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Forest Sector Reform Peru


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Forest Sector Reform Peru

  1. 1. General Direction ofPERU Ministry of Agriculture Forest and Wildlife
  2. 2. Contents1. Forest sector context2. Legislation reform3. Forest zoning4. Mechanisms to access resources5. Promoting good practices in forest management6. Deforestation Illegal logging7. Improved Forest Information System and Control Module8. Transparency and Anticorruption Actions
  3. 3. 1. Forest Sector Context
  4. 4. PERU: LAND OF FORESTS 68.7 million hectares of Forest • Coastal 4.6% • Andean 1.3 % • Amazon 94.1%• Mega biodiversity: 84 life zonesaccording to L.Holdridge bioclimaticsystem (72% of the 117 existing in theworld)• 2nd biggest forest area in SouthAmerica, 9th in the world, 4th intropical forests• 2500 timber species; avg. 250trees/ha; approximately 200 m3/Ha,avg. harvest 5 m3/Ha
  5. 5. Institutional Framework National Forest and Wildlife Authority: General Directorate of Forest and Wildlife under the Ministry of Agriculture Defines national forest policy and is directly responsible for: a) elaborate an d approve regulations for forest management, b) approve forest land use planning and develops the national inventory in coordination with regional governments, c) provides export permits, d) promotion of forest activities, e) manages the National Forest and Wildlife System National Environmental Authority: Ministry of Environment Regional Forest and Wildlife Authorities: Regional Governments responsible for * a) provide rights for forest and wildlife resources management y b) forest and wildlife control *In regions where decentralization process has been applied.
  6. 6. Institutional Framework Supervision: National Supervisor Organism of Forest and Wildlife Resources (OSINFOR) in charge of supervise the correct implementation of the rights given to manage forest and wildlife resources. Control authorities: - National Police - Environmental Prosecutor - Ports Authority (DICAPI) - Tax Authority (SUNAT)
  7. 7. 2. Legal Reform
  8. 8. New World Forest Management Paradigms•Leave behind wood extraction approach and turn into an ecosystemicapproach viewing the forest as a provider of and services.•Multiple uses: wood, resins, rubbers, nuts and chestnuts, amongothers products different from wood, wild fauna, research, ecotourismand recreation, scenic beauty, water provision, capture and carbonretention, among others services.•Multiple stakeholders: in several levels, direct and indirect: frominhabitants of the forests (local and indigenous communities) to all thesociety.•Use and valuation of ecosystemic services as a key tool in the fightagainst deforestation and the climatic change
  9. 9. World Tendencies for Regulations•Greater autonomy for forest national agencies.•Application of the subsidiary principle: competitions transferred to thesub national authorities (federal or decentralized governments).•Emphasis ordering and zoning for the allocation of rights to accessresources.•Emphasis in incentives/prizes, before commando-control instrumentshad little “enforcement”•Incorporate new instruments to give value to the forest.•Decision making that involves all, requires the participation of all.•Recognize the influence of other sectors regulation in forestsconservation (agrarian efficiency and competitiveness, laboropportunities, advances in bioenergy, etc)
  10. 10. Legal and Institutional Framework ImprovementsLegal framework improvements •New Forest and Wildlife Law (Law 29763) •Forest and Wildlife Regulations under construction •National Forest and Wildlife Policy Bill for approvalInstitutional changes •Creation of OSINFOR as an independent entity (DL 1085) •Creation of Ministry of Environment (DL 1013) •Decentralization process (up to 6 regions) •Personnel number increase and capacity building programs applied (DGFFS, OSINFOR, GORES)Control system strengthening: •Third parties allowed to be hired for supervision (DL 1085) •Verification of CITES species (100%) prior establishment of export cuotas. •Audits for concessions every five years •Control module system under construction •Application online for CITES documentation
  11. 11. PERUVIAN FOREST AND WILDLIFE POLICY PrinciplesForest governance, Ecosystemic approach, Preventive and Precautionary approach, Competitiveness y Productivity, Intersectorial Approach, Interculturality Equity and social inclusion, y Sustainable use of the forest and wildlife Patrimony. Main GoalPromoting sustainable development assuring conservation and sustainable use of goods and services from the forest ecosystems.
  12. 12. Specific ObjectivesTo Promote competitiveness through forest management and industrializationof forest and wildlife products and value adding productive chains.To Strengthen forest governance and effective public administration onforest sector.To Consolidate community forest management with social inclusion andequality.
  13. 13. NEW FOREST & WILDLIFE LAW• Strengthens forest institutionalism: Creation of the Forest & Wildlife Service (SERFOR), with administrative autonomy.• Facilitates public participation through SERFOR’s consultative and directive councils (CONAFOR & COREFOR)• Specifies the roles of the regional governments in the forest administration• Promotes forest certification• Recognizes and protects indigenous people’s rights• Establishes access conditions (concessions, permits, authorizations) to goods and services of the natural ecosystems, including Environmental Services such as Carbon sequestration and conservation. (ecosystemic approach)• Establishes legal locks to grant deforestation authorizations and forbids land use change from primary forest to agrarian purposes.
  14. 14. NEW FOREST & WILDLIFE LAW• Control enforcement adding detalied tools for control such as forest zoning and categories in line with the ecologic economic zining (made by regional governments) and inventories of forests and wildlife.• CITES species protection of species considered under Annex I such as cedrelia and mahogany stablishing special measures such as in site inspections before and after harvest.
  15. 15. SOCIAL INCLUSION IN NEW LAW• Recognition and respect to ILO 169• Respect to traditional knowledge• Public participation in control and protection of the forest resources (Local Forest Management Committees and Indigenous Communities Participation over their territories)• Capacity building and technical assistance• Community forest management (with possibilities for associative agreements with private companies)
  16. 16. New Forest and Wildlife Regulations Versión Final End of 2012 2nd Draft TODAY 1st Draft Rulings Approval Consultation Process with Indigenous Open People Participation ProcessJuly 22nd, Methodology and 2011 Calendar with Interagency Group Forest Law enacted
  17. 17. 3. Forest Zoning and Land planning
  18. 18. FOREST ZONING Permanent • 3 Forests Categories of Primary and Secondary forests divided by intensity of possible extraction • Planted Forests as product of forestation or reforestation where managementProduction Zones of timber and non timber products is possible. Protection and • Fragile ecosystems where limited extraction is possible. National Natural Conservation Protected Areas are settled in this zones (nowadays 73 covering 15.21% of the territory) Zones • Areas which require special strategy to restore their ecosystem. They may be Recovery Zones for timber management purposes or for restoration and conservation • Indigenous People in Isolation Reserved Territories: no management allowedSpecial Treatment • Agro forestry Production Zones • Residual Forests: appropriate for conservation, use of non timber products Zones and environmental services, limited timber extraction) • Non forest vegetation associations (for non timber and environmental services)
  19. 19. PERMANENTPRODUCTION FORESTS AreaRegions Thousand (ha)Ayacucho 146Cusco 172Huánuco 622Loreto 9 302Madre de Dios 1 935Puno 25San Martin 1 122Ucayali 3 540Loreto Ucayali: BiaboCordillera Azul 899TOTAL 16 864
  20. 20. 4. Rights to access forest resources
  21. 21. ACCESS TO FOREST RESOURCES: Multiple uses and stakeholders • Granted in Permanent Production ForestsTimber Concessions • Public Areas • Forest Management rights conceded for 40 renewable years Non Timber Forest • Ecotourism, Conservation, Wildlife management • Public AreasProducts Concessions • (brazil nut, medicinal and ornamental plants, bamboo, rubber, others) • Private Areas or Community areas with forests of any zoning category or Permits forest and/or wildlife management • For extraction of ornamental, medicinal and riverside plants, use and Authorizations tenure of wildlife, hunting in restricted areas. Use Cession • Granted in Public Areas for agroforestry systems. (coffee, cacao)
  22. 22. Forest concessions granted Concessions Nº Area (ha)For woodPor Concurso Público 556 7,117,997.00Por adecuación decontrato 20 343,886.44For other resources different than woodCastaña 983 863,778.11Shiringa 23 16,021.39Ecoturism 29 59,774.10Conservation 18 648, 211.74Wildlife management 2 4,590.12OthersReforestation 293 135,143.00 TOTAL 1 924 9, 189, 401.90
  23. 23. 5. Promoting Good Practices in Forest Management
  24. 24. PROMOTING GOOD PRACTICE IN FOREST MANAGEMENT• Forest certification is encouraged by Law (promotional conditions by reducing the annual fee to be paid). As a result we have 13 FSC-certified Forest Management operations and 28 Chain-of-Custody certificates• Access right to forest resources include the right to economic benefits from environmental services such as CO2 capture.• As a result of our forest good management, CITES Standard Committee recently recognized that Peru complied with the indicator s of sustainable management for mahogany.
  25. 25. Greenhouse Gases Emission Reductions in the Forest Sector• Voluntary commitment to reduce GHG emissions by avoiding unplanned land use change of forest lands and forest degradation.• Peru hosts forest carbon projects (1 CDM and 2 VCS).• REDD Readiness process ongoing
  26. 26. 6. Deforestation and Illegal logging
  27. 27. DEFORESTATION MAP OFPERUVIAN AMAZON– 2000Main causes- Migrant agriculture- Illicit crops- Cattle-Projects of other sectors(hydrocarbon, hydroelectric,roads, etc)-Illegal logging-Illegal Mining- Forest Fires 27
  28. 28. DEFORESTATION Amazon forest Region area Deforested area Forest lost Region original extension (ha) (ha) (%) (ha) Huancavelica 2 213 147 70 331,61 51 990,69 73,92 Cajamarca 3 402 288 737 164,06 520 061,64 70,54 Piura 3 589 249 65 359,65 31 737,07 48,55 Ayacucho 4 381 480 338 575,22 135 373,07 39,98 Junín 4 440 967 2 473 770,41 734 303,77 29,68 Amazonas 3 924 913 3 660 824,56 1 001 540,11 27,36 San Martín 5 125 331 4 861 264,88 1 327 736,15 27,31 Huanuco 3 772 224 2 324 627,46 600 654,46 25,84 Pasco 2 531 959 1 745 379,00 302 020,89 17,30 Cusco 7 189 197 3 639 050,99 537 632,37 14,77 Puno 7 201 227 1 589 608,30 146 041,32 9,19 La Libertad 2 479 456 84 753,23 7 231,69 8,53 Ucayali 10 241 055 10 110 075,70 627 096,73 6,20 Loreto 36 885 195 36 299 852,66 945 642,15 2,60 Madre de Dios 8 518 263 8 419 180,26 203 891,86 2,42 Total 105 895 951 76 419 817,98 7 172 953,97 9,39Fuente: Mapa de Deforestación de la Amazonía Peruana -2000 INRENA-CONAM / PROCLIM
  29. 29. DEFORESTATION FOR AGRICULTURAL PURPOSESESTRATEGIC MEASURES IN THREE FRONTS:A) Where deforestation focus: more vulnerable forests to be affected. Conjunction government acts to keep value of standing forest.B) Where people is forced to migrate: Emphasize productivity of economic activities in those areas to reduce migration to forest.C) Where is already deforested: Limit the area and promote forestation activities.
  30. 30. DEFORESTATION FOR AGRICULTURAL PURPOSESA) Where deforestation focus.• Eliminate incentives in agricultural sector with perverse consequences in forest (focus in correct assignment of credits, technical assistance, tenure rights)• Reforce Land Planning based on: – Natural potential – Legal order• Promote legal instruments to give value to standing forests: strengthening concessions system and communitarian forest management (technical and financial assistance)
  31. 31. DEFORESTATION FOR AGRICULTURAL PURPOSESB) Where people is forced to migrate- Strengthen productivity of economic activities : - Capacity building and technology transfer. - Create/strenghten association models - Create market information easily available
  32. 32. DEFORESTACION POR TALA DE BOSQUES PARA ESTABLECER AGRICULTURA C) Where is already deforested - Create conditions to reforest in the andes area: - Investment funds and technical assistance to formulate and develop carbon sequestration projects. - Optimize stablished agroforestry systems (premium quality coffee and cacao) - Technical assistance - Market intelligence - Focalize correctly incentives for agricultural production in order to prevent them to become perverse incentives in forests.
  33. 33. 6. Improved ForestInformation Systemand Control Module
  34. 34. OBJECTIVE Integrate, systemize and analyze information and place it publicly available Proyect QUALITY CONTROL SNIC entrances Information Processing outcomes•Legal Information •Legal Manual•Wood transportation •Forest statistics•Information about forest and •SIF-AL (software) •Forest and Wildlife registerwildlife rights •Others software •Systematize scientific information•Technical and scientific studies •Theme maps•Maps and other data bases •Administrative System for CITES Permits INTERNET and other INTERNET and other Information capture (Server DICFFS and links SIF-AL)
  35. 35. 7. Transparency andAnticorruption Actions
  36. 36. Forest Governance Competition Transferences on Forest Sector• Since 2009 the Ministry of Agriculture has transferred functions to six regional governments (Madre de Dios, Ucayali, San Martin, Loreto, Amazonas y La Libertad). Regarding south american camelidae, competences have been transferred to all regional governments expect regional government of Lima.• We are developing and implementing a capacity program for regional governments based on 4 modules, with US cooperation. Anticorruption Plan for Forest Sector. Anticorruption Plan was approved on july 14th 2011. It established actions for a period of 5 years concerning all entities involved in the forest sector.
  37. 37. Forest Governance TRANSPARENCY Ministry of Agriculture received the prize “Good Practices on Forest 2010”. Awarded by a national NGO “Derecho, Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (DAR)” and “Global Witness” as a recognition of beign the public institution with best transparency and information available. Website: With updated technical and legal information on the forest sector. Ministerio Dirección General PERÚ de Agricultura Forestal y Fauna Silvestre
  38. 38. Thank YouGeneral Directorate of Forest and WildlifeMinistry of Agriculture –