02, Kataru Kalsa Borto, GSR/2041/02, Mathias Nigatu, GSR/2042/02, Michaele Gobezie, GSR/2044/02, BT Costantinos, PhD 13. Tagesse Mathewos, GSR/2047/02, School of Graduate Studies, 14. Tewodros Hailu, GSR/1244/02,Department of Management and Public 15. Tewodros Mekonnen, GSR/2048/02, Policy, College of Management, 16. Tsegalem Tibebe, GSR/2049/02 Information and Economic Sciences, Addis Ababa University11 December 2011 BT Costantinos 22