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Towards participatory ecosystem-based planning in Indonesia: a case study in the Moluccas


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Communities in Indonesia’s Tanimbar Archipelago retain strong traditional resource management systems and have a history of resisting exploitation of their fragile islands by outsiders. But Tanimbar is poor and remote, so there is a desire for development. In this presentation, Yves Laumonier describes how a joint project with the International Center for Research in Agricultural Developmnet (CIRAD), CIFOR, and Birdlife Indonesia, successfully combined local concerns and national priorities in land-use planning using an participatory, ecosystem-based approach. The presentation, which has implications for community-based land-use planning in other parts of Indonesia, was given on 6 December 2011 at the 25th international congress of the Society for Conservation Biology. The theme of the congress was ‘Engaging Society in Conservation’ and more than 1,300 scientists, practitioners and students of conservation biology from around the globe attended.

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Towards participatory ecosystem-based planning in Indonesia: a case study in the Moluccas

  1. 1. Towards participatory ecosystem-based planning in Indonesia: a case study in the MoluccasYves LaumonierRobin BourgeoisRobert NasiAloysius TaoBayuni Shantiko25th International Congress for Conservation Biology (ICCB),Auckland, New Zealand, Dec 4 – 9 2011
  2. 2. Tanimbar Archipelago, southeasternIndonesia MOLUCCAS5.900 km2, 9 Districts, 71 villages Biologically very rich seas Last significant Monsoon Forest Jav Poorest population of Indonesia a Lesser Sunda Islands
  3. 3.  Communities retain strong traditional resource management systems  History of local action against outsiders (riots against logging companies in 1992 and 1995) Aspiration for development, decentralization in 1999Fragile environment • Limestone and raised coral geology • Thin soil easily eroded once forest cover removed • Water shortage, seasonal climate • Confined to coast, population depends on forested water catchments inland
  4. 4. Promote a participatory ecosystem-based approachin land-use planning (LUP), facilitating theintegration of local concerns and national priorities Objectives Co-develop land zoning and land use plan Co-prepare community-based development project proposals
  5. 5. By working on four main components1. Identifying stakeholders and collaborativelydesigning programme framework2. Facilitating common vision, goals and objectives3. Collecting and synthesizing social-ecological dataon issues linked to ecosystem-based planning andcommunity-based development projects4. Developing a process of advocacy, consultationand agreement about ecosystem-based landallocation and Land Use Plan, including legalaspects
  6. 6. Methods1. Identify stakeholders and program frameworkPreliminary assessment of issues: Focus groups, key informantinterviews, public meetings Socialization of concepts (LUP,ecosystem, participatory) Identify program scale and boundaries• Identify and agree about the needs of arevision of the land allocation and LUP
  7. 7. Socialization of concepts and community development in ecosystem-based approach to Land Use Planning Review Dusun / Soa levelSocialization Constitution Review Dusun/ Workshop of concept, Workshop Regency of facilitation Kampung/Soaprocess and village teammethodology level Training Review methodology Dusun/ Kampung/Soa Meeting betwee n villages Result of review on: Ecological, biophysical and social Village agreement Imple data: collective on Land Use Plan mentat (desa, Kecamatan, ion recommendations Yamdena, kabupaten) Monitoring/ Evaluation Participation
  8. 8. Methods2. Common vision and goals • Forum and workshops, focus group techniques to build collaboration • Participatory Prospective Analysis to build vision and scenario
  9. 9. The main steps of Participatory Prospective Analysis1. Define the limits of the system S0 – Definition of the system2. Identify the variables3. Define the variables S1 – Identification of4. Analyse their mutual influences / dependence the key factors that5. Identify and select the key variables will shape the future6. Define the states of the key variables S2 – Identification (what will happen in the future) and description of the possible futures6. Build up scenarios (a combination of hypotheses about what will happen to the key variables) S3 – Definition of a strategy
  10. 10. Methods3: Social-ecological data collectionfor ecosystem-based planning  Community-based survey, participatory mapping  Socioeconomics, biophysical, ecological, ethno-biological surveys  Analysis of data to identify critical patterns, processes and linkage
  11. 11. Main Results
  12. 12. 1. Agreement on the weakness of existing land zoning •Spatial data used insufficiently detailed (1:250,000) for practical HP LUP, ‘blown up’ at larger scale HPT •Very poor agreement between zoning and topography or vegetation, serious spatial HSAW inaccuracies HPT •Unclear zoning criteria and legal HPK statusAPL •Use of ‘Forest Score’ to define HP Forest Land Status not adapted to island like Yamdena (seasonal climate, fragile soil type)
  13. 13. 2. Traditional spatial allocation of land use rights Forbidden Shared forest use use, permitted, timber Mangrove, protected and non-timber regulated use forest forest productsCoastal area,regulated use Restricted use River riverineRegulated forest use Agriculture and plantations
  14. 14. 3. Bunch of ecological data for the main ecosystems: trees,small mammals, birds, soil; ecological mappingDry Deciduous Mixed Deciduous Evergreen Rain Forest
  15. 15. 4. Decision rules for government using ecosystem and watershed based planningForest cover used as first re-adjustment of ‘Forest Land’• All sub-watersheds where more than 70% of the land cover is food crop, shrub, grass, mixed garden should be classified as non Forest Estate.• The forest that remains within these watersheds is assigned as community forest (Hutan Masyarakat).• Negotiations with Ministry of Forestry by local government.
  16. 16. Delineation of Protection and Conservation Forest area (unit watershed and ecosystem)• Under current MoF regulations, all areas under Mangrove• Under current MoF regulations, all areas within 100 m of main rivers• Soil type very prone to erosion with slope 15% (Decree 44, 2004)• The forest cover is more than 30% Dry Deciduous Forest (new specific decision rules for Monsoon forest)
  17. 17. Delineation of Production Forest • Soil survey data showing very high rates for potential soil erosion. • Economic studies showing at the same time that logging operation in Yamdena is not economically viableNormal logging intensities under Production Forest are not permissible in Yamdena.Commercial forest activity, if any, should be managed as Limited Production Forest.
  19. 19. Advocacy and agreements,civil society andgovernmentFinal agreement betweenPeople representatives (customary and village leaders, religion leaders, youth and women groups) from the 40 villages of Yamdena Island, local technical agencies and local governmentOfficial request for endorsement to central government
  20. 20. Legally supported
  21. 21. Satisfactory achievements• Consensus on new Land Allocation/zoning and Land Use Planning• Collectively designed project proposals between communities and local government on future actions in agriculture, forestry and fisheries sectors (community-based micro-projects)• Better mutual understanding on social-ecological systems in a Monsoon Forest environment• Better mutual understanding that the customary lawshould be integrated into the national law as a better conflict resolution solution … butAlthough results endorsed at district and provincial level, no follow up nor official agreement at national level
  22. 22. Conclusions• Ecosystem-based approach isappropriate as an expanded land-useplanning process.• In the present study it facilitated theintegration of broad scale natural andsocial system in community developmentand collaborative LUP.• Similar approach should be promotedfor other areas in the Moluccas and in therest of Indonesia, considering carefullygovernance links between regional andnational decision levels.
  23. 23. Kalwedo Thank you !Kidabela!