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Temperate coastal seas


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Temperate coastal seas

  1. 1. Chapter 8 Temperate Coastal Seas More than 90% of marine animals are benthic, living in close association with the seafloor, at the interface with the overlying water, dependent on the characteristics of each and the exchange of substances between the two.
  2. 2. Seafloor Characteristics The composition of the sea bottom is determined by:  plankton, wastes, and detritus  the activities of organisms that live there  the energy in waves in shallow water  the energy in currents in shallow water
  3. 3. Seafloor Characteristics Fig. 8.1 In coves and bays, refraction of advancing ocean waves spreads out the wave crests (and their energies) and concentrates them on headlands and other projecting coastal features.
  4. 4. Seafloor Characteristics Fig. 8.2 Particle size ranges for some common sources of marine sediments. Biogenic particles are shown in blue and terrigenous particles in tan.
  5. 5. Animal–Sediment Relationships Benthic animals are either:  epifaunal, living on the sediment, or  infaunal, living within the sediment.
  6. 6. Animal–Sediment Relationships Fig. 8.3 Variations in the average number of species of several bottom invertebrate groups from equal-sized coastal areas in different latitudes. Adapted from G. Thorson. Treatise on Marine Ecology and Paleoecology. Vol. I., Ecology. Geological Society of America, 1957.
  7. 7. Animal–Sediment Relationships Fig. 8.4 Sandstone erosion pits created by the rasping actions of small chitons.
  8. 8. Animal–Sediment Relationships Suspension and filter feeders obtain their food from passing waters Fig. 8.5 Barnacle, Balanus, with its feathery filtering appendages extended. © Sanamyan/Alamy Images
  9. 9. Animal–Sediment Relationships Fig. 8.6 A phalanx of sea stars, Pisaster, crops a bed of mussels. Photo by Dave Cowles, Rosario Marine Invertebrates website
  10. 10. Animal–Sediment Relationships Fig. 8.7 A large snail grazing on seaweed. © Christopher Poliquin/ShutterStock, Inc.
  11. 11. Larval Dispersal  About 75% of slow-moving, sedentary, or attached animals extend their geographic range via broadcast spawning of eggs and sperm that will result in larvae that are temporarily planktonic (or meroplanktonic).
  12. 12. Larval Dispersal Fig. 8.8 Meroplanktonic larval forms (top) and adult forms (bottom) of some common benthic animals: (a) polychaete worm, (b) sea urchin, (c) crab, and (d) snail.
  13. 13. Larval Dispersal Fig. 8.9 Typical duration of planktonic existence for four common groups of marine benthic invertebrates. Adapted from G. Thorson. Oceanography (1961): 455-474.
  14. 14. Larval Dispersal  Many factors influence meroplanktonic larvae to settle on the seafloor and metamorphose into juveniles: • • • • • • • bottom type bottom texture chemical attractants current speeds sounds light presence of conspecific adults
  15. 15. Larval Dispersal Fig. 8.10 Several major environmental factors that influence the selection of suitable bottom types by planktonic larvae.
  16. 16. Larval Dispersal Fig. 8.11 Generalized development pattern for planktonic larvae, illustrating available options in response to food, substrate, or other environmental cues.
  17. 17. Larval Dispersal Fig. 8.2 A scanning electron micrograph of a sea urchin egg with numerous sperm cells. © Dr. David Phillips/Visuals Unlimited
  18. 18. Intertidal Communities  Daily fluctuations in tidal heights result in an intertidal, or littoral, zone forming on all shorelines, regardless of slope or texture.  This zone is inhabited by species of marine origin that experience, and somehow tolerate, physiological stress during periods of low tide.
  19. 19. Intertidal Communities Fig. 8.14 An infrared aerial photograph of a portion of the Oregon coast with protected coves, exposed headlands, sandy beaches, and offshore rocky reefs. Note the complex refraction of surface waves around the offshore reefs. Courtesy U.S. Geological Survey
  20. 20. Intertidal Communities Fig. 8.15 (a) Young red mangroves colonize a tropical shoreline. (b) Their network of prop roots traps sediment and detritus. © FloridaStock/ShutterStock, Inc. Courtesy of OAR/National Undersea Research Program (NURP)/NOAA
  21. 21. Intertidal Communities Fig. 8.16 The relative force of breaking waves over a range of wave heights for several different intertidal animals. Adapted from Denny, M. W. Limnology and Oceanography 30 (1985): 1171-1187.
  22. 22. Intertidal Communities Rocky Shores  Distance from low water is correlated with variations in physical and biological stresses, resulting in distinct horizontal bands of zonation.
  23. 23. Intertidal Communities Rocky Shores Fig. 8.17 Magnified cross-section of a lichen with algae cells (dark spots) embedded in fungal filaments. Fig. 8.18 Snails and limpets grazing on sparsely distributed algae growing along the edge of a tidal pool. © Wildlife Pictures/age fotostock
  24. 24. Intertidal Communities Rocky Shores  The upper intertidal of rocky shorelines hosts organisms that suffer from frequent desiccation and punctuated food supplies. Fig. 8.19 Stunted acorn barnacles, Chthamalus, survive in the shallow depression of carved letters.
  25. 25. Intertidal Communities Rocky Shores Fig. 8.20 Planktonic and early benthic stages of the barnacle Balanus: (a) nauplius stage, (b) cypris stage, and (c) early benthic stage.
  26. 26. Intertidal Communities Fig. 8.21 The limiting effects of desiccation and competition on the vertical distribution of two species of intertidal barnacles, Chthamalus (blue bars) and Balanus (green bars). Adapted from Connell, J. H. Ecology 42 (1961): 710-723.
  27. 27. Intertidal Communities Rocky Shores  The middle intertidal is more densely populated with species more troubled by competition for food and space than physical limitations of the environment.
  28. 28. Intertidal Communities Rocky Shores Fig. 8.22 The aggregate sea anemone, Anthopleura elegantissima. Exposed individuals (upper right) have retracted their tentacles to avoid dessication. © Danita Delimont/Alamy Images
  29. 29. Intertidal Communities Fig. 8.23 Close-up view of mussels, Mytilus, attached to rocks in the middle intertidal. Fig. 8.24 algal species exposed during low tides use thickened cell walls to prevent water loss. © Carsten Medom Madsen/ShutterStock, Inc.
  30. 30. Intertidal Communities Fig. 8.25 Tightly packed barnacles compete for space along the intertidal. Photo by Dave Cowles, Rosario Marine Invertebrates website
  31. 31. Intertidal Communities Fig. 8.26 Sea stars, Pisaster, aggregating near the low tide line to avoid dessication. © Charles A. Blakeslee/age fotostock
  32. 32. Intertidal Communities Fig. 8.27 General pattern of succession through time on temperate rocky shores. The blue curve indicates a relative biomass.
  33. 33. Intertidal Communities Rocky Shores  The lower intertidal hosts a diversified assemblage of plants and animals that are exposed to air for only a short period of time each day. Fig. 8.28 Surf grass covers rocks and helps to keep intertidal organisms moist during low tide. © Weldon Schloneger/ShutterStock, Inc.
  34. 34. Intertidal Communities Fig. 8.29 The green anemone, Anthopleura xanthogrammica. © Weldon Schloneger/ShutterStock, Inc. Fig. 8.30 An eolid nudibranch with long finger-like cerata projecting from its dorsal surface. © Kerry L. Werry/ShutterStock, Inc.
  35. 35. Intertidal Communities Fig. 8.31 A scallop flaps its valves (shells) vigorously to jet away from a predatory sea star. © Marevision/age fotostock
  36. 36. Intertidal Communities Fig. 8.32 Vertical zonation patterns on a 3-m-high rock on the coast of Oregon.
  37. 37. Intertidal Communities Sandy Beaches  Sandy beaches and muddy shores are depositional environments characterized by deposits of unconsolidated sediments and accumulations of detritus.
  38. 38. Intertidal Communities: Sandy Beaches Fig. 8.33 Sandy beach zonation along the East Coast of the United States. The species change rapidly from the portion permanently under water at left to the dry part of the beach above high tide at the right. Sea cucumber: Courtesy of Dr. James P. McVey/NOAA Sea Grant Program; Olive shell: Courtesy of Image*After; Blue crab: © APaterson/ShutterStock, Inc.; Flounder: Courtesy of NW Fisheries Science Center/NOAA; Sand dollar and Cockle: Photodisc; Clam: Courtesy of Dr. Roger Mann, VIMS/NOAA; Bristle worm and Land crab : Courtesy of NOAA; Amphipod: Courtesy of M. Quigley, GLERL/NOAA, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory.
  39. 39. Intertidal Communities: Sandy Beaches Fig. 8.34 Coiled fecal casting of the lugworm, Arenicola. © Ismael Montero Verdu/ShutterStock, Inc.
  40. 40. Intertidal Communities: Sandy Beaches Fig. 8.35 A sand crab, Emerita, backing into the sand in preparation for feeding. © Stan Elems/Visuals Unlimited
  41. 41. Intertidal Communities: Sandy Beaches Fig. 8.36 A few examples of the interstitial fauna of sandy beaches. Each is of a different phylum, yet all exhibit the small size and worm-shaped body characteristic of meiofauna: (a) polychaete, Psammodrilus; (b) a copepod, Cylindropsyllis; (c) a gastrotrich, Urodasys; and (d) a hydra Halammohyra. Adapted from S. K. Eltringham. Life in the Mud and Sand. Crane, Russak, 1972.
  42. 42. Intertidal Communities: Sandy Beaches Fig. 8.37 Grunion, Leuresthes, spawning in the sands of a southern California beach. Males coil around females that dig themselves into the sand to deposit their eggs. © Visual&Written SL/Alamy Images
  43. 43. Intertidal Communities: Sandy Beaches Fig. 8.38 Predicted tide heights for a 3-week period at San Diego, California. Spring tides appropriate for grunion spawning occur on days 6, 7, and 8 (pointers at left). Nine and 10 days later, the next set of spring tides (pointers at right) wash the eggs from the sand, and they hatch. Shaded portions indicate night hours.
  44. 44. Intertidal Communities Oiled Beaches  Because oil is less dense than seawater, when it is spilled (intentionally or not), most of it ends up in intertidal zones.
  45. 45. Intertidal Communities Oiled Beaches Fig. 8.39 An oil-soaked bird struggles to survive after an oil spill. Photo courtesy of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council
  46. 46. Intertidal Communities Oiled Beaches Fig. 8.40 Scores of dead birds litter a beach after an oil spill. Photo courtesy of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council
  47. 47. Intertidal Communities Oiled Beaches Fig. 8.41 Workers use highpressure hot water to clean an oiled beach. Photo courtesy of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council
  48. 48. Shallow Subtidal Communities Fig. 8.42 A series of soft-bottom benthic communities found at different depths in Danish seas, including bivalve mollusks (1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 19), polychaete worms (6, 15), scaphopod mollusks (16), ophiuriod echinoderms (12,13), echinoid echinoderms (14), and arthropod crustaceans (18).
  49. 49. Shallow Subtidal Communities Fig. 8.43 Diagram showing the close similarity in composition of soft-bottom communities in the northeast Pacific and the northeast Atlantic. Adapted from Adapted from G. Thorson. Treatise on Marine Ecology and Paleoecology. Vol. I., Ecology. Geological Society of America, 1957.
  50. 50. Shallow Subtidal Communities Fig. 8.44 Several species of kelp-community fishes sheltering near giant kelp, Macrocystis. © Galina Barskaya/ShutterStock, Inc.
  51. 51. Shallow Subtidal Communities Below the effects of waves and tides, kelp communities dominate in temperate areas. Fig. 8.45 General structure of a West Coast kelp forest, with a complex understory of plants beneath the dominant Macrocystis or Nereocystis.
  52. 52. Shallow Subtidal Communities Fig. 8.46 Trophic relationships of some dominant members of a southern California kelp community.
  53. 53. Shallow Subtidal Communities Fig. 8.47 Trophic relationships of the common members of a New England kelp community.
  54. 54. Shallow Subtidal Communities Fig. 8.48 Extent of areas changed or degraded by four major sewage outfalls in the California Bight, 19781979. Data from A. J. Mearns. Marine Environmental Pollution. Elsevier, 1981.
  55. 55. Shallow Subtidal Communities Fig. 8.49 Graphs showing the reduction in discharged total suspended solids (TSS) for the past two decades at the four major sewage outfalls in the California Bight. Data from Steinberger and Schiff, 2002.