Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Blood pressure

11,986 views

Published on

Nursing Therapy

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ,DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yyxo9sk7 } ......................................................................................................................... ,DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yyxo9sk7 } ......................................................................................................................... ,DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yyxo9sk7 } ......................................................................................................................... ,DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yyxo9sk7 } ......................................................................................................................... ,DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yyxo9sk7 } ......................................................................................................................... ,DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yyxo9sk7 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Blood pressure

  1. 1. BLOOD PRESSURE Chamika Wickramavansa [Group 5] 1st Year 2nd Semester Kursk State Medical University
  2. 2. What is blood pressure? • Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood in the arteries as it is pumped around the body by the heart. Blood pressure does not stay the same all the time. It changes to meet your body’s needs. It is affected by various factors including body position, breathing, emotional state, exercise and sleep.
  3. 3. Methods of blood measurement • Auscultatory method • Palpatory method • Oscillometry method • Invasive method • Noninvasive method • Continuous noninvasive techniques (CNAP)
  4. 4. How to measure blood pressure? • Arterial pressure is most commonly measured via a sphygmomanometer, which historically used the height of a column of mercury to reflect the circulating pressure. Blood pressure values are generally reported in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) • Measured by wrapping an inflatable pressure cuff around patient’s upper arm. This cuff is part of a machine called a sphygmomanometer. It is best to measure blood pressure when you are relaxed and sitting.
  5. 5. Steps of measuring blood pressure 1. Patients arm should be supported, with his/her upper arm at heart level, back supported, legs uncrossed, and feet on the floor. Your upper arm should be bare, with sleeve comfortably rolled up. 2. Medical personnel should wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The lower edge of the cuff should be 1 inch above the bend of your elbow.
  6. 6. Steps of measuring blood pressure 3. The cuff must be inflated quickly, either by pumping the squeeze bulb or pushing a button. Patient would feel tightness around his/her arm. 4. Next, the valve of the cuff should opened slightly, allowing the pressure to slowly fall. 5. As the pressure falls, the reading when the sound of blood pulsing is first heard is recorded. This is the systolic pressure.
  7. 7. Steps of measuring blood pressure 5. As the air continues to be let out, the sounds would disappear. The point at which the sound disappears is recorded. This is the diastolic pressure. • Inflating the cuff too slowly or not high enough may cause a false reading. If you loosen the valve too much, you won't be able to determine your blood pressure.
  8. 8. Palpatory method 1. The cuff of the sphygmomanomet er is wrapped firmly around the right arm above the elbow. The lower arm should be resting on a table- top or bench.Source – www.gehealthcare.com
  9. 9. Palpatory method 2. The radial pulse (the pulse at the radial artery in the wrist) is palpated with the fingers of the left hand. The number of beats in 30 seconds is counted, and the heart rate in beats per minute is recorded. 3. The valve on the inflating bulb of the sphygmomanometer is turned fully closed. The cuff is inflated slowly (10 mm Hg/sec) by pumping the inflating bulb until the radial pulse is no longer felt. The cuff is inflated further until the pressure is about 30 mm Hg higher.
  10. 10. Palpatory method 4. The valve on the inflating bulb is opened slightly by turning it in the counterclockwise direction, allowing the pressure to drop slowly by about 5 mm Hg/sec. At some point, one will be able to feel the radial pulse once again. The pressure indicated on the gauge when the pulse reappears is noted. This is the systolic pressure. Now the pressure in the cuff is quickly released, so as not to cause undue discomfort to the patient.
  11. 11. Auscultatory method • The brachial pulse is palpated just above the angle of the elbow (the "antecubital fossa"). • The diaphragm is placed over the brachial artery in the space between the bottom of the cuff and the crease of the elbow. At this point no sounds should be heard Source - www.laerdal.com
  12. 12. Auscultatory method • The cuff pressure is inflated quickly to a pressure about 30 mm Hg higher than the systolic pressure determined by the method of palpation. Then the air is let out of the cuff at a rate such that cuff pressure falls at a rate of about 5 mm Hg/sec. • At some point the personnel listening with the stethoscope will begin to hear sounds with each heartbeat. This point marks the systolic pressure. • The sounds are called “Korotkoff” sounds.
  13. 13. Auscultatory method • As the pressure is lowered further, the character of the Korotkoff sounds should change. At some point, the sounds will disappear. • The pressure reading at this point gives the diastolic pressure.
  14. 14. Oscillometry method • The pulsations induced by the artery are different: when the artery is compressed, no pulsation is perceived by the device, then when the pressure decreases in the cuff, the artery starts to emit pulsations: the pressure then measured on the device defines the maximal blood pressure or systolic blood pressure.
  15. 15. Oscillometry method • During the pressure decrease in the cuff, the oscillations will become increasingly significant, until a maximum amplitude of these oscillations defines the average blood pressure.
  16. 16. Oscillometry method • Then, the oscillations can still be seen during the decrease of the pressure in the cuff, until they disappear: the pressure then read on the device defines the minimal blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure. • This method of measurement of the blood pressure is the oscillometric method. It is very often used in the automatic device for the measurement of the blood pressure because of its excellent reliability
  17. 17. Oscillometry method
  18. 18. Invasive method • This technique involves direct measurement of arterial pressure by placing a cannula needle in an artery (usually radial, femoral, dorsalis pedis or brachial). • The cannula must be connected to a sterile, fluid-filled system, which is connected to an electronic patient monitor. • The advantage of this system is that pressure is constantly monitored beat-by-beat, and a waveform (a graph of pressure against time) can be displayed.
  19. 19. Invasive method www.laerdal.com
  20. 20. Cannula needles
  21. 21. Blood measuring apparatus Mercury sphygmomanometers They measure blood pressure by observing the height of a column of mercury
  22. 22. Blood measuring apparatus Aneroid sphygmomanometers (mechanical types with a dial) are in common use; they require calibration checks, unlike mercury manometers. Aneroid sphygmomanometers are considered safer than mercury based.
  23. 23. Thank You • Reference – www.heart.org / www.wikipedia.com

×