Preparation of the body

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Preparation of the body

  1. 1. PREPARATION OF THE BODY HIGHER PHYSICAL EDUCATION FORRESTER HIGH SCHOOL
  2. 2. ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE CYCLE OF ANALYSIS 6 1 5 3 4 2 Observe/re-observe your performance(s) Collect results of observation Identify strengths and weaknesses of your performance Compare with model performance on agreed criteria Prepare plan of action Complete plan of action
  3. 3. Cycle of analysis 1 Cycle of analysis CONTINUOUS PROGRESS INCONSISTENT PROGRESS The diagram below outlines how applying the Cycle of Analysis can lead to ongoing improvement in performance: IMPROVEMENTS TO PERFORMANCE TIME 5 6 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 5 6 2 3 4 Cycle of analysis
  4. 4. PREP OF THE BODY OVERVIEW In Preparation of the Body we look at improving our performance through improved fitness. We will look at the various aspects of fitness and how they relate to achieving your peak performance. We will collect data based on the whole performance and from standardised tests in order to identify our strengths and weaknesses . Furthermore we will use this data to monitor and evaluate our performance in order to identify improvements. We will design a training programme based on results of our evaluation. The training programme will be created using different methods of training, mid testing and end testing . We will also apply the principles of training to ensure our training is progressive . (SPORRT/FIT)
  5. 5. PREPARATION OF THE BODY …is a specific analysis of the fitness and training requirements necessary for your performance. <ul><li>Fitness assessment in relation to personal performance and the demands of the activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Application of different types of fitness in the development of activity specific performance </li></ul><ul><li>Physical, skill-related and mental aspects of fitness </li></ul><ul><li>Principles and methods of training </li></ul><ul><li>Planning, implementing and monitoring training </li></ul>KEY CONCEPTS:
  6. 6. KEY CONCEPT DOCUMENT <ul><li>POB Key Concept KU.doc </li></ul>
  7. 7. TYPES OF FITNESS PHYSICAL MENTAL SKILL RELATED 3 1 2 3 If any one fitness side is lacking then your performance will not be fully effective
  8. 8. Watch the video clip below. Can you suggest why this activity involves PHYSICAL fitness? <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xvMFHXcd0yQ&feature=related </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8eupZ20GZxc&feature=related </li></ul>Watch the video clip below. Can you suggest why this activity involves SKILL-RELATED fitness?
  10. 10. Watch the video clip below. Can you suggest why this activity involves MENTAL fitness? <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BSekMqotS0A&feature=related </li></ul>
  11. 11. ASPECTS OF FITNESS PHYSICAL MENTAL SKILL RELATED Cardio-Respiratory Endurance (CRE) Power Strength Flexibility Speed Muscular Endurance Determination Motivation Level of Arousal Concentration Managing Emotions Relaxation Agility Balance Co-ordination Reaction Time
  12. 12. PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF FITNESS The table below outlines the 6 Physical Aspects of fitness . The “TESTS” column is an example and can be modified to suit your chosen activity. ASPECT DEFINITION TESTS MY RESULTS 1. Cardio Respiratory (cardio-vascular) endurance The ability of the heart (Cardio) and lungs (Respiratory) to maintain a plentiful supply of oxygenated blood to the muscles enabling the athlete to maintain near maximal effort over a long period of time. <ul><li>20 metre shuttle run (bleep test) </li></ul><ul><li>Cooper 12 minute run. </li></ul><ul><li>T5 Swim Test </li></ul><ul><li>10m Multistage Swim test (MSST) </li></ul>2. Local Muscular Endurance The ability to use the same muscle or group of muscles repeatedly without getting tired. <ul><li>30 second sit up test </li></ul><ul><li>2 minute push up test </li></ul><ul><li>Harvard Step test (5mins) </li></ul>3. Speed The ability to contract a muscle group or muscle quickly -whole body and part body speed. <ul><li>50 metre sprint (leg speed) </li></ul>
  13. 13. PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF FITNESS CONTINUED… 4. Strength The maximum amount of force a muscle or group of muscles can exert in a single effort. <ul><li>Hand dynamometer (hand strength) </li></ul><ul><li>Leg dynamometer (leg strength) </li></ul>5. Power The ability to release maximum force very quickly – a combination of strength and speed. <ul><li>Standing Broad Jump (leg power) </li></ul><ul><li>Standing vertical Jump (Leg Power) </li></ul><ul><li>Throwing a ball/discus (Arm Power) </li></ul>6. Flexibility The ability to move muscles through their full range of movement and to move joints with ease. <ul><li>Sit and Reach test (Hamstrings and Lower back) </li></ul><ul><li>Arm and Shoulder Reach. </li></ul><ul><li>Trunk extension test. </li></ul>
  14. 14. SKILL RELATED ASPECTS OF FITNESS As with the Physical Aspects of fitness it is possible to test objectively the skill- related aspects of fitness. When you have performed these tests, fill in your results in the table below. SKILL RELATED ASPECT OF FITNESS DEFINITION TEST RESULT Co-ordination The ability to control movements smoothly and fluently Alternate Hand Wall Test S40 Stroke Count test Agility The ability to move the body quickly and precisely The Illinois Agility Test Balance The ability to retain the centre of gravity over your base of support- static and dynamic balance. Stork Test Reaction Time The time taken between the recognition of a signal and the start of a movement Ruler Drop Test
  15. 15. MENTAL ASPECTS OF FITNESS Mental preparation is important in many activities. In some cases performers will attempt to “visualise” their performance and to mentally “rehearse” what they have to do. MENTAL ASPECT DESCRIPTION Determination Determination to challenge and win the ball/race, determination to remain focused. Determination to improve performance level through training. Motivation Motivation to desire to win the game/race. Motivation to attend training (early morning swim). Motivation can also be external factors such as trophies/rewards. Level of Arousal Must be optimum to produce the right climate for the game/race. Concentration Relaxation Allows players to focus on the important aspects of the game and ignore unimportant negative factors such as crowd noise. This is the ability to control our stress and lower our levels of anxiety when we feel pressure.
  16. 16. ASPECTS OF FITNESS TASK Complete the table below by listing the following aspects of fitness (in red) under the appropriate aspect of fitness <ul><li> coordination </li></ul><ul><li> anxiety control </li></ul><ul><li> timing </li></ul><ul><li> agility </li></ul><ul><li> speed </li></ul><ul><li> flexibility </li></ul><ul><li> concentration </li></ul><ul><li> balance </li></ul><ul><li> cardio respiratory endurance </li></ul><ul><li> reaction time </li></ul><ul><li> power </li></ul><ul><li> level of arousal </li></ul><ul><li> motivation </li></ul><ul><li> muscular endurance </li></ul><ul><li> managing emotions </li></ul><ul><li> speed endurance </li></ul><ul><li> relaxation </li></ul><ul><li> mental rehearsal </li></ul><ul><li> concentration </li></ul><ul><li> strength </li></ul><ul><li> movement anticipation </li></ul>ASPECTS OF FITNESS PHYSICAL SKILL-RELATED MENTAL
  17. 17. What aspects of fitness do you think are important in your chosen activity? PHYSICAL? MENTAL? SKILL-RELATED? <ul><li>TASK: </li></ul><ul><li>Under each area, make a list of the important related aspects. </li></ul><ul><li>Now give an explanation of why these aspects are important in your chosen activity </li></ul><ul><li>For 4 different aspects of fitness, clearly DESCRIBE and EXPLAIN how you would </li></ul><ul><li> conduct testing for each. </li></ul>Every activity in which you participate requires a combination of the various aspects of the 3 areas of fitness for a successful performance. Though different activities require different combinations and place different degrees of importance on the separate aspects of fitness.
  18. 18. <ul><li>EXAMPLE </li></ul><ul><li>Activity: Badminton </li></ul>SKILL RELATED Reaction time: is important when attempting to return a shot played from an opponent, especially the more attacking shots e.g. Smash. If an opponent plays a shot to try and catch you off guard, the quicker you can react to that shot, the more likely you will be to return the shot and return it effectively. Agility: is important in Badminton when you are moving around the court. You need to be light on your feet and quick to move in order to return tricky shots. PHYSICAL Muscular endurance: Badminton requires repeated contractions of our arm muscles (biceps and triceps), shoulder muscles (deltoids) and our leg muscles - thighs (quadriceps), hamstrings, gluteus (buttocks) and calves. Therefore muscular endurance is vital to delay the onset of fatigue, which prevents our muscles from working to full capacity thus affecting our ability to play and execute shots effectively. Having effective muscular endurance also delays the production of lactic acid and you can tolerate higher concentrations of it thus delaying fatigue. MENTAL ASPECTS OF FITNESS Motivation it is important that you are motivated to do your best if not you will lack the desire to try hard and will give up too easily when the going starts to get tough. Concentration it is important to remain focused on your goal at the start and during the game. It is also important to concentrate on your shots during your performance. Level of arousal it is important to be in the right frame of mind to perform. If you are not “up for the game” then you will not perform to the best of your ability and lack enthusiasm. However, if you are too psyched up or anxious you will also not perform to your best, for example poor shot execution or increased muscle tension leading to poor technique.
  19. 19. CYCLE OF ANALYSIS 6 1 5 3 4 2 Observe/re-observe your performance(s) Collect results of observation Identify strengths and weaknesses of your performance Compare with model performance on agreed criteria Prepare plan of action Complete plan of action The ‘Cycle of Analysis’ is a useful way on analysing and improving performance. The first stage requires us to collect and record data during performance. After doing this you are able to identify what your strengths are and what areas of weakness require development.
  20. 20. FITNESS ASSESSMENT AND GATHERING DATA <ul><li>Fitness assessment in relation to performance development has the following key </li></ul><ul><li>purposes: </li></ul><ul><li>Provides objective, accurate and reliable information about the performer in relation to the specific performance demands of the activity </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies areas of individual strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a clear focus for planning a programme to improve performance related fitness </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a baseline or start point </li></ul><ul><li>Allows a process of monitoring and recording fitness development through comparison of the results of subsequent tests </li></ul><ul><li>The process of fitness assessment allows the individual to progress by maximising strengths and addressing and therefore minimising weaknesses. </li></ul>Why do we need to assess our fitness levels? It is important to gather information on your level of fitness for the activity that you participate in order to identify your strengths and weaknesses this will allow you to develop your performance.
  21. 21. There are 2 main ways of assessing fitness. The first is assessing fitness directly within the activity. The second is out with the activity through standardised fitness tests . <ul><li>Whichever methods are used there are a few general principles, which should guide </li></ul><ul><li>the process. The following should be considered before you begin to collect and record </li></ul><ul><li>data about your fitness. </li></ul><ul><li>What information is needed? </li></ul><ul><li>What methods will be used to collect data? </li></ul><ul><li>What will the data actually measure? </li></ul><ul><li>How will the data be recorded? </li></ul><ul><li>How will the data be used? </li></ul>(Through the activity) (Standardised fitness tests)
  22. 22. 2 TYPES OF DATA <ul><li>There are 2 types of data that can be collected: </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative data - which is data that can be specifically measured e.g. objective data like the number of press ups in 30 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>2) Qualitative data - which is data gathered form personal judgements, opinions and reflections e.g. subjective data like a coaches opinion of your performance. </li></ul>
  23. 23. In order for the data collected to be useful it must be… <ul><li>R.A.V.E.R.O.C . </li></ul><ul><li>R elevant; to the performer and the activity </li></ul><ul><li>A ccurate; a true reflection of the performers ability </li></ul><ul><li>V alid; it actually measures what it sets out to </li></ul><ul><li>E nables comparison , by measuring initial baseline data with subsequent assessment </li></ul><ul><li>R eliable; the assessment can be repeated consistently (test-retest method) </li></ul><ul><li>O bjective; it is non biased </li></ul><ul><li>C ontributes to informed decision making, and leads to action capable of improving performance </li></ul>
  24. 24. METHODS OF GATHERING DATA <ul><li>Thoughts and feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Coach’s opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul><ul><li>Observation Schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Heart Rate monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Dictaphone </li></ul>
  25. 25. WHY USE THESE METHODS OF COLLECTING DATA? <ul><li>Thoughts and feelings The simplest method of gathering data within the activity is through the performers thoughts, feelings and reflections. This is useful as a starting point and can indicate where weaknesses may lie. It is particularly useful for assessing the mental aspects. However it is not totally reliable as it could be biased and is an opinion of the performer not necessarily an actual fact. To gather quality data more scientific procedures need to be adopted. </li></ul><ul><li>Video this is a particularly good method of gathering data in any activity but is especially good for team games or fast moving games where something could be missed. Video is particularly useful in these situations as it can be paused or played in slow motion or rewound and replayed as often as the viewer requires. This allows a very accurate and detailed observation to be carried out. Video provides the performer with visual evidence of their performance. Video is also a permanent record that can be compared to a later video to see if there are any changes to the performance after a fitness training programme of improvement has been carried out. However video assessment is only as effective as the criteria that are used to assess it, simply filming your performance and watching it will be of limited value. The most common and easiest way is to analyse the video in relation to criteria on an observation schedule or comparing to a video of a model performance. </li></ul>
  26. 26. CTD… <ul><li>Observation Schedule </li></ul><ul><li>This is a sheet, which is made up before participation in the activity. It can take various formats from a simple tally sheet e.g. recording how many breaths that a swimmer takes per length to a complex grid that requires judgements on the effectiveness of a specific aspect of fitness at a specific time in a game. An observation schedule can be tailored to meet the requirements of the activity and the data to be collected. It can gather a lot of general data or much more focussed specific data depending on the criteria used. In order for an observation schedule to be effective there needs to be some time spent considering its design and research to ensure that the criteria it contains are relevant and actually measure what it is intended to. The Schedule is only as effective as the person who completes it. This means that to complete a schedule the observer requires an understanding of the activity. The more complex and detailed the data required the more expertise the observer should have. For simple observation schedules it would be appropriate to use a classmate but for more in depth analysis a teacher or coach would be better. The observation schedule can be completed whilst watching the activity or afterwards from a video of the activity. An observation schedule is an appropriate method as it provides a permanent record , it can identify strengths and weaknesses , it has specific criteria to compare your performance to, it can be made specific to your needs , it is simple to use , can allow a before and after training comparison to check for improvements. </li></ul>
  27. 27. CTD… <ul><li>Mapping sheet This is another type of observation schedule. A plan of the playing area is drawn out and the movements of the player are drawn onto the plan. For example mapping the movements of a specific player in a football team to analyse their work rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Heart rate monitor Wearing a heart rate monitor whilst participating in the activity can allow you to measure your heart rate a set times in the game. This can indicate how hard you are working and how your body is coping with the demands of the activity. More detailed analysis can be carried out by interfacing with a computer this can allow you to identify the number of short explosive bursts or longer extended runs, recovery rate and work rate. This is an appropriate method as it can gather very specific and accurate information . The computer data can provide a permanent record and can be used for before and after comparison and you can set training heart rates and monitor these using the watch. However it does not indicate the effectiveness of the work so it is probably best used in conjunction with an observation schedule or video. </li></ul><ul><li>Coach’s opinions This tends to be more accurate as the coach has an expert opinion , which tends to be objective . The coach is comparing your performance to his/her criteria of a good performance drawn from their own experience. Yet again this is an opinion and not a fact and it is governed by the coaches level of experience but can be a good starting point from which to gather more in depth data. </li></ul>
  28. 28. WHAT HAPPENDS NEXT? <ul><li>The creation of a specific Training Programme is vital in addressing the needs of the individual </li></ul><ul><li>player. The data gathered must be analysed and short and long term targets must be drawn up. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>“ from the data I can see that my cardio respiratory endurance is poor as I was only able to score level 7 on the 20m progressive shuttle run test. The class average was 9. This may explain why my performance deteriorated in the game. From 70mins onwards I was less effective in the areas of control, passing and penetrating the defence.” </li></ul><ul><li>This information highlights and immediate short-term goal of –Improving Cardio </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory Endurance in Football. Use drills that work on CRE and control and passing. </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term , the player could look to address the problem of ‘penetrating the defence’. </li></ul><ul><li>This could be related to reaction time, speed or anticipation. </li></ul><ul><li>The creation of targets relies upon the following: </li></ul><ul><li> - Present level of ability / performance (fitness / skill level) </li></ul><ul><li> - Positional responsibility (role within team) </li></ul><ul><li> - Time available to meet targets (must be realistic) </li></ul><ul><li> - Monitoring and evaluating progress (using training diary) </li></ul>Now that you have used different methods to collect data and have identified STRENGTHS and WEAKNESSES…you must design a TRAINING PROGRAMME in order to improve.
  29. 29. PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING We need to establish our current level of fitness, our training goals and consider the PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING as a pre-requisite for creating any Training Schedule. It’s easy! Just remember these two acronyms! <ul><li>SPORT </li></ul><ul><li>FIT </li></ul>
  30. 30. PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING <ul><li>SPORRT and FIT </li></ul><ul><li>S PECIFICITY Specific to demands of activity and level of fitness. </li></ul><ul><li>P ROGRESSION Gradual overload over set period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>O VERLOAD Increasing F-I-T throughout the programme </li></ul><ul><li>R ECOVERY How much rest between sessions / sets /reps. </li></ul><ul><li>R EVERSIBILITY Use it or lose it. </li></ul><ul><li>T EDIUM Boredom </li></ul><ul><li>F REQUENCY How often. (at least 3 times per week.) </li></ul><ul><li>I NTENSITY How hard. (i.e. 70%MHR) </li></ul><ul><li>T IME/ D URATION How long. (30mins or 4 sets of 12 reps) </li></ul>
  31. 31. METHODS OF TRAINING Some examples; <ul><li>INTERVAL </li></ul><ul><li>Alternating activity with periods of rest. (e.g. 10x50m sprints with 15secs rest OR 5x400m </li></ul><ul><li>sprints with slow jog in between. Can improve Cardio-Respiratory Endurance (aerobic </li></ul><ul><li>and anaerobic) and speed / speed endurance. </li></ul><ul><li>CONTINUOUS </li></ul><ul><li>A whole body activity (such as, running, cycling, rowing, swimming) that is performed </li></ul><ul><li>without a rest. Normally done at a low intensity (50-80%MHR) and lasting a minimum of </li></ul><ul><li>20mins. Can improve CRE. </li></ul><ul><li>FARTLEK </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as ‘speed play’. The pace of the activity is varied (e.g. jog, run, sprint, jog, </li></ul><ul><li>walk, run, sprint). Particularly good for games players as it reflects the short bursts of </li></ul><ul><li>intense activity followed by periods of low intensity movements. Can improve Cardio </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory Endurance (aerobic and anaerobic) and speed / speed endurance. </li></ul><ul><li>CONDITIONING </li></ul><ul><li>Training through the game. This method incorporates skills training into games training. </li></ul><ul><li>This develops skills and fitness at the same time. It can be designed to meet specific </li></ul><ul><li>needs. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Now it’s time to design your Training Programme! <ul><li>DESIGNING A TRAINING PROGRAMME.doc </li></ul>
  33. 33. HOMEWORK 1 <ul><li>Due Date – </li></ul><ul><li>Selected activity – </li></ul><ul><li>Specific aspect of fitness selected for analysis – </li></ul><ul><li>QUESTION: Explain the significance of this aspect of fitness to your whole Performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about: </li></ul><ul><li> - Performance demands of activity </li></ul><ul><li> - Specific demands of the role that you are playing in the team (e.g. striker) </li></ul>
  34. 34. HOMEWORK 2 <ul><li>Due Date – </li></ul><ul><li>Selected activity – </li></ul><ul><li>Specific aspect of fitness selected for analysis - </li></ul><ul><li>Question: Describe the methods you used to gather initial and then more focused data. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about: - What tests did you use? DESCRIBE </li></ul><ul><li> - What test variables are there? </li></ul><ul><li> - Who recorded the data? </li></ul><ul><li> - Did you use any technology to help you? </li></ul><ul><li> - Initial Data </li></ul><ul><li> - Focused Data </li></ul><ul><li>Question: Explain why the methods used were considered to be appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about: - What was the breakdown of the observation schedule used? How did this examine the skills linked to the role played </li></ul><ul><li> - What were the condition of the standardised test? </li></ul><ul><li> - Environment of both tests? Competitive? </li></ul><ul><li>Question: Explain why the data can be regarded as valid </li></ul><ul><li>Think about: - Did you give 100% in both tests? </li></ul><ul><li> - Who recorded this info? Did you use technology to make it more accurate? </li></ul><ul><li> - When were the tests completed? Did you prepare properly for the tests? </li></ul>
  35. 35. HOMEWORK 3 <ul><li>Due Date – </li></ul><ul><li>Question: Describe in detail the information about your data that you were able to obtain from the data </li></ul><ul><li>Think about: - What did the data show? </li></ul><ul><li>Question: What does the data tell you about the strengths and weaknesses of your performance? </li></ul><ul><li>Question: Explain clearly what you now regard as your development needs </li></ul>
  36. 36. HOMEWORK 4 <ul><li>Due Date – </li></ul><ul><li>Question: Explain the importance of collecting data and describe in detail the methods you used to collect your data </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Question: Describe how you used the information you gained from your standardised tests and tests within a performance setting? </li></ul><ul><li>Think about: - Comparison to national norms? </li></ul><ul><li> - Setting targets? </li></ul>
  37. 37. HOMEWORK 5 <ul><li>Due date: </li></ul><ul><li>Question: Explain in detail the information about performance and its development you were able to acquire from studying the PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about: - What principles of training did you take in to account before you designed/began your training programme? </li></ul><ul><li>Question: Describe how you applied these principles of training within the training programme you completed in class time </li></ul><ul><li>Think about: - How did SPORT and FIT A affect how you designed your Training Programme </li></ul>
  38. 38. HOMEWORK 6 <ul><li>Date Due – </li></ul><ul><li>Question: Describe the TYPES OF TRAINING you used within your programme. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about: - Fartlek training, Interval training </li></ul><ul><li> - Conditioning training </li></ul><ul><li>Question: Why were these TYPES OF TRAINING appropriate? </li></ul><ul><li>Think about: - Specificity – skill/fitness levels, type of activity, role within activity </li></ul><ul><li> - Conditioning – Motivation? </li></ul><ul><li> - Facility dependent? </li></ul><ul><li>Question: Describe how, and explain why, some parts of the training programme were adapted as the programme progressed or why it was important to leave the programme unchanged </li></ul><ul><li>Think about: - Look at your training diary </li></ul><ul><li> - Mid-programme test results? </li></ul><ul><li>Question: How did you monitor the impact that training was having on your Cardio- respiratory endurance? </li></ul><ul><li>Think about: - Re-testing – Why? When? How? </li></ul>
  39. 39. WORKSHEET 1 FITNESS FOR POSITION <ul><li>ATTACKER </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction time – </li></ul><ul><li>Cardio – Respiratory Endurance – </li></ul><ul><li>Strength – </li></ul><ul><li>Co-ordination – </li></ul><ul><li>Speed – </li></ul><ul><li>Agility – </li></ul><ul><li>GOALKEEPER </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility – </li></ul><ul><li>Co-ordination – </li></ul><ul><li>Speed – </li></ul><ul><li>Balance – </li></ul><ul><li>Determination – </li></ul><ul><li>Power – </li></ul><ul><li>DEFENDER </li></ul><ul><li>Cardio-Respiratory Endurance - </li></ul><ul><li>Strength – </li></ul><ul><li>Level of Arousal – </li></ul><ul><li>Co-ordination – </li></ul><ul><li>Speed – </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration – </li></ul>Complete below for Football or adapt and complete for your chosen activity.
  40. 40. HIGHER SAMPLE QUESTION AND ANSWER ppt.doc

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