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Phylum Chordata


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A brief overview of Phylum Chordata intended for a 9th/10th grade biology class

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Phylum Chordata

  1. 1. Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Subphylum Cephalochordata Subphylum Urochordata <ul><li>have backbone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>birds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reptiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>amphibians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mammals </li></ul></ul>Amphioxus (or “lancelets”) Tunicates (or “sea squirts”)
  2. 2. Characteristics of Phylum Chordata <ul><li>At some point, all chordates have: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gill slits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>muscular tail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>notochord (semi-rigid, rodlike structure) along the length of their body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dorsal nerve cord (bundle of nerves that lies above the notochord) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. adult tunicates (sea squirts)
  4. 4. Tunicates: <ul><li>filter feeders </li></ul><ul><li>have organs </li></ul><ul><li>sessile as adults </li></ul><ul><li>motile larvae have a notochord and nerve cord </li></ul><ul><li>notochord disappears in the adult </li></ul>
  5. 5. larval tunicate
  6. 6. larval tunicates in eggs
  7. 8. adult tunicate
  8. 9. Adult Tunicates (Sea Squirts)
  9. 10.   NPR story about invasive tunicates in Puget Sound
  10. 11. Amphioxus (or Lancelet)
  11. 12. Amphioxus: <ul><li>approx. 3 inches long </li></ul><ul><li>filter feeders </li></ul><ul><li>retains the notochord its entire life but never develops a backbone </li></ul>
  12. 14. Amphioxus (magnified)
  13. 15. Vertebrates: <ul><li>have notochord as embryos but eventually develop a backbone that surrounds the dorsal nerve cord </li></ul><ul><li>all have gill slits and muscular tails as embryos; some are retained and some disappear during development </li></ul><ul><li>5 classes (birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, mammals) with diverse characteristics </li></ul>