The art of classification

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The art of classification

  1. 1. The Art of Classification Putting Everything In Its Place!
  2. 2. Why do we classify? <ul><li>Since all life on Earth is related, it is important to determine where each piece fits. </li></ul><ul><li>Classification is like a postal address. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Biologists recognize three domains. <ul><li>Archaea- crazy bacteria that can live anywhere, including space, volcanic lava and glaciers. </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria-this is your average bacteria, the harmless kind and the nasty ones too, these guys have no nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Eukarya-this is every one else, including you, these are the higher creatures that have nuclei in their cells </li></ul>
  4. 4. What’s the difference between a prokaryotic cell and a eukaryotic cell? This has a nucleus. EUKARYOTIC!
  5. 5. Everything in the domain Eukarya is Eukaryotic!
  6. 6. So, if we were going to classify ourselves, where would we start? <ul><li>Do our cells have a nucleus? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, so our domain must be Eukarya. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The kingdom section narrows down the domain. Domain Eukarya Plantae Animalia Fungi Protista
  8. 8. So what is our kingdom then? <ul><li>Since we are animals our kingdom should be Animalia. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Human Classification <ul><li>Domain: Eukarya </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom: Animalia </li></ul>
  10. 10. Phylum is the next level. Got bones? I’ve got bones, then my phylum is Chordata. Me too! I am also a chordata. Not me!
  11. 11. What are some other phylums? Since we both have hard outer shells, our phylum is called Arthropoda!
  12. 12. So, what is our phylum? <ul><li>Do we have an inner skeleton? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we have a hard outer shell? </li></ul><ul><li>We have an inner skeleton so our phylum is chordata. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Human Classification <ul><li>Domain: Eukarya </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom: Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum: Chordata </li></ul>
  14. 14. The next level is called class. What are some familiar classes of animals?
  15. 15. Human Classification <ul><li>Domain: Eukarya </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom: Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum: Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class: Mammalia </li></ul>
  16. 16. What kind of mammal are we?
  17. 17. Human Classification <ul><li>Domain: Eukarya </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom: Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum: Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class: Mammalia </li></ul><ul><li>Order: Primata </li></ul>
  18. 18. The family is a little trickier. What kind of primate are we?
  19. 19. We are very special and there’s nothing like us….around right now! <ul><li>We are members of the great apes which includes, orangutans, gibbons, siamangs, gorillas and our closest relatives the chimpanzee and the bonobo. </li></ul><ul><li>Although chimps and bonobos are 99.9% like us, we are still unique and therefore have our own family. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Human Classification <ul><li>Domain: Eukarya </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom: Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum: Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class: Mammalia </li></ul><ul><li>Order: Primata </li></ul><ul><li>Family: Homididae </li></ul><ul><li>Genus: Homo </li></ul><ul><li>Species: Sapiens </li></ul>
  21. 21. So, that’s us in a nutshell. What about some other common animals? <ul><li>Household pets? </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs? </li></ul><ul><li>Cats? </li></ul><ul><li>Iguanas? </li></ul><ul><li>Goldfish? </li></ul><ul><li>Rats or hamsters? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Scientific Names <ul><li>When many scientists refer to a plant or animal by its scientific name, they are only using the genus and species names to shorten the classification. </li></ul><ul><li>A scientific name is the same everywhere but a common name changes depending on the place. </li></ul>
  23. 23. What information do we need? <ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_classification </li></ul>
  24. 29. Let’s Take A Trip Through Life! <ul><li>As we wander through life’s great wonders, you will see many pictures, fill out your graphic organizer/study guide as we go along. </li></ul><ul><li>It will help you classify things later. </li></ul><ul><li>Everything marked with a * on your guide is a new kingdom name. </li></ul><ul><li>Welcome to the Taxonomy Safari! </li></ul>
  25. 30. ARCHAEA
  26. 31. BACTERIA HAVE THREE SHAPES. Cocci-round bacteria Bacilli-rod-shaped bacteria Spirochetes-spiral shaped bacteria
  27. 32. Protists <ul><li>A mixture of plant, animal and fungus types. </li></ul><ul><li>Came after bacteria but before plants, animals and fungus </li></ul><ul><li>Plants, animals and fungus are descended from protists. </li></ul>
  28. 33. Giardia
  29. 34. Trypanosoma
  30. 35. Protozoa or animal-like Protists Amoebas and Forams Move using pseudopodia or false feet
  31. 36. Paramecium
  32. 37. Slime Molds
  33. 38. Plant-like protists
  34. 39. Plankton-microscopic organisms
  35. 40. Diatoms are Pretty!
  36. 41. Holy Green Algae, Batman!
  37. 42. Brown-nosers!
  38. 43. The Red coats are coming!
  39. 44. There’s Fungus Among Us
  40. 45. The Zygote Fungi (Zygomycota) Sporangia
  41. 46. Sac Fungi- Ascomycota
  42. 47. The Club Fungi- Basiomycota
  43. 48. Imperfect fungi (Chytridiomycota )
  44. 49. Lichens= sac fungus + algae Mycorrhizae
  45. 50. You Can Thank the Plants for all the Oxygen!
  46. 51. Bryophytes-the first plants
  47. 52. Bryophytes
  48. 53. Pteridophytes
  49. 54. Pteridophytes
  50. 55. Gymnosperms Cycads Ginkgo Juniper Pine
  51. 56. Gymnosperms Juniper Berries White Cedar Giant Sequoia bottom
  52. 57. Angiosperms
  53. 58. Angiosperm Varieties <ul><li>Monocots </li></ul><ul><li>Dicots </li></ul>
  54. 59. Gymnosperms Gnetophytes
  55. 60. AWWW, look at all the cute animals! Invertebrate means no bones!
  56. 61. Sponges-Phylum Porifera
  57. 62. Cnidarians-Scyphozoans
  58. 63. Cnidarians-Box jellyfish Most deadly jellyfish, can kill a person!
  59. 64. Hydrozoans Portuguese Man-O-War, Looks like a jellyfish, but it is actually a colony of polyps like this one
  60. 65. Anthozoans
  61. 66. Class Turbellaria
  62. 67. Class Trematoda
  63. 68. Class Cestoidea
  64. 69. Ewwwww, tapeworms!
  65. 70. Roundworms Trichinosis- disease caused by a roundworm contracted by eating undercooked pork and other meat infected with it
  66. 71. Yay…rotifers!
  67. 72. Class Polychaeta-sandworms and others
  68. 73. Class Oligochaeta-earthworms If the soil is a rockin’ don’t come a knockin’!
  69. 74. Class Hirudinea-Leeches Land Leeches
  70. 75. Class Gastropoda
  71. 76. Class Bivalvia Clam larvae
  72. 77. Class Cephalopoda Nautilis-very old
  73. 78. Echinoderms
  74. 79. Arthropod Ancestors-Trilobites
  75. 80. Spiders-Arachnids
  76. 81. Not really spiders but close…
  77. 82. Scorpians All scorpians glow in a black light
  78. 83. Mites and Ticks
  79. 84. Decapods
  80. 85. Isopods
  81. 86. Barnacles and Copepods
  82. 87. Order Coleoptera Larval Beetle Forms
  83. 90. Order Lepidoptera Larval Forms
  84. 93. Order Diptera
  85. 94. Maggots, Diptera Larvae
  86. 95. Order Hymenoptera
  87. 96. Order Hemiptera The Kissing Bug, transmits the deadly Chagas disease!
  88. 97. Order Orthoptera
  89. 98. Order Odonata Larval Forms
  90. 99. Order Homoptera Molted skin
  91. 100. Cicada Songs <ul><li>Many of these are from the Southeast Asia areas, but there are cicadas that are quite loud around here. </li></ul>
  92. 101. Order Isoptera Termite Queen
  93. 102. Lancelets
  94. 103. Tunicates
  95. 104. Now, let’s visit… Animals with bones and/or cartilage!
  96. 105. Class Agnatha (Jawless Fishes) Hagfish
  97. 106. Class Chondricthyes (cartilaginous fishes) sharks
  98. 107. Class Chondricthyes Rays
  99. 108. Class Chondricthyes Skates
  100. 109. Class Chondricthyes The chimera, a living fossil!
  101. 110. Strange fish from the ray-finned fish family
  102. 111. Lobe-finned fish: The coelacanth
  103. 112. Lungfish
  104. 114. Frogs and Toads
  105. 116. Salamanders and Newts
  106. 117. Salamanders and Newts American Hellbender Japanese Giant Salamander
  107. 118. Caecilians
  108. 119. Turtles and Tortoises
  109. 120. Snakes
  110. 121. Lizards
  111. 122. Crocodilians Alligator Crocodile
  112. 123. Crocodilians Gavial Caiman
  113. 124. Tuatara-living fossil
  114. 125. Archaeopteryx
  115. 126. The hoatzin-resembles early birds
  116. 127. Perching Birds
  117. 128. Swimming Birds
  118. 129. Raptors
  119. 130. Awww preeeety birdie
  120. 131. Therapsids-ancestors to mammals
  121. 132. Early mammals
  122. 133. Monotremes
  123. 134. Marsupials
  124. 135. Marsupial babies
  125. 136. Placental Mammals
  126. 137. Prosimians or early primates
  127. 138. Tarsiers are cute!!!!
  128. 139. Peek-A-Boo!
  129. 140. Aye-Aye
  130. 141. Bushbabies
  131. 142. Primates Asian and African Monkeys
  132. 143. Primates
  133. 144. Ape Family Gibbons
  134. 145. Apes
  135. 146. Bonobos-Our closest relatives
  136. 147. Human or not?
  137. 148. Bonobos are endangered!

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