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Comparative Anatomy - Respiratory System


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Comparative Anatomy - Respiratory System

  1. 1. Ramyr Delos Reyes Allyson Nicole Manalo Claudine P. Naz Janyka Angela B. Roman Kristel G. Zamora
  2. 2. Respiratory system -is a system consisting of specific organs and structures used for the process of respiration in an organism.  General Function Respiration-the act or process of inhaling or exhaling Respiration includes: - Ventilation is the pumping of water in gills and of air in lungs -External Respiration- exchange of gases with the environment -Internal Respiration- essential gases are then exchange with the tissues in the respective capillary beds
  3. 3.  GILLS  Vertebrate gills are designed for water breathing  Mechanism of ventilation depends on whether the gills are located internally or externally 1. INTERNAL GILLS 2. EXTERNAL GILLS
  4. 4.  LUNGS  Designed for air breathing  Elastic bags that lie within the body  Volume expands when air is inhaled and decreases when air is exhaled  GAS BLADDERS  Are air filled with the air  Swim bladders are used to control the buoyancy of a fish
  5. 5.  Gas bladders differ in lungs in two ways 1. Gas bladders are usually situated dorsal to the digestive tracts 2. Gas bladders are not paired  Oxygen is released into the bladder  Gas in the swim bladder is mainly oxygen  CUTANEOUS RESPIRATION  Respiration through the skin  Amphibians rely heavily in cutaneous respiration
  6. 6.  BREATHING EMBRYOS  Chorioallantois in birds acts as respiratory organs in birds  It sustains the respiratory needs of the chicken embryo for most of its time in the egg  VENTILATORY MECHANISM  CILIA lines the routes along which water current flows
  7. 7.  MUSCULAR MECHANISM  Ventilation on vertebrates usually depends much on muscle action  Ram ventilation is a technique by which the fish’s own forward locomotion contributes to gill ventilation 1. Water Ventilation: Dual pump 2. Air ventilation: Pulse pump 3. Air ventilation: Aspiration pump
  8. 8.  Gills  External Gills-develop from surface ectoderm and extend beyond the head  Internal Gills- lie within the head  Comprised of gill arches with gill filamentslined with rows of lamellae (increase surface area)
  9. 9.  Utilize countercurrent exchange(except for cartilaginous fishes)   blood flows oppposite to the direction of water movementg against gills
  10. 10.  INTERNAL GILLS - develop from the pharynx as evaginations called pharyngeal pouches  Visceral grooves (opposite to the pouches)  Closing plates (separates pouches and grooves) - The general structure of a mature gill is composed of several parts:  Gill bars (support the gills)  Gill rakers (prevents food particles from entering)  Gill rays  Gill filaments and Gill lamellae
  11. 11.  3 TYPES OF GILL BARS  Holobranch  Hemibranch  Pseudobranch  AGNATHAN  Pouched gills  6-15 pairs of gill pouches  No gill Slits  Hagfishes and lampreys
  12. 12.  Cartilaginous fishes  Septal Gills  5 “naked” gill slits  Shark and rays  Bony Fihes  Opercular gills (operculum)  5 gill slits  Eels, salmon and milk fish
  13. 13.  SWIM BLADDERS Gas or swim bladders of fishes may be located high in the cavity to remain upright
  14. 14. 1. Physostomous  Function for respiration 2. Physoclitous  Do not function for respiration
  15. 15.  Serves as an hydrostatic organ  Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between the bladder and the blood  Also important in hearing and sound production
  16. 16.  AMPHIBIANS  They are cold blooded, meaning they don’t need much oxygen  2 simple sacs  Lungs  - don’t have diaphragms and they force air into their lungs by moving their mouth (like swallowing) Buccal pumping
  17. 17.  Four stages of lung ventilation 1.) Buccal cavity expands to draw fresh air in through the open nares 2.) Glottis opens rapidly, releasing spent air from the elastic lungs 3.( Nares close, floor the buccal cavity rises forcing the fresh air held in this cavity into the lung through the open glottis 4.) Glottis closes, retaining the air that has just filled the lungs and nares open again
  18. 18.  Skin - Highly vascularized and moist - Very thin nd allows water to go through it - Aquatic Amphibians and anurans Cutaneous respiration - The short trachea divides into 2 short bronchi leading to the apex of each lung - The opening from the trachea to pharynx is called the glottis supported by the larynx
  19. 19.  Gills ( aquatic salamanders and tadpoles) - Made up of very thin blood vessels surrounded by water channe;s - When amphibians undergo metamorphosis into adult, gills are lost
  20. 20.  REPTILES -Lungs are large and varied -Rely largely on LUNGS for gas exchange -Have large lung volumes (10xmore volume compared to mammals) -Trachea and bronchi are larger than for amphibians and are supported by cartilaginous rings
  21. 21. -Supplemental cutaneous respiration is significant, but for the most part, paired lungs meet their respiratory needs -Filling of the lungs in all the reptiles is based on an aspiration pump - Exhalation of passive CROCODALIANS - Use diaphragm muscle for lung ventilation
  22. 22. -Contraction of the diaphragmatic muscles draws the liver back, increasing the volume of the lung cavity and dropping pressure within the lungs - In caimans and other crocodiles, ribs rotate forward and outward, expanding the cavity around the lungs during inhalation SQUAMATES (Snakes and Lizards ) -Don’t have diaphragm muscles for lung ventilation
  23. 23. -The muscle s used for locomotion are the same used for their respiratory systems -Contracting and flexing body muscles move their ribs and lungs In most snakes , there are usually two regions of the lung: 1. Anterior respiratory portion or faveoli 2. Posterior saccular portion or avascular -Submergence in water- have large lungs for large amount of oxygen for long dives (Hydrophinae and Arochordidae)
  24. 24. TESTUDINES (Turtles) -Having shells makes lung expansion more difficult -Must use their limbs for lung ventilation expels air from the lungs and pushing their limbs out of their shells expands the lungs -Have complex lungs w/ large surface areas and volumes
  25. 25.  4.) Mammals - The chief organ in mammalian respiration is the lungs (located in the pleural cavities in the thorax) - More finely, homogenously divided and more efficient - Aspiration pumps ventilates the lungs of mammals - Breathing is dependent to the rib muscles and diaphragm
  26. 26.  SUCTION-PUMP MECAHNISM OF INHALATION AND EXHALATION  inhalationwhen the rib cage opens up and the diaphragm flattens and moves downward; air rush inside  lungs expandsdecrease in air pressure  exhalation the diaphragm and rib muscles relax to their neutral state that causes the lungs to contract; air flow out  squashing of lungs increase in air pressure
  27. 27.  AIR FLOW IS BIODIRECTIONAL:  Trachea primary bronchi secondary bronchi tertiary bronchi alveoli  Trachea is a long structure of soft tissue; supported by rings of hyaline or fibrous cartilages; elastic connective tissue joins the ring and completes the tube where cartilage is absent  Splits into two bronchi branches, each enters its lung anterior and dorsal to the center  Divides into numerous membranous bronchioles  Alveolus- tiny air sacs; increase surface area; where actual gas exchange occurs
  28. 28.  The trachea, bronchi and bronchioles that transport gas to and from the alveoli is called the respiratory tree  No gas exchange occurs along the conducting passageway of the respiratory tree until air reaches the alveoli  Epiglottis  Glottis
  29. 29.  5.) Birds - Have one way flow of air in their lungs -Lungs are small but compact, rigid and have a fixed volume -Have two lungs connected to trachea and ventilated by an aspiration pump -Birds have air sacs that collect air and then force the air through their lungs -Large air sacs joined the lungs and serve to ventilate them in crosscurrent circulation -Gas exchange in the blood actually occurs in the air capillaries -Bones contain air, not marrow
  30. 30. -Lungs receive fresh air during inhalation and exhalation -Air is pulled by a suction type pull and gas exchange are in the capillaries -Trachea is divided into two primary bronchi, termed mesobronchi, that do not enter the lung but extend posteriorly to reach the posterior air sacs -Gases diffuse between the lumen of the parabronchus and the connecting, blind-ended air capillaries
  31. 31. -Oxygen diffuses in turn from the air capillaries into the adjacent blood capillaries that give up carbon dioxide to the air capillaries -Walls of air and blood capillaries constitute the site of gas exchange -Air sacs function to lighten the birds like helium balloon, but air sacs provide no lift, and it is not the prerequisite for flight
  32. 32.  When bird inhales, air is brought into the posterior air sacs, which expand. Upon exhalation, air is forced from the posterior sacs into the lungs; second inhalation will move the air from the lungs to the anterior air sac and second exhalation will push the air out  Advantages of one-way flow: 1.)No residual volume; all old air leaves w/ each breath 2.)Cross-current blood flow through the lungs
  33. 33.  Pattern of Gas Transfer - Respiratory organ couples blood flow with ventilation  Rates of Gas transfer - Respiratory organs must also be designed to match the ventilation rate with perfusion rate - Breathing that is too fast or too slow is inefficient - Ratio of perfusion to ventilation depends on the species
  34. 34.  Breathing in Water - Water is considerably denser than air
  35. 35. Cartilaginous Fishes Bony Fishes(Teleost) Agnathans Septal Gills Opercular Gills Pouched Gills 5 “naked” gill slits Usually have 5 gill slits 6 to 15 pairs of gill pouches Sharks and Rays Eels, milkfish, salmon Hagfishes and Lampreys
  36. 36. Reptiles Amphibians Birds Mammals No vocal cords Simple saclike lungs Most of the birds has nine sacs and these are: anterior and posterior sacs Human breathe through lungs No True Diahragms Some amphibians have no lungs like Salamander The typical bird trachea is 2.7 times longer and 1.29 wider than that of similarly-sized animals. Alveoli- spongy and has a little sac Reptile lungs composed of three and these are: Unicameral, Multicameral and Paucicameral Skin- Cutaneous Respiration Avian lungs Trachea Reptiles are capable of surviving for long periods without breathing. Many amphibians used gills at least when they are young. Bronchi- structure similar to trachea, flexible tubes with stiffening walls of hyaline cartilage Bronchioles
  37. 37. BIRD FISH MAMMAL REPTILE AMPHIBIAN •Unidirectional •Lungs •Aspiration pump •Longer and wider trachea compared to mammals •Air sacs •Unidirectional •Gills •Dual pump •5 to 7 pairs of gills •Bidirectional •Lungs •Aspiration pump •Muscles are used •Air are filtered •Bidirectional •Lungs •Aspiration pump •Much larger lungs than mammals •Can survive for long periods without breathing •Muscles are used •Bidirectional •Lungs and skin •Pulse pump •Simple saclike lungs