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BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching 
Applied Reflective 
Account – Immaturity 
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
Carl Page (1008889) 
University of Bedfordshire 
Mr. K Roberts
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
Contents 
Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 2 
Identify and Selected Key Concepts and Principles .......................................................... 2 
Comment on the Robustness of the Body of Knowledge (Issues Conceptually, 
Methodologically Etc.)............................................................................................................. 3 
Consider How the Selected Concepts and Principles Can Be Applied Clearly Stating 
Any Caveats ............................................................................................................................. 5 
Clear Statement of the Guidance to Practitioners .............................................................. 7 
References ............................................................................................................................... 8 
Appendices ............................................................................................................................. 13 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 2 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching 
Introduction 
In this assignment involves focusing on the motor development case “Talent 
identification in the young performer”. This comes from building reasons which 
encourage various theoretical points on appropriate cases in lifespan motor 
development and impairment matters within sport, physical activity and Physical 
Education. Also I will be commenting on the robustness of the body of knowledge 
such as the concepts and methodology issues. Likewise signify how the selected 
concepts and principles can be applied clearly stating any caveats. Finally, 
demonstrate a comprehension of performing and knowledge in sport with a clear 
statement of the guidance to practitioner’s actions. 
Identify and Selected Key Concepts and Principles 
Talent Identification is most frequently defined and identified using performance and 
potential, for instance recognised as ‘that process by which children are encouraged 
to participate in the sports at which they are most likely to succeed, based on results 
of testing selected parameters. These parameters are designed to predict 
performance capacity, taking into account the child's current level of fitness and
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
maturity.’ (Appendix 2). Plus Bailey, (2012) specifies mainly they use the same 
techniques as the adults; specifically this includes some sort of scientific analysis, 
observations of their previous competition and training and cohort comparisons. 
Hence Martindale (2005) revealed when trying to identify and select young 
performers with potential from performance criteria; such as the screening influences 
of particular maturity stages and their previous performances. 
In contrast Gray & Plucker (2010) suggests physical maturity by itself does not 
predict future talent; this bias to misinterpret early physical maturation for physical 
talent is equally further problematic. Similarly with the maturation rates of the young 
performers since distinguish differences between talent and those who are simply 
more physically mature (SportsCoachUK, 2012). This importantly augmented with 
Sutherland, (2005) as could lead the young performer reaching a plateau and they 
could drop off well before they have achieved anything great in their sport (Endless 
Human Potential, 2012). 
So for when sport specialisation should occur and Falk et al. (2004) indicates the 
young performer’s talent detection of chronological, biological and cognitive ages. 
Whereas there is a considerable amount of resources is needed for this to occur 
which are regularly not available for sporting organisations. In the same way Bottoni 
et al. (2011) warns a lot of the processes required for talent identification such as the 
time and investment needed. For that reason Long Term Athlete Development, 
(2012) recommends the principles of TIPS – Technique, Intelligence, Personality and 
Speed to test or identify and monitor talent. Along with the other methods to be used 
for selecting talented performance for example scouting and testing (Appendix 1). 
Comment on the Robustness of the Body of Knowledge (Issues Conceptually, 
Methodologically Etc.) 
Primarily though there are limited research papers which observed the success of a 
battery of motor tests in the separation concerning that of young performers who are 
talented and those who are less so (Lidor et al. 2005). Plus supporting evidence from 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 3 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
Utley and Astill (2008) proposes guidelines with regard to assessing learning and 
performance, and any experiment examining learning should consider using transfer 
tests. They are essential seeing as the context, skill or both can be manipulated to 
make the task novel. Nevertheless Walker et al. (2010) implies that talent is 
particularly tough to define and its identification may depend on intuitive judgements. 
In spite of this Hohmann & Seidel (2003) exposed the issues related with talent 
identification and forecasting future development through being best exemplified of 
the term ‘season-of-birth’. For instance there is a recognised selection biases 
towards the young performers who are physically mature for various sports for 
example in football, rugby and tennis then the opposite for gymnastics (Wolstencroft, 
2005). As mentioned before this selection bias is also noticed by Simmons & 
Geoffrey (2001) for age-category in team sports occurring because there is an 
importance of winning at any cost. To such an extent figure 1 illustrating when 
ultimately the other young performers get closer to their early developed cohorts; this 
ensues understanding that these were not extra talented when in fact only had 
matured at a faster rate and are classified as being unexpected “Non-Achievers”. 
Figure 1. Performance and selection (cf. Hohmann & Carl. 2002, p. 10) In Chun, J. 
(2007) Identifying Highly Talented Athletes: Conception and Design of an Expert 
System: Specific to Track and Field. Norderstedt: GRIN Verlag 
Whilst studies from Williams & Reilly (2000) also added issues to that the 
assumptions about young talented male performers can be generalised to females. 
So importantly there is a need for a clear system to offer a philosophy that rationally 
pushes the purposes and the systems of talent identification (Martindale et al., 2005). 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 4 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
Consequently examinations into talent identification and development are broadened 
to tackle issues associated to young performers of both genders. Although Brown, 
(2001) discovered talent even when it is present and accounted for does not always 
guarantee athletic excellence. 
Consider How the Selected Concepts and Principles Can Be Applied Clearly 
Stating Any Caveats 
Although mainly because of the young performer’s varying growth patterns makes 
Talent Identification not very reliable in forecasting their prospected accomplishments 
(Topend Sports Network, 2012). However there are several long-established and 
current talent identification models, such as Scotland’s Sport Interactive and 
Australia’s Talent Search with sports like basketball, rowing and swimming. In 
agreement which Bailey, et al. (2010) acknowledges some sports talent identification 
use anthropometric measurements e.g. rowers requires a person to have great 
stature and arm reach with a superb aerobic fitness. Likewise Hill, (2007) 
acknowledges Australia and the UK are presently applying more scientific 
approaches in trying to identify sporting potential in the young performers. 
The England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) reports Talent Identification is done 
through subjectively assessing whether the cricketer meets their explanatory criteria 
on attitude, aptitude, athleticism and the coach’s instinct see Appendix 3. Whereas 
Bailey, (2012) signifying it being practically unlikely to form any valid and reliable 
assessments of the young performers sporting performance which is able to be 
interpreted in relations of talent. Although being presented in figure 2 the young 
performer demonstrates the required talent and proper motivation to increase their 
chances of becoming elite athletes (Brook, 2009). 
Figure 2. Aptitude to Self Actualisation 
(Brook, 2009) 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 5 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
The specific tests of definite physical attributes for sporting potential e.g. sprint 
cyclists is their leg power and body height/weight ratio (Topend Sports Network, 
2012). However as Smith, (2007) proves even with those with the certain physical 
attributes for example a runner in their talent identification programme this shall 
mean little if the performer is not enthusiastic. In contrast Vaeyens et al. (2008) puts 
forward thoughts to upsurge the effectiveness of talent identification and 
development programmes; a multidimensional strategy along with establishing 
situation specific exercises when identifying talent in young performers. Conversely 
ScUK Coaching and Stafford (2005) signifies previously that talent identification and 
development may have been an ignored field. Whereby Appendix 1 presents the 
particular simple scouting requirements used to analyse the young performer by 
means of the types of testing; 
Physical 
Physiological 
Psychological 
Technical 
However media publications argue this for instance BBC Wales, (2012) states that 
UK Sport and the English Institute of Sport (EIS) have a systematic long term plan for 
success. This is because the initiative of Talent ID campaigns are purposely ran to 
discover those athletes who have the raw material for World Class success. Also 
Robinson, (2011) discovered that talent identification and development system is 
working effectively. Although recommended by Tameside PE and Sport (2011) 
indicating more work is essential for safeguarding the application of a widespread 
talent pathway for all young performers including those with disabilities. Nevertheless 
with the difficulty of separation concerning talent and physical development, this must 
not be undervalued because it can considerably influence on some beliefs of Talent 
Identification set-ups (SportsCoachUK, 2012). Nonetheless Long Term Athlete 
Development, (2012) testifies for many sports, the outcome (talent) and obtaining 
normative data is unknown. 
Plus Burgess, (2007) continues demonstrating it can be challenging to identify a 
specific sport that is well-matched for a young performer since they will usually show 
good varied skills. Therefore conducting the talent identification programs for the 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 6 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
correct age of individual sports makes it quite tricky. Whereby other studies from 
various professionals believe young performers to specialise in a specific sport 
before they turn thirteen could be damaging. On the other hand different individuals 
believe before the young performers are twelve years old need encouragement of 
efficient skill development through guiding those performers to experience various 
sports (Appendix 2). In spite of this Chun, (2007) gives evidence for the possible 
difference involving young performers real age and their biological age. The Matthew 
Effect in figure 3 even occurs whenever class mates compare each other generally 
being much faster, taller and more muscular. 
Figure 3. The Matthew Effect. (Tucker & Dugas, 2009) 
Clear Statement of the Guidance to Practitioners 
A practitioner must follow Brown, (2001) advice of objectively measuring 
individual’s sporting ability by the way of being patient with the late bloomer 
and avoiding burnout. 
A sports coach has to be aware of the assessment variables such as the 
young performer’s mental ability, speed of abilities development, utilisation of 
endogenous and exogenous resources, load and stress tolerance (Bottoni et 
al. 2011). 
Also have knowledge that young performer’s skeletons and muscles should be 
allowed to be developed and grow without increasing the risk of injury. 
The difference between early and late maturation of young performers. 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 7 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
It is important to know sports scientists have the responsibility of collaborating 
with coaches, scouts and administrators as highlight key components of the 
talent identification and development process (Williams & Reilly, 2000). 
Likewise early identification of talented athletes Abbott & Collins (2004) 
advocates is becoming an ever increasingly key significance. 
Finally Martindale et al. (2005) revealed the model of effective talent 
identification and development procedures emerging from the literature as 
shown in Appendix 4. 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 8 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching 
References 
Paper Books 
ScUK Coaching and Stafford, I. (2005) Coaching for long-term athlete development: 
to improve participation and performance in sport [Book]. Leeds: Coachwise 
Business Solutions on behalf Sports Coach UK. 
Utley, A. and Astill, S. (2008) Motor Control, Learning and Development. Taylor & 
Francis: Oxon. 
Online Books 
Brown, J. (2001) Sports Talent: How to Identify and Develop Outstanding Athletes. 
Champaign, IL. Leeds: Human Kinetics. (Online) Available at: 
http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=LRefLc_n4pIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Talent+i 
dentification&hl=en&sa=X&ei=hRmqUKu9CKuX0QXOgYH4Cg&ved=0CEoQ6AEwB 
w#v=onepage&q=Talent%20identification&f=false (Accessed on: 12/11/2012) 
Chun, J. (2007) Identifying Highly Talented Athletes: Conception and Design of an 
Expert System: Specific to Track and Field. Norderstedt: GRIN Verlag. (Online) 
Available at: 
http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=qHcHdCiekuwC&pg=PA58&lpg=PA58&dq=peltol 
a+talent+identification&source=bl&ots=9Zqb3CZkYj&sig=lTUfQxZI_rNTRDheI_TeHD 
n7WZg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=2ozdUKmJE4Kd0QWbtoHIBw&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAA#v=o 
nepage&q=peltola%20talent%20identification&f=false (Accessed on: 28/12/2012)
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
Hill, M. (2007) In Pursuit of Excellence: A Student Guide to Elite Sports 
Development. Oxon: Routledge. (Online) Available at: 
http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=2egTwKj9gYsC&pg=PA103&dq=Talent+identific 
ation+in+the+young+performer&hl=en&sa=X&ei=YnCSUP_dCujB0QWRkIH4CQ&ve 
d=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Talent%20identification%20in%20the%20young 
%20performer&f=false (Accessed on: 01/11/2012) 
Sutherland, M. (2005) Gifted and Talented in the Early Years: Practical Activities for 
Children Aged 3 To 5. London: SAGE Publications Inc. MyAthens (ebrary). Available 
at: 
http://site.ebrary.com/lib/treshamins/docDetail.action?docID=10218172&p00=talent% 
20identification (Accessed on: 12/11/2012) 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 9 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching 
Websites 
Bailey, R. (2012) So What Is Developmentally Appropriate Sport? Available at: 
http://sportscoachuk.org/blog/so-what-developmentally-appropriate-sport-richard-bailey 
(Accessed on: 08/10/2012) 
Bailey, R., Collins, D., Ford, P., MacNamara, Á., Toms M., & Pearce, G. (2010) 
‘Participant Development in Sport: An Academic Review’ Sports Coach UK & Sport 
Northern Ireland. Available at: http://www.sportni.net/NR/rdonlyres/991FF96E-C6DB- 
4700-A900-F4DF2732E81A/0/ParticipantDevelopmentinSport.pdf (Accessed on: 
10/11/2012). 
BBC Wales (2012) Talent ID Scientist. Available at: 
http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/raiseyourgame/sites/concentration/getyourkiton/pages/na 
talie_dunman.shtml (Accessed on: 01/11/2012) 
Burgess, R. (2007) Talent Identification. Available at: 
http://www.ausport.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/114682/Talent_Identification_ 
RBurgess.pdf (Accessed on: 28/12/2012)
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
ECB (2006) Talent Identification Report Explanatory Notes. Available at: 
static.ecb.co.uk/files/talent-id-report-explanatory-notes-1403.doc (Accessed on: 
28/12/2012) 
Endless Human Potential (2012) Athletic Talent Identification. Available at: 
http://www.endlesshumanpotential.com/athletic-talent-identification.html (Accessed 
on: 11/11/2012) 
Long Term Athlete Development (2012) Talent ID. Available at: http://ltad.pro/talent-id/ 
(Accessed on: 11/11/2012) 
Robinson, L. (2011) An investigation into talent identification and development in 
English Netball. Available at: 
https://dspace.stir.ac.uk/bitstream/1893/3291/1/Netball%20Final%20report%2024%2 
004%2009.pdf (Accessed on: 28/12/2012) 
Smith, L. (2007) Running through history. Available at: 
http://www.brianmac.co.uk/articles/article005.htm (Accessed on: 29/12/2012). 
SportsCoachUK (2012) Early-age Talent Identification. Available at: 
http://www.coachingnysport.co.uk/partners/yh/nysport/byng_cache/assets/90704_13 
%20Talent%20ID%20Quick%20Guide.pdf (Accessed on: 01/11/2012) 
Tameside PE and Sport (2011) Talent Strategy 2006-2012. Available at: 
http://www.tameside.gov.uk/sports/development/talent#7 (Accessed on: 10/11/2012) 
Topend Sports Network (2012) Fitness Testing & Talent ID for Sports. Available at: 
http://www.topendsports.com/testing/talent-identification.htm (Accessed on: 
29/12/2012). 
Tucker, R. & Dugas, J. (2009) The Matthew Effect. Available at: 
http://www.sportsscientists.com/2009/01/matthew-effect.html?m=1 (Accessed on: 
29/12/2012). 
Wolstencroft, E. (2005) Talent Identification and Development Programme Academic 
Review: Summary. Available at: 
http://www.ausport.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/114685/talentidentificationand 
develop_summary.pdf (Accessed on: 11/11/2012) 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 10 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
Wolstencroft, E. ed. (2002) Talent Identification and Development: An Academic 
Review (A report for Sportscotland by the University of Edinburgh). Edinburgh: 
Sportscotland. (Online) Available at: 
http://researchrepository.napier.ac.uk/2493/1/Academic_Review.pdf (Accessed on: 
01/11/2012) 
Journals 
Abbott, A. & Collins, D. (2004) Eliminating the dichotomy between theory and 
practice in talent identification and development: considering the role of 
psychology. Journal of Sports Sciences. 22(5), pp.395-408. (Online) Available at: 
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02640410410001675324 (Accessed on: 
15/11/2012) 
Bottoni, B., Gianfelici, A., Tamburri, R. & Faina, M. (2011) Talent Selection Criteria 
for Olympic Distance Triathlon. Journal of Human Sport & Exercise, 6(2), pp. 293- 
304. (Online) Available at: https://breo.beds.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/pid-1861242-dt-content- 
rid-3373547_1/courses/12-13TYABSPO002- 
3/Bottoni%20et%20al_%202011_Talent%20selection%20criteria%20for%20olympic 
%20distance.pdf (Accessed on: 22/10/2012) 
Falk, B., Lidor, R., Lander, Y. and Lang, B. (2004) Talent identification and early 
development of elite water-polo players: a 2-year follow-up study. Journal of Sports 
Sciences, 22, pp.347–355. (Online) Available at: 
https://breo.beds.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/pid-1861242-dt-content-rid- 
3373548_1/courses/12-13TYABSPO002- 
3/Falk%20et%20al_2004_Talent%20identification%20and%20early%20development 
%20of%20elite%20%20water%20polo%20players.pdf (Accessed on: 22/10/2012) 
Gray, JH. & Plucker, JA. (2010) “She’s a Natural”: Identifying and Developing Athletic 
Talent. Journal for the Education of the Gifted; 33(3), pp. 361–380. (Online) Available 
at: 
http://mtweb.mtsu.edu/hjgray/GrayPortfolio/JEG%20Gray%20Plucker%20Article.pdf 
(Accessed on: 10/11/2012). 
Hohmann, A. & Seidel, I. (2003) Scientific aspects of talent development. 
International Journal of Physical Education, 40 (1), pp.9-20. (Online) Available at: 
http://www.sport.uni- 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 11 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
bayreuth.de/spo_wiss_I/de/download/talentforschung/scientific_aspects_of_talent_de 
velopment.pdf (Accessed on: 18/11/2012). 
Lidor, R., Falk, B., Arnon, M., Cohen, Y., Segal, G. and Lander, Y. (2005) 
Measurement of talent in team handball: the questionable use of motor and physical 
tests. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19(2), pp.318-325. (Online) 
Available at: https://breo.beds.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/pid-1861242-dt-content-rid- 
3373550_1/courses/12-13TYABSPO002- 
3/Lidor%20et%20al_2005_MEASUREMENT%20OF%20TALENT%20IN%20TEAM% 
20HANDBALL_THE%20questionable%20use%20of%20anthropometric.pdf 
(Accessed on: 22/10/2012) 
Martindale, RJJ, Collins, D. and Daubney, J. (2005) Talent Development: A Guide 
For Sport. Quest. 57 (0), pp.353-375. (Online) Available at: 
http://researchrepository.napier.ac.uk/2494/1/MartindaleQuest.doc (Accessed on: 
15/11/2012) 
Simmons, C. & Geoffrey, P.C. (2001) Season-Of-Birth Bias in association football. 
Journal of Sports Sciences, 19(9), pp.677-686. (Online) Available at: 
https://breo.beds.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/pid-1861242-dt-content-rid- 
3373551_1/courses/12-13TYABSPO002- 
3/Simmons%20and%20Geoffrey_2001_Season-of-birth% 
20bias%20in%20association%20football.pdf (Accessed on: 22/10/2012) 
Vaeyens, R., Lenoir, MA., Williams, M. and Philippaerts, RM. (2008) Talent 
Identification and Development Programmes in Sport: Current Models and Future 
Directions. Sports Medicine. 38 (9), pp.703-714. (Online) Available at: 
http://www.academia.edu/667981/Talent_Identificantion_and_Development_Program 
mes_in_Sport_current_models_and_future_directions (Accessed on: 01/11/2012). 
Walker, I.J., Nordin-Bates, S.M., & Redding, E. (2010) ‘Talent identification and 
development in dance: A review of the literature’. Research in Dance Education, 11 
(3) pp.165-189. (Online) Available at: 
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14647893.2010.527325 (Accessed on: 
08/11/2012) 
Williams, A.M. & Reilly, T. (2000) Talent Identification and Development in 
Soccer. Journal of Sports Sciences. 18(0), pp.657-667. (Online) Available at: 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 12 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment 
http://web.sls.hw.ac.uk/teaching/level4/A3.4GM2/Web%20Site/Week%205/Reilly%20 
Talent%20ID%20football.pdf (Accessed on: 01/11/2012) 
Carl Page (1008889) Page 13 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching 
Appendices 
Appendix 1. Talent identification and its influence on players performance. 
Appendix 2. Talent Identification R. Burgess. 
Appendix 3. Talent Identification Report Explanatory Notes. 
Appendix 4. MartindaleQuest: The model of effective talent identification and 
development procedures emerging from the literature.

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Two motor development cases: 1. Sport and exercise in the aged – therapy or mortality? 2. Sporting opportunities for the movement impaired.

  • 1. BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching Applied Reflective Account – Immaturity SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment Carl Page (1008889) University of Bedfordshire Mr. K Roberts
  • 2. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment Contents Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 2 Identify and Selected Key Concepts and Principles .......................................................... 2 Comment on the Robustness of the Body of Knowledge (Issues Conceptually, Methodologically Etc.)............................................................................................................. 3 Consider How the Selected Concepts and Principles Can Be Applied Clearly Stating Any Caveats ............................................................................................................................. 5 Clear Statement of the Guidance to Practitioners .............................................................. 7 References ............................................................................................................................... 8 Appendices ............................................................................................................................. 13 Carl Page (1008889) Page 2 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching Introduction In this assignment involves focusing on the motor development case “Talent identification in the young performer”. This comes from building reasons which encourage various theoretical points on appropriate cases in lifespan motor development and impairment matters within sport, physical activity and Physical Education. Also I will be commenting on the robustness of the body of knowledge such as the concepts and methodology issues. Likewise signify how the selected concepts and principles can be applied clearly stating any caveats. Finally, demonstrate a comprehension of performing and knowledge in sport with a clear statement of the guidance to practitioner’s actions. Identify and Selected Key Concepts and Principles Talent Identification is most frequently defined and identified using performance and potential, for instance recognised as ‘that process by which children are encouraged to participate in the sports at which they are most likely to succeed, based on results of testing selected parameters. These parameters are designed to predict performance capacity, taking into account the child's current level of fitness and
  • 3. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment maturity.’ (Appendix 2). Plus Bailey, (2012) specifies mainly they use the same techniques as the adults; specifically this includes some sort of scientific analysis, observations of their previous competition and training and cohort comparisons. Hence Martindale (2005) revealed when trying to identify and select young performers with potential from performance criteria; such as the screening influences of particular maturity stages and their previous performances. In contrast Gray & Plucker (2010) suggests physical maturity by itself does not predict future talent; this bias to misinterpret early physical maturation for physical talent is equally further problematic. Similarly with the maturation rates of the young performers since distinguish differences between talent and those who are simply more physically mature (SportsCoachUK, 2012). This importantly augmented with Sutherland, (2005) as could lead the young performer reaching a plateau and they could drop off well before they have achieved anything great in their sport (Endless Human Potential, 2012). So for when sport specialisation should occur and Falk et al. (2004) indicates the young performer’s talent detection of chronological, biological and cognitive ages. Whereas there is a considerable amount of resources is needed for this to occur which are regularly not available for sporting organisations. In the same way Bottoni et al. (2011) warns a lot of the processes required for talent identification such as the time and investment needed. For that reason Long Term Athlete Development, (2012) recommends the principles of TIPS – Technique, Intelligence, Personality and Speed to test or identify and monitor talent. Along with the other methods to be used for selecting talented performance for example scouting and testing (Appendix 1). Comment on the Robustness of the Body of Knowledge (Issues Conceptually, Methodologically Etc.) Primarily though there are limited research papers which observed the success of a battery of motor tests in the separation concerning that of young performers who are talented and those who are less so (Lidor et al. 2005). Plus supporting evidence from Carl Page (1008889) Page 3 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
  • 4. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment Utley and Astill (2008) proposes guidelines with regard to assessing learning and performance, and any experiment examining learning should consider using transfer tests. They are essential seeing as the context, skill or both can be manipulated to make the task novel. Nevertheless Walker et al. (2010) implies that talent is particularly tough to define and its identification may depend on intuitive judgements. In spite of this Hohmann & Seidel (2003) exposed the issues related with talent identification and forecasting future development through being best exemplified of the term ‘season-of-birth’. For instance there is a recognised selection biases towards the young performers who are physically mature for various sports for example in football, rugby and tennis then the opposite for gymnastics (Wolstencroft, 2005). As mentioned before this selection bias is also noticed by Simmons & Geoffrey (2001) for age-category in team sports occurring because there is an importance of winning at any cost. To such an extent figure 1 illustrating when ultimately the other young performers get closer to their early developed cohorts; this ensues understanding that these were not extra talented when in fact only had matured at a faster rate and are classified as being unexpected “Non-Achievers”. Figure 1. Performance and selection (cf. Hohmann & Carl. 2002, p. 10) In Chun, J. (2007) Identifying Highly Talented Athletes: Conception and Design of an Expert System: Specific to Track and Field. Norderstedt: GRIN Verlag Whilst studies from Williams & Reilly (2000) also added issues to that the assumptions about young talented male performers can be generalised to females. So importantly there is a need for a clear system to offer a philosophy that rationally pushes the purposes and the systems of talent identification (Martindale et al., 2005). Carl Page (1008889) Page 4 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
  • 5. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment Consequently examinations into talent identification and development are broadened to tackle issues associated to young performers of both genders. Although Brown, (2001) discovered talent even when it is present and accounted for does not always guarantee athletic excellence. Consider How the Selected Concepts and Principles Can Be Applied Clearly Stating Any Caveats Although mainly because of the young performer’s varying growth patterns makes Talent Identification not very reliable in forecasting their prospected accomplishments (Topend Sports Network, 2012). However there are several long-established and current talent identification models, such as Scotland’s Sport Interactive and Australia’s Talent Search with sports like basketball, rowing and swimming. In agreement which Bailey, et al. (2010) acknowledges some sports talent identification use anthropometric measurements e.g. rowers requires a person to have great stature and arm reach with a superb aerobic fitness. Likewise Hill, (2007) acknowledges Australia and the UK are presently applying more scientific approaches in trying to identify sporting potential in the young performers. The England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) reports Talent Identification is done through subjectively assessing whether the cricketer meets their explanatory criteria on attitude, aptitude, athleticism and the coach’s instinct see Appendix 3. Whereas Bailey, (2012) signifying it being practically unlikely to form any valid and reliable assessments of the young performers sporting performance which is able to be interpreted in relations of talent. Although being presented in figure 2 the young performer demonstrates the required talent and proper motivation to increase their chances of becoming elite athletes (Brook, 2009). Figure 2. Aptitude to Self Actualisation (Brook, 2009) Carl Page (1008889) Page 5 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
  • 6. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment The specific tests of definite physical attributes for sporting potential e.g. sprint cyclists is their leg power and body height/weight ratio (Topend Sports Network, 2012). However as Smith, (2007) proves even with those with the certain physical attributes for example a runner in their talent identification programme this shall mean little if the performer is not enthusiastic. In contrast Vaeyens et al. (2008) puts forward thoughts to upsurge the effectiveness of talent identification and development programmes; a multidimensional strategy along with establishing situation specific exercises when identifying talent in young performers. Conversely ScUK Coaching and Stafford (2005) signifies previously that talent identification and development may have been an ignored field. Whereby Appendix 1 presents the particular simple scouting requirements used to analyse the young performer by means of the types of testing; Physical Physiological Psychological Technical However media publications argue this for instance BBC Wales, (2012) states that UK Sport and the English Institute of Sport (EIS) have a systematic long term plan for success. This is because the initiative of Talent ID campaigns are purposely ran to discover those athletes who have the raw material for World Class success. Also Robinson, (2011) discovered that talent identification and development system is working effectively. Although recommended by Tameside PE and Sport (2011) indicating more work is essential for safeguarding the application of a widespread talent pathway for all young performers including those with disabilities. Nevertheless with the difficulty of separation concerning talent and physical development, this must not be undervalued because it can considerably influence on some beliefs of Talent Identification set-ups (SportsCoachUK, 2012). Nonetheless Long Term Athlete Development, (2012) testifies for many sports, the outcome (talent) and obtaining normative data is unknown. Plus Burgess, (2007) continues demonstrating it can be challenging to identify a specific sport that is well-matched for a young performer since they will usually show good varied skills. Therefore conducting the talent identification programs for the Carl Page (1008889) Page 6 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
  • 7. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment correct age of individual sports makes it quite tricky. Whereby other studies from various professionals believe young performers to specialise in a specific sport before they turn thirteen could be damaging. On the other hand different individuals believe before the young performers are twelve years old need encouragement of efficient skill development through guiding those performers to experience various sports (Appendix 2). In spite of this Chun, (2007) gives evidence for the possible difference involving young performers real age and their biological age. The Matthew Effect in figure 3 even occurs whenever class mates compare each other generally being much faster, taller and more muscular. Figure 3. The Matthew Effect. (Tucker & Dugas, 2009) Clear Statement of the Guidance to Practitioners A practitioner must follow Brown, (2001) advice of objectively measuring individual’s sporting ability by the way of being patient with the late bloomer and avoiding burnout. A sports coach has to be aware of the assessment variables such as the young performer’s mental ability, speed of abilities development, utilisation of endogenous and exogenous resources, load and stress tolerance (Bottoni et al. 2011). Also have knowledge that young performer’s skeletons and muscles should be allowed to be developed and grow without increasing the risk of injury. The difference between early and late maturation of young performers. Carl Page (1008889) Page 7 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
  • 8. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment It is important to know sports scientists have the responsibility of collaborating with coaches, scouts and administrators as highlight key components of the talent identification and development process (Williams & Reilly, 2000). Likewise early identification of talented athletes Abbott & Collins (2004) advocates is becoming an ever increasingly key significance. Finally Martindale et al. (2005) revealed the model of effective talent identification and development procedures emerging from the literature as shown in Appendix 4. Carl Page (1008889) Page 8 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching References Paper Books ScUK Coaching and Stafford, I. (2005) Coaching for long-term athlete development: to improve participation and performance in sport [Book]. Leeds: Coachwise Business Solutions on behalf Sports Coach UK. Utley, A. and Astill, S. (2008) Motor Control, Learning and Development. Taylor & Francis: Oxon. Online Books Brown, J. (2001) Sports Talent: How to Identify and Develop Outstanding Athletes. Champaign, IL. Leeds: Human Kinetics. (Online) Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=LRefLc_n4pIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Talent+i dentification&hl=en&sa=X&ei=hRmqUKu9CKuX0QXOgYH4Cg&ved=0CEoQ6AEwB w#v=onepage&q=Talent%20identification&f=false (Accessed on: 12/11/2012) Chun, J. (2007) Identifying Highly Talented Athletes: Conception and Design of an Expert System: Specific to Track and Field. Norderstedt: GRIN Verlag. (Online) Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=qHcHdCiekuwC&pg=PA58&lpg=PA58&dq=peltol a+talent+identification&source=bl&ots=9Zqb3CZkYj&sig=lTUfQxZI_rNTRDheI_TeHD n7WZg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=2ozdUKmJE4Kd0QWbtoHIBw&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAA#v=o nepage&q=peltola%20talent%20identification&f=false (Accessed on: 28/12/2012)
  • 9. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment Hill, M. (2007) In Pursuit of Excellence: A Student Guide to Elite Sports Development. Oxon: Routledge. (Online) Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=2egTwKj9gYsC&pg=PA103&dq=Talent+identific ation+in+the+young+performer&hl=en&sa=X&ei=YnCSUP_dCujB0QWRkIH4CQ&ve d=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Talent%20identification%20in%20the%20young %20performer&f=false (Accessed on: 01/11/2012) Sutherland, M. (2005) Gifted and Talented in the Early Years: Practical Activities for Children Aged 3 To 5. London: SAGE Publications Inc. MyAthens (ebrary). Available at: http://site.ebrary.com/lib/treshamins/docDetail.action?docID=10218172&p00=talent% 20identification (Accessed on: 12/11/2012) Carl Page (1008889) Page 9 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching Websites Bailey, R. (2012) So What Is Developmentally Appropriate Sport? Available at: http://sportscoachuk.org/blog/so-what-developmentally-appropriate-sport-richard-bailey (Accessed on: 08/10/2012) Bailey, R., Collins, D., Ford, P., MacNamara, Á., Toms M., & Pearce, G. (2010) ‘Participant Development in Sport: An Academic Review’ Sports Coach UK & Sport Northern Ireland. Available at: http://www.sportni.net/NR/rdonlyres/991FF96E-C6DB- 4700-A900-F4DF2732E81A/0/ParticipantDevelopmentinSport.pdf (Accessed on: 10/11/2012). BBC Wales (2012) Talent ID Scientist. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/raiseyourgame/sites/concentration/getyourkiton/pages/na talie_dunman.shtml (Accessed on: 01/11/2012) Burgess, R. (2007) Talent Identification. Available at: http://www.ausport.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/114682/Talent_Identification_ RBurgess.pdf (Accessed on: 28/12/2012)
  • 10. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment ECB (2006) Talent Identification Report Explanatory Notes. Available at: static.ecb.co.uk/files/talent-id-report-explanatory-notes-1403.doc (Accessed on: 28/12/2012) Endless Human Potential (2012) Athletic Talent Identification. Available at: http://www.endlesshumanpotential.com/athletic-talent-identification.html (Accessed on: 11/11/2012) Long Term Athlete Development (2012) Talent ID. Available at: http://ltad.pro/talent-id/ (Accessed on: 11/11/2012) Robinson, L. (2011) An investigation into talent identification and development in English Netball. Available at: https://dspace.stir.ac.uk/bitstream/1893/3291/1/Netball%20Final%20report%2024%2 004%2009.pdf (Accessed on: 28/12/2012) Smith, L. (2007) Running through history. Available at: http://www.brianmac.co.uk/articles/article005.htm (Accessed on: 29/12/2012). SportsCoachUK (2012) Early-age Talent Identification. Available at: http://www.coachingnysport.co.uk/partners/yh/nysport/byng_cache/assets/90704_13 %20Talent%20ID%20Quick%20Guide.pdf (Accessed on: 01/11/2012) Tameside PE and Sport (2011) Talent Strategy 2006-2012. Available at: http://www.tameside.gov.uk/sports/development/talent#7 (Accessed on: 10/11/2012) Topend Sports Network (2012) Fitness Testing & Talent ID for Sports. Available at: http://www.topendsports.com/testing/talent-identification.htm (Accessed on: 29/12/2012). Tucker, R. & Dugas, J. (2009) The Matthew Effect. Available at: http://www.sportsscientists.com/2009/01/matthew-effect.html?m=1 (Accessed on: 29/12/2012). Wolstencroft, E. (2005) Talent Identification and Development Programme Academic Review: Summary. Available at: http://www.ausport.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/114685/talentidentificationand develop_summary.pdf (Accessed on: 11/11/2012) Carl Page (1008889) Page 10 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
  • 11. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment Wolstencroft, E. ed. (2002) Talent Identification and Development: An Academic Review (A report for Sportscotland by the University of Edinburgh). Edinburgh: Sportscotland. (Online) Available at: http://researchrepository.napier.ac.uk/2493/1/Academic_Review.pdf (Accessed on: 01/11/2012) Journals Abbott, A. & Collins, D. (2004) Eliminating the dichotomy between theory and practice in talent identification and development: considering the role of psychology. Journal of Sports Sciences. 22(5), pp.395-408. (Online) Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02640410410001675324 (Accessed on: 15/11/2012) Bottoni, B., Gianfelici, A., Tamburri, R. & Faina, M. (2011) Talent Selection Criteria for Olympic Distance Triathlon. Journal of Human Sport & Exercise, 6(2), pp. 293- 304. (Online) Available at: https://breo.beds.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/pid-1861242-dt-content- rid-3373547_1/courses/12-13TYABSPO002- 3/Bottoni%20et%20al_%202011_Talent%20selection%20criteria%20for%20olympic %20distance.pdf (Accessed on: 22/10/2012) Falk, B., Lidor, R., Lander, Y. and Lang, B. (2004) Talent identification and early development of elite water-polo players: a 2-year follow-up study. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22, pp.347–355. (Online) Available at: https://breo.beds.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/pid-1861242-dt-content-rid- 3373548_1/courses/12-13TYABSPO002- 3/Falk%20et%20al_2004_Talent%20identification%20and%20early%20development %20of%20elite%20%20water%20polo%20players.pdf (Accessed on: 22/10/2012) Gray, JH. & Plucker, JA. (2010) “She’s a Natural”: Identifying and Developing Athletic Talent. Journal for the Education of the Gifted; 33(3), pp. 361–380. (Online) Available at: http://mtweb.mtsu.edu/hjgray/GrayPortfolio/JEG%20Gray%20Plucker%20Article.pdf (Accessed on: 10/11/2012). Hohmann, A. & Seidel, I. (2003) Scientific aspects of talent development. International Journal of Physical Education, 40 (1), pp.9-20. (Online) Available at: http://www.sport.uni- Carl Page (1008889) Page 11 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
  • 12. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment bayreuth.de/spo_wiss_I/de/download/talentforschung/scientific_aspects_of_talent_de velopment.pdf (Accessed on: 18/11/2012). Lidor, R., Falk, B., Arnon, M., Cohen, Y., Segal, G. and Lander, Y. (2005) Measurement of talent in team handball: the questionable use of motor and physical tests. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19(2), pp.318-325. (Online) Available at: https://breo.beds.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/pid-1861242-dt-content-rid- 3373550_1/courses/12-13TYABSPO002- 3/Lidor%20et%20al_2005_MEASUREMENT%20OF%20TALENT%20IN%20TEAM% 20HANDBALL_THE%20questionable%20use%20of%20anthropometric.pdf (Accessed on: 22/10/2012) Martindale, RJJ, Collins, D. and Daubney, J. (2005) Talent Development: A Guide For Sport. Quest. 57 (0), pp.353-375. (Online) Available at: http://researchrepository.napier.ac.uk/2494/1/MartindaleQuest.doc (Accessed on: 15/11/2012) Simmons, C. & Geoffrey, P.C. (2001) Season-Of-Birth Bias in association football. Journal of Sports Sciences, 19(9), pp.677-686. (Online) Available at: https://breo.beds.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/pid-1861242-dt-content-rid- 3373551_1/courses/12-13TYABSPO002- 3/Simmons%20and%20Geoffrey_2001_Season-of-birth% 20bias%20in%20association%20football.pdf (Accessed on: 22/10/2012) Vaeyens, R., Lenoir, MA., Williams, M. and Philippaerts, RM. (2008) Talent Identification and Development Programmes in Sport: Current Models and Future Directions. Sports Medicine. 38 (9), pp.703-714. (Online) Available at: http://www.academia.edu/667981/Talent_Identificantion_and_Development_Program mes_in_Sport_current_models_and_future_directions (Accessed on: 01/11/2012). Walker, I.J., Nordin-Bates, S.M., & Redding, E. (2010) ‘Talent identification and development in dance: A review of the literature’. Research in Dance Education, 11 (3) pp.165-189. (Online) Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14647893.2010.527325 (Accessed on: 08/11/2012) Williams, A.M. & Reilly, T. (2000) Talent Identification and Development in Soccer. Journal of Sports Sciences. 18(0), pp.657-667. (Online) Available at: Carl Page (1008889) Page 12 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching
  • 13. SPO030-3 Cases in Lifespan Motor Development and Impairment http://web.sls.hw.ac.uk/teaching/level4/A3.4GM2/Web%20Site/Week%205/Reilly%20 Talent%20ID%20football.pdf (Accessed on: 01/11/2012) Carl Page (1008889) Page 13 BSc (Hons) Sports Science and Coaching Appendices Appendix 1. Talent identification and its influence on players performance. Appendix 2. Talent Identification R. Burgess. Appendix 3. Talent Identification Report Explanatory Notes. Appendix 4. MartindaleQuest: The model of effective talent identification and development procedures emerging from the literature.