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Women and charcoal value chains of Eastern and Southern Africa 
Phosiso Sola and Davison Gumbo 
p.sola@cgiar.org 
IUFRO 20...
Source: WHO, 2012 
% Population using solid fuel in 2010 
Biomass fuels meet over 80% of Sub Saharan Africa energy demand ...
0 
50,000 
100,000 
150,000 
200,000 
250,000 
Central Africa 
East Africa 
North Africa 
Southern Africa 
West Africa 
Wo...
The study- a critical review 
Literatures: With all the challenges the industry is lucrative to both men and women 
QUE:...
The study- a critical review 
Review literature on charcoal production and trade in 
Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, T...
Charcoal Industry in eastern and southern African 
Industry largely informal, unregulated 
Deemed illegal, no recognitio...
Demand levels 
Majority of urban households 
All income categories but mostly the urban poor 
Small-scale industries can a...
Demand levels 
Kenya 2005 to 2013 production increased from 1.6 to 2.5 mil ton 
Uganda Gov estimates demand increasing a...
Significance of the Industry 
Sector competitive with some agriculture sectors like tea, coffee, and tobacco 
Illegal tr...
The charcoal industry in ESA 
Studies indicate that substantial volumes of charcoal crossing borders 
43% charcoal product...
Charcoal industry Actors 
Country 
Wood production 
Producer 
Transporter 
Wholesaler 
Retailer 
Total 
Data year 
Kenya 
...
Charcoal industry Actors 
Country 
Wood producers % 
Producers 
% 
Transporters 
% 
Wholesalers 
% 
Retailers 
% 
Data yea...
Role of women? 
Tend to dominate the wood production, charcoal production and retailing stages 
But remain in the small ...
Production 
energyaccess.wikispaces.com 
www.itswild.org 
Both men and women produce charcoal 
But roles somewhat predef...
Production 
Majority of women producers 
sell charcoal from home or at roadsides
Transportation 
Men the majority of transporters up to 90% 
 
Women rarely reach 20% 
Mostly cyclists, 90% of transpor...
Most women do not own vehicles have to hire 
Business is done mostly at night – evade the law 
baraza.wildlifedirect.org...
Buy, store and sell in bulk offering prices 10 to 20% lower than the retail price 
Dominated by women but still the few ...
Retailing 
Sell in bags, small cans or piles 
Face stiff competition from sheer numbers 
Thus sell other products besid...
Income and income distribution 
Inequitable and skewed towards the middle players in transportation and trade/wholesaling...
Uganda 
•Benefits concentrated in the middle where women form 6 % transporter or 22% of agents 
•Less benefits at tail end...
Recommendations 
Enabling policy framework 
-Formalise, Legalise, Operationalise 
Evidence to inform development and pol...
Main sources 
1.Blodgett, C., 2011. Charcoal Value Chain and Improved Cook stove Sector Analyses SNV Rwanda positioning do...
I thank you www.cifor.org www.blog.cifor.org 
Other photos from Iiyama, Miyuki (ICRAF) and http://www.olliviergirard.com/G...
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Women and charcoal value chains of Eastern and Southern Africa

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This presentation from the IUFRO 2014 World Congress' session on gender and forestry value chains focused on Women and charcoal value chains of Eastern and Southern Africa.

The session shed light on the role of women in forest value chains in the face of forest loss and a range of uncertainties generated by ever‐increasing demands for food, timber, and ecosystem services in a globalized world.

Published in: Environment
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Women and charcoal value chains of Eastern and Southern Africa

  1. 1. Women and charcoal value chains of Eastern and Southern Africa Phosiso Sola and Davison Gumbo p.sola@cgiar.org IUFRO 2014 World Congress, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA 5-11 October 2014
  2. 2. Source: WHO, 2012 % Population using solid fuel in 2010 Biomass fuels meet over 80% of Sub Saharan Africa energy demand Only about 30 % of the population have access to electricity
  3. 3. 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 Central Africa East Africa North Africa Southern Africa West Africa Wood fuel Consumption 1000m3 African Region Most in the form of charcoal, for cooking and heating Produced in rural areas consumed in urban areas
  4. 4. The study- a critical review Literatures: With all the challenges the industry is lucrative to both men and women QUE: How women participate, benefit and are affected throughout the charcoal value chains of eastern and southern African? Wood production Charcoal production Transportation Wholesaling Retailing Consumption Adapted from Sepp, 2008
  5. 5. The study- a critical review Review literature on charcoal production and trade in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia Article focus Wood fuel Production and policy Trade Consumption Value chains Trade/value chains and gender Number of articles (89) 36 75 36 31 18 9 % 41 85 41 35 20 10
  6. 6. Charcoal Industry in eastern and southern African Industry largely informal, unregulated Deemed illegal, no recognition, practically neglected Energy policies believe in energy ladder BUT persistent poverty renders transition a fallacy YET industry remains very efficient in meeting urban and local demand
  7. 7. Demand levels Majority of urban households All income categories but mostly the urban poor Small-scale industries can account for up to 31% of urban demand (case of Tanzania) Urban Demand Kenya 82% (2013) Rwanda 72% (2010) Mozambique 70-80% (2007) Tanzania Dar es Salaam 78% (2007)
  8. 8. Demand levels Kenya 2005 to 2013 production increased from 1.6 to 2.5 mil ton Uganda Gov estimates demand increasing at rate of 6% /yr Country Annual figures Data year Production (Million ton) Kenya 2.5 2013 Uganda 1 2011 Rwanda 0.2 2008 Consumption (Million ton) Zambia 1.248 2010 Mozambique 14.8 2008 Malawi (consumption for the 4 major cities 90% country) 6.08 2007 Tanzania (Dar es Salaam 50% of country) 1.6 2007
  9. 9. Significance of the Industry Sector competitive with some agriculture sectors like tea, coffee, and tobacco Illegal trade leads to significant losses in revenue Kenya Mozambique Malawi Tanzania Rwanda Income Per yr USD mil 1,600 394 41 (Main cities) 350 (Dar es Salaam) 67 % GDP 2.2 3 2.3 2.7 Data Year 2013 2011 2007 2007 2007
  10. 10. The charcoal industry in ESA Studies indicate that substantial volumes of charcoal crossing borders 43% charcoal production from border districts Zambia Takes 1-6 actors to deliver the charcoal to final consumers
  11. 11. Charcoal industry Actors Country Wood production Producer Transporter Wholesaler Retailer Total Data year Kenya 254,000 4900 635,000 893,900 2013 Mozambique 27,169 1,132 5,822 101,885 214,000 2012 Rwanda 300, 000 8,000 200-300 2000 310,300 2010 Malawi 10,550 122,490 133,040 2008 6400 46,500 12,800 33,500 92,800 2007 Informal and or illegal thus accurate statistics difficult to get The bulk, of the product is produced and traded without licensing
  12. 12. Charcoal industry Actors Country Wood producers % Producers % Transporters % Wholesalers % Retailers % Data year Kenya 28.4 0.6 71 2013 Mozambique 12.7 0.5 2.7 47.6 2012 Rwanda 96.7 2.6 0.1 0.6 2010 Malawi 6.5 46.8 12.9 33.8 2008 Tanzania 43.2 0.1 56 2002 Zambia 47.5 0.9 51.3 2002 retailers/vendors > producers > wholesalers > transporters traders
  13. 13. Role of women? Tend to dominate the wood production, charcoal production and retailing stages But remain in the small scale businesses Limited to no access and rights over key resources (land, trees, financial capital, and credit) Country Producers % Transporters % Wholesalers % Retailers % Data Year Kenya 17 10-14 57 2005 Tanzania 24 0 20 16 2012 Uganda 4 6 (Agent 22) 19 69 2008 Mozambique 24 2 55 90 2004
  14. 14. Production energyaccess.wikispaces.com www.itswild.org Both men and women produce charcoal But roles somewhat predefined Iiyama, Miyuki (ICRAF)
  15. 15. Production Majority of women producers sell charcoal from home or at roadsides
  16. 16. Transportation Men the majority of transporters up to 90%  Women rarely reach 20% Mostly cyclists, 90% of transporters for 10% volume into Dar es Salaam, Tanzania www.animaltraction.com
  17. 17. Most women do not own vehicles have to hire Business is done mostly at night – evade the law baraza.wildlifedirect.org Transportation www.globalgiving.org Risky: poor roads, poor state of the vehicles, long distances, illicit behaviour and illegality
  18. 18. Buy, store and sell in bulk offering prices 10 to 20% lower than the retail price Dominated by women but still the few men dominate large scale Limited access to capital –bulk purchase, storage Wholesaling Iiyama, Miyuki (ICRAF)
  19. 19. Retailing Sell in bags, small cans or piles Face stiff competition from sheer numbers Thus sell other products besides charcoal www.seattleglobalist.com felixfeatures.photoshelter.com
  20. 20. Income and income distribution Inequitable and skewed towards the middle players in transportation and trade/wholesaling Tightly neat in dealer-transporter-wholesaler networks/curtails highly connected % share final price Wood production Producer Transporter Wholesaler Retailer Data year Kenya 6 66 28 2013 Rwanda 16.9 42.2 32.8 8.1 2010 Tanzania 33 50 17 2009 Malawi 20-33 20 -25 25-33 2007
  21. 21. Uganda •Benefits concentrated in the middle where women form 6 % transporter or 22% of agents •Less benefits at tail ends, women 69% retailers Value chain actor Average monthly profits (USD) Producer 35.53 Agent 93.97 Transporter 646.58 Trader 579.21 Retailer 68.04 Source: Shively, et al., 2010
  22. 22. Recommendations Enabling policy framework -Formalise, Legalise, Operationalise Evidence to inform development and policies -In-depth research with standardized comparable methodology for gendered value chain analysis across countries Technology research, development and dissemination -Wood production, carbonisation, cooking Improve access to resources by women -Land and trees, Finance, Business premises
  23. 23. Main sources 1.Blodgett, C., 2011. Charcoal Value Chain and Improved Cook stove Sector Analyses SNV Rwanda positioning document 2.Delahunty-Pike A., 2012. Gender Equity, Charcoal and the Value Chain in Western Kenya Working Brief November 2012 PISCES, Practical Action Consulting 3.Gumbo, D. J., et. al., 2013. Dynamics of the charcoal and indigenous timber trade in Zambia: A scoping study in Eastern, Northern and Northwestern provinces. Occasional Paper 86. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia 4.Kambewa, P., et. Al., 2007. Charcoal: the reality – A study of charcoal consumption, trade and production in Malawi. Small and Medium Forestry Enterprise Series No. 21. International Institute for Environment and Development, London, UK. 5.Kenya Forest Service (Kfs), 2013. Analysis of the Charcoal Value Chain in Kenya, Final Report, August 2013 Ministry Of Environment, Water And Natural Resources, Government of Kenya 6.Kwaschik R., (ed) 2008. Proceedings of the Conference on Charcoal and Communities in Africa 16 – 18 June, 2008 Maputo, Mozambique, Coordinator, Global Non-timber Forest Products (NTFP) Partnership, International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR) 7. Malimbwi, R.E., and Zahabu, E.M., 2008. Research and development for sustainable management of semiarid miombo woodlands in East Africa Woodlands and the charcoal trade: the case of Dar es Salaam City Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 98: 93– 114 http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2008/mwp098.htm 8.Ndegwa Geoffrey M. et al., 2010. Woodfuel Value Chains in Kenya and Rwanda; Economic analysis of the market oriented woodfuel sector. Master Thesis Cologne University of Applied Sciences Institute for Technology and Resources Management in the Tropics and Subtropics (ITT) 9.Shively, G., et al., 2010. Profits and margins along Uganda’s charcoal value chain International Forest Review Vol 12 (3) 2010 10.van Beukering, P., et al., undated. Optimization of the charcoal chain in Tanzania Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 
  24. 24. I thank you www.cifor.org www.blog.cifor.org Other photos from Iiyama, Miyuki (ICRAF) and http://www.olliviergirard.com/Gallery_Zambia/index.html

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