Introduction to-the-intertidal

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Introduction to-the-intertidal

  1. 1. Life in the Tidal Zone Survival!
  2. 2. What is an Estuary? An estuary is a semi-enclosed body of water where freshwater meeting and mixes with saltwater.
  3. 3. Tidal Zone Adaptation <ul><li>Tidal habitats change daily with the tides, </li></ul><ul><li>so organisms adapt , or adjust to changing </li></ul><ul><li>environmental conditions with special features to: </li></ul>Avoid drying out Protect themselves from predators Anchor themselves to resist waves Limpets shape their shells to fit a specific rock: effective seal against water loss Tube feet of sea star used for locomotion and suction/anchorage Hermit crab hiding in it’s scavenged shell Pipefish well camouflaged in eelgrass bed
  4. 4. Types of Tidal Habitats Sandy Beaches and Mud Flats Rocky Shores Different tidal habitats require different adaptations <ul><li>Substrate offers lots of nutrients, </li></ul><ul><li>but little structure for attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Animals bury themselves in mud </li></ul><ul><li>Can also attach to plants </li></ul><ul><li>Little protection from strong waves: animals must anchor </li></ul><ul><li>Complex tide pools possible </li></ul><ul><li>Seaweeds offer protection from drying </li></ul>
  5. 5. Tidal Zones Splash Zone High Tide Zone Middle Tide Zone Low Tide Zone <ul><li>Zones affected daily by changing tides </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptations are required to avoid drying out, wave action and predators </li></ul>Intertidal Zone High, Mid and Low Tidal habitats are divided into zones based on relative beach location and how often they are covered by water
  6. 6. Splash Zone <ul><li>High on beach </li></ul><ul><li>Out of water most of the time </li></ul><ul><li>Species must tolerate salt, heat, cold, and extended dry periods </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation example : Amphipods bury themselves to stay moist when the tide is out. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Splash Zone Life Amphipods Periwinkles Isopods Blue-Green Algae Lichen
  8. 8. High Tide Zone <ul><li>Increased wave action </li></ul><ul><li>Tide pools provide some protection </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptations include ability to survive exposure to air without drying out and to survive wave action. </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation example : Anemones survive wave action by attaching themselves to the sheltered side of large rocks </li></ul>
  9. 9. High Tide Zone Life Barnacles Limpets Shore Crab Rockweed Anemones
  10. 10. <ul><li>Most active region </li></ul><ul><li>Covered and uncovered twice a day </li></ul><ul><li>Life must tolerate BOTH submersion in water and exposure to air </li></ul><ul><li>Animals move in and out of adjacent zones to feed </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation example : The tube feet of a star fish allow it to suction on to surfaces </li></ul>Middle Tide Zone
  11. 11. Middle Tide Zone Life Wrinkled Whelks Pisaster Sea Stars Batillaria snail Japanese Eelgrass Anemones
  12. 12. <ul><li>Most food and shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Less exposure to air and heat – under water for a lot of the time </li></ul><ul><li>Animals unable to exist in other zones because they will dry out </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation example : Tube worms build hard tubes around their soft bodies for protection </li></ul>Low Tide Zone
  13. 13. Low Tide Zone Life Native Eelgrass Opalescent Nudibranch (sea slug) Orange Sea Cucumber Black Katy Chiton Tube Worm
  14. 14. Summary Each zone requires unique adaptations for survival Splash Zone High Tide Zone Middle Tide Zone Low Tide Zone Exposure to Water Most time

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