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Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching 
Assignment 1 – 
Developing Young 
Performers 
SPO001-2 Coaching for Development 
Carl Page (1008889) 
University of Bedfordshire 
Mr. D Burns
SPO001-2 Coaching for Development 
Contents 
Introduction ................................................................................................................ 1 
Review of Literature ................................................................................................... 1 
Conclusion ................................................................................................................. 7 
Bibliography ............................................................................................................... 8 
Appendices .............................................................................................................. 19 
Introduction 
It can be said that there is a need to examine the present development models for 
improving young athletes aged 8-16 years, particularly in the development of 
footballers. Through focusing on a Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD) 
approach (Balyi, 1990) it is possible to examine how specific stages such as 
‘learning to train’ and ‘training to train’ can have an impact on the development of 
young performers in specific sports. 
Review of Literature 
Simon (2003) suggests "It takes 10 years of extensive training to excel in anything" 
(Appendix 2). In this there is no quick way if these top stages are to be attained and 
continued (Bloom 1985, Ericsson et. al., 1993, Ericsson and Charness, 1994). This 
means that young performer’s development works out at somewhat just above three 
hours a day of training for ten years. (Salmela, 1998). 
Nevertheless Long Term Athlete Development was created in early 1990’s by sport 
scientist Dr. Istvan Balyi (Lang, M. & Light, R., 2010). It is one of a “number of 
approaches that focus on key, common principals of individual development, which 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 1 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
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has helped sports organisations to consider good practice in long term planning for 
young athletes” (Stafford, 2005). Consequently The Football Association produced 
with Sport England and Dr. Istvan Balyi (Appendix 5), to generate several of the 
advantages of LTAD model (Simmons 2005). Hence The FA developed the Long 
Term Player Development approach which lets people know how to work with 
performers who differ in gender, age and ability in football. Since is defined by 
Dictionary of Sport and Exercise Science (2006) as “A model that explains sport 
specific best practice for a serious athlete at each stage of skills learning”. 
The four-stage model of LTAD was next developed from the five stages during 2001 
to the current six stages created in 2004. Even so sports can commonly be 
categorised as either early specialisation or known as late specialisation sports. 
Late specialisation sports such as all team sports, the importance through the main 
two stages of training has to involve the performer’s technical tactical skills and the 
development of their general motor. As early specialisation sports involve a four-phase 
model, whilst the late specialisation sports require a six-stage model. 
Stages of the LTAD 
2001: Five-stage model (early 
specialisation) 
2004: Six-stage model (late 
specialisation) 
FUNdamentals FUNdamentals 
Learning to train Learning to train 
Training to train Training to train 
Training to compete Training to compete 
Training to win Training to win 
Recruit, retain, retrain throughout life 
Table 1. Stafford-Brown BTEC Level 3 National Sport: Performance & Excellence 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 2 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
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Stage 2: Learning to Train. 9–12 (Males) 8–11 (Females) Objective: To learn 
fundamental sport skills. This stage also encourages faster adjustment to motor 
coordination. As start to learn the basics of all physical development found in 
common sports skills. Additional development is made to performer’s stamina 
because of game play and body-weight exercises. Through progress in the practise 
common sports skills which enhance their fundamental movement skills too. Along 
with the concept of games utilised these help focus on dissimilarities between 
abilities and training age. Plus practice of the sport particular equipment used is 
appropriate to the skill level and body size of participant. 
The main qualities of this stage are: 
Induction to psychological and physiological training. 
Cognitive and emotional development 
Basic tactics 
Throwing, catching, jumping and running. 
70% training: 25% competition. (Bailey et al 2010) 
Stage 3: Training to Train 12–16 (Males) 11–15 (Females) Objective: To build fitness 
and specific sport skills. However this stage creates aerobic training an importance 
but supporting in skills, suppleness, strength and speed. Since puts emphasis on 
flexibility drills expected due to quick growth. Furthermore applying skill recognition 
to benefit young performers settles on two sports. Besides the performers will be 
conditioned in regular competitive situations like practice games or drills which 
involve competitiveness. 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 3 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
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The important attributes of this stage are: 
Perceptual skills 
Fitness training 
Detailed mental preparation 
Training: competition ratio – 60:40 percent 
Decision making 
Post puberty 
Detailed evaluation (Bailey et al 2010) 
Peak Height Velocity (PHV) is used as an instrument to help mark growth. As by 
checking growth velocity curves, identifying the scheduling and pace of growth; this 
is important for coaches whilst training pre-pubertal and pubertal performers. 
Therefore examining growth and tracking the young performer’s pattern of growth 
this is able to assist coaches by determining how to modify their training, competition 
and recovery programmes parallel to the velocity of growth. Although the training 
ability of skill, speed and suppleness this is centred on their chronological age (Viru, 
1995; Viru et al., 1998); Balyi & Ross, 2009a; Balyi & Ross, 2009b; Rushall, 1998). 
For instance Graph’s 1&2 show the estimated timings of the “sensitive” stages of 
procession in both genders. However the particular scheduling will differ as the 
process of the participant’s start of Peak Height Velocity (PHV). The boxes which 
have solid lines these represent responsive stages which are chronological age 
recognised. Whilst the boxes with dotted lines they mean the responsive stages 
which are on a “moving scale”. Consequently they will be connected to the start of 
performers PHV. Peak Height Velocity and as growth slows (Balyi et al, 2005). 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 4 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
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Graph 1. Females Windows of Accelerated Adaptation to Training 
(Balyi and Way, 2005) 
Graph 2. Males Windows of Accelerated Adaptation to Training 
(Balyi and Way, 2005) 
Whilst before the start of Peak Height Velocity both genders it is possible to exercise 
jointly and their chronological age are able of using it to decide the training, 
competition and recovery schedules. Yet the mean age for the start of PHV is twelve 
for females and males is fourteen years old. Since the beginning of Peak Height 
Velocity is stimulated by equally their genes and background factors. This can take 
into account of the environment, ethnic inspirations and community atmosphere. 
Along with the onset of PHV it is a reference occasion which delivers windows of 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 5 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
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opportunity for developing young performer’s energy systems and their Central 
Nervous System (CNS) regardless of the chronological age. 
Hence the judgments of the training importance are able to define encouraging vital 
training results. Accordingly performer’s periodisation will “react” to the relationships 
of growth which specify the coaching programmes against handling decision making 
on these vital issues. Since while preparing and aiming programmes for the ages of 
8-16 years old their developmental age have to be utilised at the point of observation 
opposing to their chronological age. Whereas the participant’s biological signs they 
are able to identify the “critical” stages of trainability to take advantage of their speed, 
strength, skill, stamina and suppleness in training. 
Whilst problems with the sporting system on young footballers who are 8-16 years 
old in England and around the world are firstly the percentages are higher for 
competition to practice/training (Appendix 6.) Also the young performers will regularly 
follow to adult match arrangements. These young performers will frequently perform 
adult exercises/training tactics. Additionally in their developmental ages the 
preparation/training typically places emphases on winning than the actual correct 
execution of movements. 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 6 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
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Conclusion 
The Long-Term Athlete Development is used worldwide for a range of sports as their 
model for training, competition and recovery phases. Since focus on the performers 
developmental age and the maturing points instead of their chronological age. The 
LTAD Model is in agreement with Physical Education in schools and various sports 
curriculums. Since these help to offer chances for young performers 8-16 years old 
to go through a multi-skill setting in advance of deciding their favourite sport. 
Thus with current the National Occupational Standards for coaching included this so 
that coaches design, deliver safe, supervised performer excellence. For instance the 
“learning to train” and “training to train” as part of the Long-Term Athlete 
Development incorporates a detailed plan for each stage. This plays a role to the 
performer’s development of optimal performance throughout their adolescent. 
Whilst at distinctive phases in their development children will reveal their physical, 
mental, emotional and cognitive development which varies since occurs at 
every stage of LTAD. As at each stage of Long-Term Athlete Development model 
there are particular aims and objectives, these can be accomplished because of a 
variety of delivery methods. Also through practice this aids in the planning an 
optimal structure for various sports training phases. 
However the sporting system issues I need to be aware of as a coach, these are 
familiar worldwide with sports that use LTAD is: 
The finest coaches are urged to be successful enough to reach the elite 
stages of the sports pathway continuum. 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 7 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
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As with the chronological age it affects the training and choice of players 
instead of their biological ages. 
Also with weak plans amongst the participants six to sixteen years old 
consequence in them not being able to attain their genetic potential. 
Therefore the supposed vital phases of enhanced familiarisation are not used 
properly. 
Subsequently as a coach the windows of opportunity it is very important by 
observing the participants growth before, during and after their teenage growth spurt. 
Thus I am capable of making them personalised programmes, these help to improve 
the participant’s performance. Since from monitoring to adapting the training to work 
ratio and recovery phases needed specifically for their long term development. As 
whenever the young performers reach the ages of between eight and sixteen; I can 
specifically develop their speed, strength, skill, stamina and suppleness training 
more successfully because of their Central Nervous System. 
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er%2069-75.pdf (Accessed: 27/11/2011). 
Lang, M. & Light, R., (2010) ‘Interpreting and Implementing the Long Term Athlete 
Development Model: English Swimming Coaches Views on the (Swimming) LTAD in 
Practice’ International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 5(3), pp.389-402. 
Academia.edu [Online]. Available at: 
http://edgehill.academia.edu/MelanieLang/Papers/311146/Interpreting_and_Impleme 
nting_the_Long_Term_Athlete_Development_Model_English_Swimming_Coaches_ 
Views_on_the_Swimming_LTAD_in_Practice (Accessed: 27/11/2011). 
Parry, K. D. and Kavanagh, E. J., (2009) ‘Learn to Walk Before You Run: Locating 
the Origins of Long Term Athlete Development in Ancient Greece’. Sport in Society. 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 18 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
SPO001-2 Coaching for Development 
Bournemouth University eprints [Online]. Available at: 
http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/11838/ (Accessed: 27/11/2011). 
Robertson, S. & Way, R. ‘Long-Term Athlete Development’ Coaches Report, 11(3) 
pp.6-12 Ontario Sailing [Online]. Available at: 
http://ontariosailing.ca/media_lib/Virtual_Coach/Long_Term_Athlete_Developement_ 
_for_coaches_and_centers.pdf (Accessed: 27/11/2011). 
Appendices 
Appendix 1. Long Term Athlete Development - Systems & Solutions (Balyi). 
Appendix 2. Long-Term Athlete Development: Trainability in Childhood and 
Adolescence Windows of Opportunity, Optimal Trainability. By Istvan Balyi, Ph.D., 
National Coaching Institute British Columbia, Canada and Ann Hamilton, MPE 
Advanced Training and Performance Ltd. Victoria, B.C., Canada. 
Appendix 3. High Performance Clubs LTAD. Youth Sport Trust Written by David 
Morley, Leeds Metropolitan University. 
Appendix 4. A Shorter Guide to Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD) By Richard 
Gordon ASA Coaching and Talent Development Co-ordinator. 
Appendix 5. The FA’s Long-Term Player Development (LTPD) Model by Craig 
Simmons. 
Appendix 6. Long Term Player Development – Girls And Women’s Football By Brent 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 19 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching 
Hills. 
Appendix 7. Long Term Player Development Women’s and Girls’ Football An 
Introductory Guide.

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Developing Young Performers (8-16 Years Old) Through The Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD) Theoretical Framework/Model

  • 1. Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching Assignment 1 – Developing Young Performers SPO001-2 Coaching for Development Carl Page (1008889) University of Bedfordshire Mr. D Burns
  • 2. SPO001-2 Coaching for Development Contents Introduction ................................................................................................................ 1 Review of Literature ................................................................................................... 1 Conclusion ................................................................................................................. 7 Bibliography ............................................................................................................... 8 Appendices .............................................................................................................. 19 Introduction It can be said that there is a need to examine the present development models for improving young athletes aged 8-16 years, particularly in the development of footballers. Through focusing on a Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD) approach (Balyi, 1990) it is possible to examine how specific stages such as ‘learning to train’ and ‘training to train’ can have an impact on the development of young performers in specific sports. Review of Literature Simon (2003) suggests "It takes 10 years of extensive training to excel in anything" (Appendix 2). In this there is no quick way if these top stages are to be attained and continued (Bloom 1985, Ericsson et. al., 1993, Ericsson and Charness, 1994). This means that young performer’s development works out at somewhat just above three hours a day of training for ten years. (Salmela, 1998). Nevertheless Long Term Athlete Development was created in early 1990’s by sport scientist Dr. Istvan Balyi (Lang, M. & Light, R., 2010). It is one of a “number of approaches that focus on key, common principals of individual development, which Carl Page (1008889) Page 1 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
  • 3. SPO001-2 Coaching for Development has helped sports organisations to consider good practice in long term planning for young athletes” (Stafford, 2005). Consequently The Football Association produced with Sport England and Dr. Istvan Balyi (Appendix 5), to generate several of the advantages of LTAD model (Simmons 2005). Hence The FA developed the Long Term Player Development approach which lets people know how to work with performers who differ in gender, age and ability in football. Since is defined by Dictionary of Sport and Exercise Science (2006) as “A model that explains sport specific best practice for a serious athlete at each stage of skills learning”. The four-stage model of LTAD was next developed from the five stages during 2001 to the current six stages created in 2004. Even so sports can commonly be categorised as either early specialisation or known as late specialisation sports. Late specialisation sports such as all team sports, the importance through the main two stages of training has to involve the performer’s technical tactical skills and the development of their general motor. As early specialisation sports involve a four-phase model, whilst the late specialisation sports require a six-stage model. Stages of the LTAD 2001: Five-stage model (early specialisation) 2004: Six-stage model (late specialisation) FUNdamentals FUNdamentals Learning to train Learning to train Training to train Training to train Training to compete Training to compete Training to win Training to win Recruit, retain, retrain throughout life Table 1. Stafford-Brown BTEC Level 3 National Sport: Performance & Excellence Carl Page (1008889) Page 2 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
  • 4. SPO001-2 Coaching for Development Stage 2: Learning to Train. 9–12 (Males) 8–11 (Females) Objective: To learn fundamental sport skills. This stage also encourages faster adjustment to motor coordination. As start to learn the basics of all physical development found in common sports skills. Additional development is made to performer’s stamina because of game play and body-weight exercises. Through progress in the practise common sports skills which enhance their fundamental movement skills too. Along with the concept of games utilised these help focus on dissimilarities between abilities and training age. Plus practice of the sport particular equipment used is appropriate to the skill level and body size of participant. The main qualities of this stage are: Induction to psychological and physiological training. Cognitive and emotional development Basic tactics Throwing, catching, jumping and running. 70% training: 25% competition. (Bailey et al 2010) Stage 3: Training to Train 12–16 (Males) 11–15 (Females) Objective: To build fitness and specific sport skills. However this stage creates aerobic training an importance but supporting in skills, suppleness, strength and speed. Since puts emphasis on flexibility drills expected due to quick growth. Furthermore applying skill recognition to benefit young performers settles on two sports. Besides the performers will be conditioned in regular competitive situations like practice games or drills which involve competitiveness. Carl Page (1008889) Page 3 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
  • 5. SPO001-2 Coaching for Development The important attributes of this stage are: Perceptual skills Fitness training Detailed mental preparation Training: competition ratio – 60:40 percent Decision making Post puberty Detailed evaluation (Bailey et al 2010) Peak Height Velocity (PHV) is used as an instrument to help mark growth. As by checking growth velocity curves, identifying the scheduling and pace of growth; this is important for coaches whilst training pre-pubertal and pubertal performers. Therefore examining growth and tracking the young performer’s pattern of growth this is able to assist coaches by determining how to modify their training, competition and recovery programmes parallel to the velocity of growth. Although the training ability of skill, speed and suppleness this is centred on their chronological age (Viru, 1995; Viru et al., 1998); Balyi & Ross, 2009a; Balyi & Ross, 2009b; Rushall, 1998). For instance Graph’s 1&2 show the estimated timings of the “sensitive” stages of procession in both genders. However the particular scheduling will differ as the process of the participant’s start of Peak Height Velocity (PHV). The boxes which have solid lines these represent responsive stages which are chronological age recognised. Whilst the boxes with dotted lines they mean the responsive stages which are on a “moving scale”. Consequently they will be connected to the start of performers PHV. Peak Height Velocity and as growth slows (Balyi et al, 2005). Carl Page (1008889) Page 4 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
  • 6. SPO001-2 Coaching for Development Graph 1. Females Windows of Accelerated Adaptation to Training (Balyi and Way, 2005) Graph 2. Males Windows of Accelerated Adaptation to Training (Balyi and Way, 2005) Whilst before the start of Peak Height Velocity both genders it is possible to exercise jointly and their chronological age are able of using it to decide the training, competition and recovery schedules. Yet the mean age for the start of PHV is twelve for females and males is fourteen years old. Since the beginning of Peak Height Velocity is stimulated by equally their genes and background factors. This can take into account of the environment, ethnic inspirations and community atmosphere. Along with the onset of PHV it is a reference occasion which delivers windows of Carl Page (1008889) Page 5 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
  • 7. SPO001-2 Coaching for Development opportunity for developing young performer’s energy systems and their Central Nervous System (CNS) regardless of the chronological age. Hence the judgments of the training importance are able to define encouraging vital training results. Accordingly performer’s periodisation will “react” to the relationships of growth which specify the coaching programmes against handling decision making on these vital issues. Since while preparing and aiming programmes for the ages of 8-16 years old their developmental age have to be utilised at the point of observation opposing to their chronological age. Whereas the participant’s biological signs they are able to identify the “critical” stages of trainability to take advantage of their speed, strength, skill, stamina and suppleness in training. Whilst problems with the sporting system on young footballers who are 8-16 years old in England and around the world are firstly the percentages are higher for competition to practice/training (Appendix 6.) Also the young performers will regularly follow to adult match arrangements. These young performers will frequently perform adult exercises/training tactics. Additionally in their developmental ages the preparation/training typically places emphases on winning than the actual correct execution of movements. Carl Page (1008889) Page 6 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
  • 8. SPO001-2 Coaching for Development Conclusion The Long-Term Athlete Development is used worldwide for a range of sports as their model for training, competition and recovery phases. Since focus on the performers developmental age and the maturing points instead of their chronological age. The LTAD Model is in agreement with Physical Education in schools and various sports curriculums. Since these help to offer chances for young performers 8-16 years old to go through a multi-skill setting in advance of deciding their favourite sport. Thus with current the National Occupational Standards for coaching included this so that coaches design, deliver safe, supervised performer excellence. For instance the “learning to train” and “training to train” as part of the Long-Term Athlete Development incorporates a detailed plan for each stage. This plays a role to the performer’s development of optimal performance throughout their adolescent. Whilst at distinctive phases in their development children will reveal their physical, mental, emotional and cognitive development which varies since occurs at every stage of LTAD. As at each stage of Long-Term Athlete Development model there are particular aims and objectives, these can be accomplished because of a variety of delivery methods. Also through practice this aids in the planning an optimal structure for various sports training phases. However the sporting system issues I need to be aware of as a coach, these are familiar worldwide with sports that use LTAD is: The finest coaches are urged to be successful enough to reach the elite stages of the sports pathway continuum. Carl Page (1008889) Page 7 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
  • 9. SPO001-2 Coaching for Development As with the chronological age it affects the training and choice of players instead of their biological ages. Also with weak plans amongst the participants six to sixteen years old consequence in them not being able to attain their genetic potential. Therefore the supposed vital phases of enhanced familiarisation are not used properly. Subsequently as a coach the windows of opportunity it is very important by observing the participants growth before, during and after their teenage growth spurt. Thus I am capable of making them personalised programmes, these help to improve the participant’s performance. Since from monitoring to adapting the training to work ratio and recovery phases needed specifically for their long term development. As whenever the young performers reach the ages of between eight and sixteen; I can specifically develop their speed, strength, skill, stamina and suppleness training more successfully because of their Central Nervous System. Bibliography Carl Page (1008889) Page 8 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching Books Cross, N. and Lyle, J. (1999) The coaching process: principles and practice for sport [Book]. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Dictionary of sport and exercise science (2006) [Book]. London: A. & C. Black. Earle, C. (2005) How to coach children in sport. Leeds: Coachwise. Gervis, M. & Brierley, J. (2000) Effective Coaching for Children: Understanding the Sports Process [Book]. London: Crowood Pr.
  • 10. SPO001-2 Coaching for Development Horton, S. & Deakin, J.M. (2008) “Chapter 6 Expert Coaches In Action” eds. Farrow, D., Baker, J. & MacMahon, C. (2008) Developing Sport Expertise: Researchers And Coaches Put Theory Into Practise [Book]. London: Routledge. Hughes, M., Jones, R.L. and Kingston, K. (eds.) (2008) An introduction to sports coaching: from science and theory to practice [Book]. London: Routledge. Hylton, K. & Bramham, P. (2008) Sports development: policy, process and practice (2007) [Book]. 2nd Edition. London; New York: Routledge. Martens, R. (2004) Successful coaching [Book]. 3rd Edition. Champaign, Ill.; Leeds: Human Kinetics. Morgan, K. (2008) “Chapter 1 Pedagogy for Coaches” eds. Jones, L. R, Hughes, M. & Kingston, K. An Introduction To Sports Coaching: From Science And Theory To Practise [Book]. London: Routledge. Pyke, F.S. (2001) Better Coaching: Advanced Coach’s Manual. 2nd Edition. Leeds: Human Kinetics. Robinson, E., P. (2010) Foundations of Sports Coaching. Abington: Routledge. ScUK Coaching (2010) The Whole Child: Positive Development Through Sport By David Haskins. Leeds: Coachwise. ScUK Coaching and Stafford, I. (2005) Coaching for long-term athlete development: to improve participation and performance in sport [Book]. Leeds: Coachwise Business Solutions on behalf Sports Coach UK. Stafford, I. & Bailey, R. (2003) Coaching Children in Sport. Leeds: Coachwise. Stafford-Brown, J. & Rea, S., (2010) BTEC National Sport: Development, Coaching and Fitness, London: Hodder Education. Stafford-Brown, J. et al. (2010) BTEC Level 3 National Sport (2nd Edition): Performance and Excellence. 2nd Edition. London: Hodder Education. Carl Page (1008889) Page 9 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
  • 11. SPO001-2 Coaching for Development Websites 1st4sport (2011) Long Term Athlete Development Preparing For a Life in Sport. [online] Available at: http://www.1st4sport.com/p-724-1st4sportcom-long-term-athlete- development-preparing-for-a-life-in-sport.aspx [Accessed: 16/11/2011]. 1st4sport (2011) Long Term Athlete Development Resource set. [online] Available at: http://www.1st4sport.com/p-996-1st4sportcom-ltad-resource-set.aspx [Accessed: 16/11/2011]. Assets NGIN (2008) Long Term Player Development. [online] Available at: http://assets.ngin.com/attachments/document/0001/6827/LTPD_ThePage.pdf [Accessed: 16/11/2011]. Australian Sports Commission (2002) KiwiDex. [online] Available at: http://fulltext.ausport.gov.au/fulltext/1992/hillary/ks_kiwidex.asp [Accessed: 16/11/2011]. Badminton England (2006) LTAD Leaflet ScUK. [online] Available at: www.badmintonengland.co.uk/core/core.../download.asp?id [Accessed: 23/11/2011]. Biathlon Canada The Role of Monitoring Growth in Long-Term Athlete Development. [online] Available at: http://www.biathloncanada.ca/dbfiles/1150.pdf [Accessed: 17/11/2011]. Brian Mac Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD). [online] Available at: http://www.brianmac.co.uk/ltad.htm [Accessed: 04/10/2011]. Brian Mac Planning. [online] Available at: http://www.brianmac.co.uk/articles/scni19a2.htm [Accessed: 04/10/2011]. British Fencing Long Term Athlete Development. [online] Available at: http://www.britishfencing.com/uploads/files/fencing_ltad_document_apr_10.pdf Carl Page (1008889) Page 10 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
  • 12. SPO001-2 Coaching for Development Canadian Sport For Life LTAD Stages Learn Train. [online] Available at: http://www.canadiansportforlife.ca/ltad-stages/learn-train [Accessed: 23/11/2011]. Canadian Sport For Life LTAD Stages More About Learn Train. [online] Available at: http://www.canadiansportforlife.ca/learn-train/more-about-learn-train [Accessed: 23/11/2011]. Canadian Sport For Life LTAD Stages More About Train Train. [online] Available at: http://www.canadiansportforlife.ca/train-train/more-about-train-train [Accessed: 23/11/2011]. Canadian Sport for Life LTAD Stages Train Train. [online] Available at: http://www.canadiansportforlife.ca/ltad-stages/train-train [Accessed: 23/11/2011]. Canadian Sport for Life LTAD Stages. [online] Available at: http://www.canadiansportforlife.ca/coaches/ltad-stages [Accessed: 23/11/2011]. Cheshire FA Long Term Player Development 2. [online] Available at: www.cheshirefa.com/NR/.../LongTermPlayerDevelopment2.doc [Accessed: 16/11/2011]. Chris Horan Coaching Literature Long Term Athlete Development. [online] Available at: http://www.horancoaching.com/Literature/LTAD.htm [Accessed: 16/11/2011]. Coach CA Long Term Athlete Development Information for Parents. [online] Available at: http://www.coach.ca/files/LTAD_forparents_EN_Final.pdf [Accessed: 23/11/2011]. Coaching Wales Long Term Athlete Development LTAD. [online] Available at: http://www.coachingwales.com/im-already-a-coach-but-want-to-find-out-more/im-already- a-coach-but-want-to-find-out-more/i-would-like-more-knowledge-on-important- coaching-matters/long-term-athlete-development-ltad [Accessed: 16/11/2011]. Carl Page (1008889) Page 11 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
  • 13. SPO001-2 Coaching for Development Craig Simmons The FA’s Long-Term Player Development (LTPD) Model. [online] Available at: http://www.pfaasa.com/pdfs/Longterm%20development.pdf [Accessed: 16/11/2011]. Dr. Paul Ford The Long-Term Athlete Development Model – Does it have a place in football? [online] Available at: http://www.scienceandfootball.com/Uploads/318.pdf [Accessed: 27/11/2011]. England Basketball LTAD Summary. [online] Available at: www.englandbasketball.com/uploads/Schools/LTADsummary.doc [Accessed: 16/11/2011]. England Hockey Long Term Athlete Development Consultation. [online] Available at: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Xig720EGmuoJ:englandhockey.co.uk/ core/core_picker/download.asp%3Fid%3D67%26filetitle%3DLTAD%2BConsultation %2BDocument%2B- %2B2005%26log_stat%3Dtrue+periodisation+in+hockey&hl=en&gl=uk&pid=bl&srcid =ADGEESglnKa_16C_8QlhxJOClDarJqtge9l6KKq08kdoWVsQHG9F96UO8_1qpbai nAi7LScGfgAUVLq0QQrRqqhqDlIy2849nEDnXMCANG-MJcf_yuibo- HyCLD8CI5KLdNIm-VjXxUQ&sig=AHIEtbSKDSAZcOJtdmFgK8nthdqwVMZLRw [Accessed: 23/11/2011].. Gordon, R., (2003) ASA Coaching and Talent Development Co-ordinator. A Shorter Guide To Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD). [Online] Available at: https://www.sportcentric.com/vsite/vfile/page/fileurl/0,11040,5157-184732-201954- 124688-0-file,00.pdf (Accessed: 27/11/2011). Grange, J. Gordon, R. (2004) Success is long term: Long term athlete development related to the journey through swimming. Loughborough: ASA. [online] Available at: Carl Page (1008889) Page 12 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
  • 14. SPO001-2 Coaching for Development http://www.kcasa.org.uk/Swimming/Files/Success-is-long-term.pdf Accessed: 25/11/2011]. Hockey Canada Long Term Athlete Development. [online] Available at: http://www.hockeycanada.ca/index.php/ci_id/56831/la_id/1/document/1/re_id/0/file/pl ayer_dev_cardinal.pdf [Accessed: 17/11/2011]. Istvan Balyi, Ph.D., National Coaching Institute British Columbia, Canada and Ann Hamilton, Mpe Advanced Training And Performance Ltd. Victoria, B.C., Canada. Long-Term Athlete Development: Trainability in Childhood and Adolescence Windows of Opportunity, Optimal Trainability. [Online] Available at: http://www.athleticsireland.ie/content/wp-content/ uploads/2007/03/bayliLTAD2004.pdf (Accessed: 27/11/2011). Kent sport LTAD. [online] Available at: http://www.kentsport.org/schools/documents/LTAD.doc [Accessed: 04/10/2011]. Kingston SSP Multi Skills Booklet. [online] Available at: http://www.kingstonssp.co.uk/Resources/user/General%20Docs/Gifted%20&%20Tal ented/Multi%20skills%20booklet.pdf [Accessed: 09/10/2011]. Long Term Player Development Women’s and Girls’ Football an Introductory Guide. [online] Available at: http://www.thefa.com/GetIntoFootball/Players/PlayersPages/WomensAndGirls/~/me dia/Files/Word/Get%20Into%20Football/WomensGirls/CofE%20Support%20Docume nts%202011/LTPD%20Girls.ashx/LTPD%20Girls.pdf [Accessed: 16/11/2011]. Long-term Athlete Development LTAD 101 – Introduction Istvan Balyi National Sport Centre Vancouver – Victoria sportscoachUK and Sport Canada LTAD Advisor. [online] Available at: Carl Page (1008889) Page 13 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
  • 15. SPO001-2 Coaching for Development http://www.synchrosask.com/uploads/file/Tina's%20Internet%20Resources/LTAD101 %20Istvan%20Balyi.pdf [Accessed: 17/11/2011]. Long-term Athlete Development the system and solutions. [online] Available at: http://www.alabamayouthsoccer.org/docs/Coaching/CoachingArticles/08%20Long% 20Term%20Athlete%20Development.pdf [Accessed: 23/11/2011]. Malta Football Association Technical Centre David Attard MD DSEM Long Term Player Development. [online] Available at: http://www.mfa.com.mt/snapdatafiles/files/MaltaFootballAssociation/6343482457439 76250.pdf [Accessed: 17/11/2011]. Newbridge Athletic & Football Club Player Development. [online] Available at: http://newbridgefac.sports.officelive.com/PlayerDevelopment.aspx [Accessed: 16/11/2011]. Royal Canadian Golf Association Long Term Player Development Flyer. [online] Available at: http://www.rcga.org/_uploads/documents/LTPD_Flyer.pdf [Accessed: 27/11/2011]. Royal Canadian Golf Association Long Term Player Development Guide (LTPD). [online] Available at: http://www.rcga.org/innerpage.aspx?x=ckvwrm3HGGF3nJbI5%2BjNEpO2UghWsX1 %2FM3%2BsPxsGZQA9UnJNfBwBZcV9AoZA9v6c [Accessed: 27/11/2011]. Sask Sport Inc. Long-Term Athlete Development Resource Paper. [online] Available at: http://www.sasksport.sk.ca/CS4L/pdf/LTAD_ResourcePaper.pdf [Accessed: 23/11/2011]. Scottish FA Developing Talent Resources 12-16. [online] Available at: http://www.scottishfa.co.uk/developingtalent/resources12-16.cfm [Accessed: 16/11/2011]. Carl Page (1008889) Page 14 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
  • 16. SPO001-2 Coaching for Development Scottish FA Developing Talent Resources 9-12. [online] Available at: http://www.scottishfa.co.uk/developingtalent/resources9-12.cfm [Accessed: 16/11/2011]. Scottish FA Developing Talent. [online] Available at: http://www.scottishfa.co.uk/developingtalent/ [Accessed: 16/11/2011]. Scottish FA Long Term Player Development Plan. [online] Available at: http://www.scottishfa.co.uk/resources/documents/footballdevelopment/LTPD/SFA_D TP_Brochure2.pdf [Accessed: 16/11/2011]. Somerset Football Association LTPD. [online] Available at: http://www.somersetfa.com/NR/rdonlyres/A6E37A09-D90B-4BDF-9F21- D4111C8F6560/0/LTPD.pdf [Accessed: 17/11/2011]. Spain celebrates their World Cup success in part thanks to training innovator Istvan Balyi. Why can't English football be more like Spain? Written by Greg Dryer on Monday August 2nd 2010. [online] Available at: http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/190613/Why-can-t-English-football-be-more-like- Spain [Accessed: 16/11/2011]. SPARC (Sport & Recreation New Zealand) Young People Activity-Guidelines-5-18- Years. [online] Available at: http://www.sparc.org.nz/en-nz/young-people/Activity- Guidelines-5-18-Years/ [Accessed: 16/11/2011]. SPARC (Sport & Recreation New Zealand) Young People Ages-13-18-Years. [online] Available at: http://www.sparc.org.nz/en-nz/young-people/Ages_13- 18_Years/ [Accessed: 16/11/2011]. SPARC (Sport & Recreation New Zealand) Young People Ages-5-12-Years. [online] Available at: http://www.sparc.org.nz/en-nz/young-people/Ages-5-12-Years/ [Accessed: 16/11/2011]. Carl Page (1008889) Page 15 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
  • 17. SPO001-2 Coaching for Development Sport Development Can we have our ball back please rising inactivity levels in Great Britain’s youth and the impact on elite football. [online] Available at: http://www.sportdevelopment.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id =632:can-we-have-our-ball-back-please-rising-inactivity-levels-in-great-britains-youth- and-the-impact-on-elite-football&catid=57:football&Itemid=65 [Accessed: 04/10/2011].. Sport Development Long Term Athlete Development Trainability in Childhood and Adolescence Windows of Opportunity Optimal Trainability. [online] Available at: http://www.sportdevelopment.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id =191:long-term-athlete-development-trainability-in-childhood-and-adolescence-windows- of-opportunity-optimal-trainability&catid=52:performance&Itemid=65 [Accessed: 04/10/2011].. Sport Development Ruff Guide to Talent Development. [online] Available at: http://www.sportdevelopment.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id =48:rgltad&catid=47:ruffguides&Itemid=74 [Accessed: 04/10/2011]. Sports Coach UK Coaching for Long-term Athlete Development. [online] Available at: http://www.sportscoachuk.org/resource/coaching-long-term-athlete-development [Accessed: 12/10/2011]. Sports Coach UK Great Resources Football Coaches. [online] Available at: http://www.sportscoachuk.org/blog/great-resources-football-coaches [Accessed: 16/11/2011]. The Scottish Football Association Developing Talent Resources 12-16. [online] Available at: http://www.scottishfa.co.uk/developingtalent/resources12-16.cfm [Accessed: 16/11/2011]. Carl Page (1008889) Page 16 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
  • 18. SPO001-2 Coaching for Development The Scottish Football Association Developing Talent Resources 9-12. [online] Available at: http://www.scottishfa.co.uk/developingtalent/resources9-12.cfm [Accessed: 16/11/2011]. Tynewear Sport Coaches Manual. [online] Available at: http://www.tynewearsport.org/files/coaches_manual.pdf [Accessed: 16/11/2011]. Ulster Hockey Developing Children’s Physical Literacy. [online] Available at: http://ulsterhockey.com/documents/Grassroots/Mini%20Hockey/DevelopingChildrens PhyscialLiteracy.pdf [Accessed: 12/10/2011]. University College Cork Coaching the coaches March 2011 Handout. Available at: http://www.ucc.ie/en/education/SportsStudiesandPhysicalEducationSection/coaches corner/Longterm-Player-Development-March-2011-Handout.pdf [Accessed: 27/11/2011]. Youth Sport Trust Developing the 5 Abilities. [online] Available at: http://gifted.youthsporttrust.org/page/performance/index.html [Accessed: 16/11/2011]. Youth Sport Trust High Performance Clubs. Written by David Morley, Leeds Metropolitan University. [online] Available at: www.youthsporttrust.org/downloads/.../High_performance_clubs.doc [Accessed: 16/11/2011]. Carl Page (1008889) Page 17 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
  • 19. SPO001-2 Coaching for Development Journals Bailey, R., Collins, D., Ford, P., MacNamara, Á., Toms M., & Pearce, G. (2010) ‘Participant Development in Sport: An Academic Review’ Sports Coach UK & Sport Northern Ireland [Online]. Available at: http://www.sportni.net/NR/rdonlyres/991FF96E-C6DB-4700-A900- F4DF2732E81A/0/ParticipantDevelopmentinSport.pdf (Accessed: 27/11/2011). Ford, P.A., Croix, M.D.S., Lloyd, R., Meyers, R., Moosavi, M., Oliver, J., Till, K., & Williams, C. (2011) ‘The long-term athlete development model: physiological evidence and application’ Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(4), pp.389-402. PubMed [Online]. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21259156 (Accessed: 27/11/2011). Kenyon, J. & Palmer, C., (2007) ‘Can we have our ball back please? Rising inactivity levels in Great Britain’s youth and the impact on elite football’ Journal of Qualitative Research in Sports Studies, 1(1), pp.69-75. QRSS [Online]. Available at: http://www.writenow.ac.uk/oldsite/QRSS/vol_1/JQRSS_7_Kenyon%20and%20Palm er%2069-75.pdf (Accessed: 27/11/2011). Lang, M. & Light, R., (2010) ‘Interpreting and Implementing the Long Term Athlete Development Model: English Swimming Coaches Views on the (Swimming) LTAD in Practice’ International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 5(3), pp.389-402. Academia.edu [Online]. Available at: http://edgehill.academia.edu/MelanieLang/Papers/311146/Interpreting_and_Impleme nting_the_Long_Term_Athlete_Development_Model_English_Swimming_Coaches_ Views_on_the_Swimming_LTAD_in_Practice (Accessed: 27/11/2011). Parry, K. D. and Kavanagh, E. J., (2009) ‘Learn to Walk Before You Run: Locating the Origins of Long Term Athlete Development in Ancient Greece’. Sport in Society. Carl Page (1008889) Page 18 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching
  • 20. SPO001-2 Coaching for Development Bournemouth University eprints [Online]. Available at: http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/11838/ (Accessed: 27/11/2011). Robertson, S. & Way, R. ‘Long-Term Athlete Development’ Coaches Report, 11(3) pp.6-12 Ontario Sailing [Online]. Available at: http://ontariosailing.ca/media_lib/Virtual_Coach/Long_Term_Athlete_Developement_ _for_coaches_and_centers.pdf (Accessed: 27/11/2011). Appendices Appendix 1. Long Term Athlete Development - Systems & Solutions (Balyi). Appendix 2. Long-Term Athlete Development: Trainability in Childhood and Adolescence Windows of Opportunity, Optimal Trainability. By Istvan Balyi, Ph.D., National Coaching Institute British Columbia, Canada and Ann Hamilton, MPE Advanced Training and Performance Ltd. Victoria, B.C., Canada. Appendix 3. High Performance Clubs LTAD. Youth Sport Trust Written by David Morley, Leeds Metropolitan University. Appendix 4. A Shorter Guide to Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD) By Richard Gordon ASA Coaching and Talent Development Co-ordinator. Appendix 5. The FA’s Long-Term Player Development (LTPD) Model by Craig Simmons. Appendix 6. Long Term Player Development – Girls And Women’s Football By Brent Carl Page (1008889) Page 19 Foundation Degree in Sports Coaching Hills. Appendix 7. Long Term Player Development Women’s and Girls’ Football An Introductory Guide.