MOORH                                             FARGO                                                             Ur   S...
NORTH DAKOTA               MINNESOTA                           problem                           statement                ...
HYDROLOGY                                                                                                       [ integrat...
studyarea                              1990                                  2000            2010CASSargusville      2560....
site                       issues                                flooding                                water supply     ...
FLOODING                                  memorial bridge                                   fargo/moorhead border         ...
WATER SUPPLY                                         west fargo aquifer                                                   ...
WATER QUALITY                                           aquifers, streams                                                 ...
SLOPE STABILITY                                            soil structure                                                 ...
SOIL EROSION                                                       water                                                  ...
ECOSYSTEM EXTINCTION                                                                  tallgrass prairie                   ...
POOR PLANNING & DESIGN                        http://www.theoildrum.com/story/2006/3/18/174032/731            http://www.m...
site                    opportunity                                                  downtown                             ...
DOWNTOWN                                                                              design, culture,                    ...
HIGHER EDUCATION                                                                          ndsu, msum,                     ...
INTELLECTUAL INDUSTRY                                                   great plains microsoft,                           ...
EXISTING PARK & TRAIL                                          fargo, moorhead,                                           ...
ECOSYSTEM                                                                             tallgrass prairie,                  ...
INFORMED DESIGN                                                                      tallgrass prairie,                   ...
from this...   to this                    data/picture source
theoretical postulate                                                                                                     ...
anthropocene                        holoscene                               gr. ‘holos’ - ‘cenos’ - ‘scene‘               ...
site  analysis                                                          ecology                                           ...
workinglandscape                                                    OPERANT DISTIRBANCE REGIMES//	                     dro...
blackpoll warbler Dendroica striata                   BIRDSCommon loon Gavia immer                   summer breeding/     ...
climatology                           15                                  3-                             7                ...
geology                //Glacial movement_glacial melt_soil depth & composition                       /long-term drought w...
precipitation                                                                                                      evapora...
workinglandscape       DATASTREAM>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>       average monthly average monthly       water use       water sys...
hydrology                                                        //Red River Basin_~45,000 sq mi                          ...
MASS WASTING _riverbank slumping                                                                                    			   ...
workinglandscape1 acre of established prairie can absorb 9” of rainfall/hr before runoff occurs, and will                 ...
land use/transport                                                             LAND USE & ZONING                          ...
Ru   Rural Park System     preventative_     highly functional tallgrass prairie wetland ecological parks           1. Was...
Ur            Su          Ru         grey material                       green material             grey fabric           ...
I-29                                                                                                                      ...
I-29                                                                                                                      ...
1                   Ru 2                    3functional        Buffalo Aquifertallgrass prairie wetland ecological parks  ...
1                                                             2                                                           ...
1                                                                                     2                                   ...
HOLOSCENE: high-performance landscape systems
HOLOSCENE: high-performance landscape systems
HOLOSCENE: high-performance landscape systems
HOLOSCENE: high-performance landscape systems
HOLOSCENE: high-performance landscape systems
HOLOSCENE: high-performance landscape systems
HOLOSCENE: high-performance landscape systems
HOLOSCENE: high-performance landscape systems
HOLOSCENE: high-performance landscape systems
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HOLOSCENE: high-performance landscape systems

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An integrated solution on the study site of Fargo/Moorhead and the outlaying areas aims to answer the question,

"What if a connected system of landscape infrastructure,
a working landscape,

could enhance ecological functioning
to serve as a civic asset rather than an environmental liability?"

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HOLOSCENE: high-performance landscape systems

  1. 1. MOORH FARGO Ur Su Ru holoscene EAD high performance landscape systems // An Integrated Solution vc.hefti NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY0 5,000 10,000 20,000FT Department of Landscape Architecture MAY 2012 | dominic fischer N0 1.5 3 6 MI
  2. 2. NORTH DAKOTA MINNESOTA problem statement What if a connected system of landscape infrastructure, a working landscape, could enhance ecological functioning to serve as a civic asset rather than an environmental liability? N 0 25 50 100MI
  3. 3. HYDROLOGY [ integrated stormwater management [ detention/retention aquifer recharge) [ wastewater treatment [ soil conservation & formation [ slope/soil stabilization [ nutrient cycling liability vs. asset ECOLOGY native prairie reconstruction [ habitat integrated wetlands [ biodiversity RESIDENTS/community [ climactic regulation urban infrastructure [ atmospheric regulation [ interpretivflood concrete channel residents WILDLIFE/vegetation renewable energy [ urban health solutions (social, psychological, and physiological) CIVIC AMENITY sustainable resources [ parks & open space CITY PLANNERS/researchers civic recreation [ recreation_structured_gathering spaces (ex. plazas) user/client description [ recreation_nonstructured (ex. walking/biking trails) environmental education [ trail systems & networks major project elements [ alternative transportation [ hierarchy of circulation (creative solutions to avoid habitat fragmentation) [ neighborhood connections [ cultural heritage_ [ cultural heritage_ecological ECONOMIC [ community unity [ [f conomic land use strategies -TBD [ adaptive management solutions
  4. 4. studyarea 1990 2000 2010CASSargusville 2560.65274 105,529reilies acres 320.82212north river 35.35728 year/city 1990 2000 2010mapleton 2503.3699 fargo 74,111 90,599 105,529oxbow 261.83059 25,830 west fargo 12,287 14,940 25,830kindred 924.7076 moorhead 32,472 32,177 38,065davenport 158.97206briarwood 84.74632harwood 771.37414 38,065 74,111 16,488 14,930frontier 109.93365 12,287 2,653 10,890west fargo 9701.61997 32,472 -295 5,888prairie rose 25.59238fargo 30752.53364fargo et 17899.753horace 6964.73221total acreage~73076CLAYfelton 648.593671georgetown 650.556007glydon 926.117521sabin 289.453649comstock 147.813195dilworth 2055.383293moorhead 12621.53659total acreage~17339MUNICIPALtotal acreage~90415
  5. 5. site issues flooding water supply water quality“No snowflake in an avalanche mass wastingever feels responsible.” soil eroisionStanisław Jerzy Lec, ecological extinctionpoet & aphorist unplanned sprawl poor design waste public space
  6. 6. FLOODING memorial bridge fargo/moorhead border http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3594/3395342393_49bbbf5c46_o.jpg
  7. 7. WATER SUPPLY west fargo aquifer buffalo aquifer http://www.merchantcircle.com/directory/ND-West-Fargo/cityphotos/4
  8. 8. WATER QUALITY aquifers, streams drainage ditches http://www.merchantcircle.com/directory/ND-West-Fargo/cityphotos/4
  9. 9. SLOPE STABILITY soil structure water ways http://www.ndsu.edu/fargo_geology/mass_wasting/slumptypes.htm http://www.ndsu.edu/fargo_geology/mass_wasting/creep&flow.htm
  10. 10. SOIL EROSION water wind http://www.ndsu.edu/fargo_geology/mass_wasting/slumptypes.htm http://www.ndsu.edu/fargo_geology/mass_wasting/creep&flow.htm
  11. 11. ECOSYSTEM EXTINCTION tallgrass prairie wetland http://www.midwestliving.com/travel/destination/illinois/illinois-midewin-national-tallgrass-prairie/
  12. 12. POOR PLANNING & DESIGN http://www.theoildrum.com/story/2006/3/18/174032/731 http://www.marketingpilgrim.com/2011/08/cup-of-joe-honking-at-red-lights-on-a-hot-day.html
  13. 13. site opportunity downtown culture higher education history design NDSU great plains microsoft MSUM Concordia existing park/trail“Let everyone sweep ecosystemin front of his own door, and tallgrass prairiethe whole world will be clean.” informed/aesthetic design river windJohann Wolfgang von Goethe,German Playwright, Poet, Novelist and Dramatist
  14. 14. DOWNTOWN design, culture, history http://www.midwestliving.com/travel/destination/illinois/illinois-midewin-national-tallgrass-prairie/
  15. 15. HIGHER EDUCATION ndsu, msum, concordia http://www.midwestliving.com/travel/destination/illinois/illinois-midewin-national-tallgrass-prairie/
  16. 16. INTELLECTUAL INDUSTRY great plains microsoft, sanford health http://microsoft.areavoices.com/2011/06/04/little-gem-on-the-prairie-inside-the-microsoft-campus/
  17. 17. EXISTING PARK & TRAIL fargo, moorhead, west fargo http://www.liveworkdream.com/2007/07/30/fargo-its-not-what-youd-expect/
  18. 18. ECOSYSTEM tallgrass prairie, wind, river http://www.midwestliving.com/travel/destination/illinois/illinois-midewin-national-tallgrass-prairie/
  19. 19. INFORMED DESIGN tallgrass prairie, wind, river http://www.midwestliving.com/travel/destination/illinois/illinois-midewin-national-tallgrass-prairie/
  20. 20. from this... to this data/picture source
  21. 21. theoretical postulate “...there was a unity in this complication. ...one single question with many parts... The one great central problem...the [wise] use of the earth for the good of man.” “...a judicious expenditure for such objects is -Gifford Pinchot, always a wise and safe investment.” Head of US Forest Service -Horace Cleveland,Joseph Paxton// Birkenhead Park_1842 on the Minneapolis/St. Paul park systemCommunity public parks. “ Compare the two maps one showingLandscape Gardening Movement moved parks the opportunity, the other the miser-from private to public when two streams of pro- Horace Cleveland// Minneapolis & St. Paul_1872 able present result. Do not the factsgress converged,the rapid growth of technology, “The subject of public improvements in the form speak for themselves?”and an increased demand for better living and of parkways is sure in its first inception to meet -Charles Eliot,working conditions. with opposition.” on Boston’s lack of conservation<1800 1842 1870 1900 2010>royal parks > city parks >> park systems >>> national/state parks >>>> town planning >>>>> working landscapes >>>>>> recreation > public health >> preservation >>> conservation & economics >>>> sustainability >>>>> resilience >>>>>>Public Health_ 1870 “In the ten years succeeding...Central Park the Ebenezer Howard// “Garden City”_1898Massachusetts Board of Health: increased valuation of taxable property in the... “Neither the Town magnet nor the“all citizens have an inherent right to the enjoy- surrounding it was no less than $54,000,000, af- Country magnet represents the fullment of pure and uncontaminated air, and wa- fording a surplus…sufficient... to pay the entire plan and purpose of nature.ter, and soil, that this right should be regarded as cost of the park in less times than was requiredbelonging to the whole community, and that no for its construction.” Human society and the beauty of na-one should be allowed to trespass upon it by his ture are meant to be enjoyed together.carelessness and avarice” (Wellock, 2006). The Re- “...securing the areas that are needed before The two magnets must be made one...port on the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring they become so occupied or acquire such value Town and country must be married,Population of Great Britain by Edwin Chadwick in as to place them beyond reach. Look forward for and out of this joyous union will spring1842 emphasized medical authorities advocat- a century...when the city has a population of a a new....civilization” (Newton, 2006).ing more city parks to “absorb deleterious gases.” million...They will have wealth enough...but allParks, reformers concluded, were the “lungs of their wealth cannot purchase a lost opportuni-the city” and promoted health (Wellock, 2006). ty” “...evident that St. Paul and Minneapolis ...will become virtually one city...they should unite in the designing...the area which now separates them, by which they are to be mutually benefit- data/picture source ted” (Newton, 2006).
  22. 22. anthropocene holoscene gr. ‘holos’ - ‘cenos’ - ‘scene‘ zones mosaic pixels gradient holos= ‘whole/entire’ cenos= ‘new/recent’ scene= ‘view/picture/where something occurs/milieu
  23. 23. site analysis ecology geology hydrology water land use flood ditches land use“Knowing is not enough; we must apply. tallgrass prairie Willing is not enough; we must do.” climatology river wind Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German Playwright, Poet, Novelist and Dramatist
  24. 24. workinglandscape OPERANT DISTIRBANCE REGIMES// drought>About a third of the endangered species in theUnited States make their homes in wetlands. fire>> 4-5yr fire regime grazing>>>No other ecosystem in America removes asmuch carbon dioxide from the atmosphere asprairie grasslands (nps.gov, complex prairie eco-system). TALLGRASS PRAIRIE ECOSYSTEM deep roots > water infiltration >> water/sediment filtration >>> recharging groundwater stores >>>75-80% of the prairies biomass, or plant mate- slope stabilization >>>> erosion prevention >>>>> keeps silt from clogging streams >>>>>>rial, is underground.Beneath the surface lies the main stems or rhi-zomes, running horizontally.Here, they remain protected from drying, graz-ing, trampling, fire, and frost.Tough fibrous roots descend from these rhi-zomes deep into the ground. Some plants havebeen reported to go 10 to 15 feet deep (nps.gov,complex prairie ecosystem). WET-MESIC loam - silt - clay - sandy outwash WET silt - clay loamRepeated Burn cycles create dark mineral and glacial till : alluvial deposits glacial till : alluvial depositsnutrient rich top soil.Restored prairies can reclaim many of their na- poorly drained saturated > a few days a normal yeartive qualities in as little as 10 years high groundwater table : gleying just below the A horizon high groundwater table commonly ponded: winter, spring, after heavy rain soil waterlogged within root zone for extended periods during growing season 4-5yr fire regime fire, periodic prolonged flood events headwater streams floodplains shallow swales
  25. 25. blackpoll warbler Dendroica striata BIRDSCommon loon Gavia immer summer breeding/ WET MESIC GRAMINOID Big Bluestem Andropogon gerardi Big Bluestem Andropogon gerardihorned grebe Podiceps auritus migration route/ Prairie Cordgrass Spartina pectinata Prairie Dropseed Sporobolus heterolepisBohemian waxwing Bombycilla garrulus yearround Mat Muhly Grass Muhlenbergia richardsonis Indian Grass Sorghastrum nutansAmerican coot Fulica Americana Narrow Reedgrass Calamagrostis stricta Little Bluestem Schizachyrium scopariumAmerican wigeon Anas Americana Wooly Sedge Carex pellita Prairie Cordgrass Spartina pectinataAmerican goldfinch Carduelis tristis Switchgrass Panicum virgatum Kalm’s Brome Bromus kalmiiAmerican bittern Botaurus lentiginosus Switchgrass Panicum virgatumAmerican redstart Setophaga ruticilla Porcupine Grass Stipa spartea (important on drier siteBaird’s sparrow Ammodramus bairdii FLOURAblack tern Chlidonias niger FORB Prairie Loosestrife Lysimachia quadriflora Northern Bedstraw Galium borealeblack-crowned night heron Nycticorax nycticorax Northern Bedstraw Galium boreale Purple Prairie Clover Petalostemon purpureumblue-winged teal Anas discors Tall Meadow Rue Thalictrum dasycarpum Canada Goldenrod Solidago canadensisbobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus Wild Strawberry Fragaria virginiana Heath Aster Aster ericoidesburrowing owl Athene cunicluaria Golden Alexanders Zizia aurea Rigid Goldenrod S. rigidacommon yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas Black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta Maximilian Sunflower Helianthus maximilianiCooper’s hawk Accipiter cooperii White Camas Zigadenus elegans Heart leaved Golden Alexander aptera Ziziadickcissel Spiza Americana New England Aster Symphyotrichum novae-angliae Black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirtadowny woodpecker Picoides pubescens INVERTEBRATES American burying beetle Nicrophorus americanus Sawtooth Sunflower Helianthus grosseserratus Tall Meadow Rue Thalictrum dasycarpumevening grosbeak Coccothraustes vespertinus Dakota skipper Hesperia dacotae Cowbane Oxypolis rigidior Smooth Aster Aster laevis gadwall Anas strepera Powesheik skipperling Oarisma poweshiek Mountain Mint Pycnanthemum virginianum Wild Strawberry Fragaria virginianagrasshopper sparrow Ammodramus savannarum Regal fritillary Speyeria idalia Culver’s Root Veronicastrum virginicum White Camas Figadenus elegansgreater prairie-chicken Tympanuchus cupido Mountain Mint Pycnanthemum virginianumkilldeer Charadrius vociferus FISH Brook Stickleback Culaea inconstans SHRUB Slender Willow Salix petiolaris Golden Alexanders Zizia aureakingbird Tyrannus spp. Creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus American Willow Salix discolor Harebell Campanula rotundifoliaLapland longspur Calcarius lapponicus Fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Wild Bergamot Monarda fistulosalark bunting Calamospiza melanocorys Johnny darter Etheostoma nigrum TREE Silver Maple Acer saccharinum Flodman’s Thistle Cirsium flodmaniileast tern Sterna antillarum Elm Ulmus Americana Hoary Puccoon Lithospermum canescensloggerhead shrike Lanius ludovicianus AMPHIBIANS/ Blanchard’s cricket frog Acris crepitans blanchardi Cottonwood Populus deltoides REPTILES Cope’s gray treefrog Stiff Sunflower Helianthus rigidus mallard Anas platyrynchos Hyla chrysoscelis Willow Salix alba Rough Blazing Star Liatris asperamarbled godwit Limnosa fedoa Northern redbelly snake Storeria o. occipitomaculata Pale Spiked Lobelia Lobelia spicatamarsh wren Cistothorus pallustris Plains garter snake Thamnophis radix Wood Lily Lilium philadelphicummourning dove Zenaida macroura Prairie skink Eumeces septentrionalis Prairie Onion Allium Allium stellatumnorthern harrier Circus cyaneus Snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina Wild Licorice Glycyrrhiza lepidotanorthern pintail Anas acuta Spiny softshell Trionyx spiniferus Smooth Rattlesnake-root Prenanthes racemosanorthern shoveler Anas clypeata Tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum Grass-leaved Goldenrod Solidago graminifolia FAUNAolive-sided flycatcher Contopus cooperi Wood Betony Pedicularis canadensisorange-crowned warbler Vermivora celata MAMMALS Deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus Indian Paint Brush Castilleja coccineaosprey Pandion haliaetus Eastern cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus Downy Phlox Phlox pilosapine grosbeak Pinicola enucleator White-tailed jackrabbit Lepus townsendii White Prairie Clover Dalea candidumpiping plover Charadrius melodus Northern pocket gopher Thomomys talpoides White Sage Artemisia ludovicianared crossbill Loxia curvirostra Plains pocket gopher Geomys bursariusred-headed woodpecker Melanerpes erythrocephalus American badger Taxidea taxus SEMI-SHRUB Prairie Rose Rosa arkansanared-winged blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus Elk Cervus elaphus Fragrant False Indigo Amorpha nana (common on moisterredhead Aythya americana American bison Bison bison Leadplant Amorpha canescens (shrub/legume)ring-billed gull Larus delawarensis Coyote Canis latranssedge wren Cistothorus platensis Franklin’s ground squirrel Spermophilus franklinii SHRUB Canada Wildrye Elymus canadensisshort-eared owl Asio flammeus Gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus Compass Plant S. lacinatumsnow bunting Plectrophenax nivalis Jumping mice Zapus spp. Fringed Gentian Gentianopsis crinataSprague’s pipit Anthus spragueii Meadow jumping mouse Zapus hudsonius Prairie Panic Grass Panicum leibergiiSwainson’s hawk Buteo swainsoni Least weasel Mustela nivalis Sawtooth Sunflower Helianthus grosseserratusupland sandpiper Bartramia longicauda Little brown myotis Myotis lucifugus Pale Purple Coneflower Echinacea angustifolia (common on dveery Catharus fuscescens Long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata Prairie Bird-foot Violet Viola pedatifidaVirginia rail Rallus limicola Meadow voles Microtus pennsylvanicus Alumroot Heuchera richardsoniiwestern meadowlark Sturnella neglecta Mink Mustela vison mink Mustela vison Prairie Cinquefoil Potentilla arguta white-winged crossbill Loxia leucoptera Mule deer Odocoileus hemionus Missouri Goldenrod S. missouriensiswhite-faced ibis Plegadis chihi Muskrat Ondatra zibethicus Bicknell’s Sedge Carex bicknelliiwhooping crane Grus americana Prairie vole Microtus orchrogaster Rattlesnake Master Eryngium yuccifoliumwillet Catoptrophorus semipalmatus Red fox Vulpes vulpesWilson’s phalarope Phalaropus tricolor Richardson’s ground squirrel Spermophilus richardsoniiyellow warbler Dendroica petechia Striped skunk Mephitis mephitisyellow rail Coturnicops noveboracensis Thirteen-lined ground squirrel Spermophilus tridecemlineatusyellow-bellied sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius White-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianusyellow-rumped warbler Dendroica coronata
  26. 26. climatology 15 3- 7 3.5 70 average sunshine (hrs) average wind speed (mph) average snowfall (in) average perciptation (in) average temperature (F) 13 22nd S 11 9 9- 6 5 3 2.5 60 50 //Northern hemisphere_northern temperate zone_humid continental 9 7 15 4 2 40 D 5 15- 3 1.5 30 N 3 21 2 1 20 21st 1 21- 1 0.5 10 0 27 0 0 0 21st June 21st M S D N summer winds > September November < winter winds > February May < 4 4% 8% 12% 16% 20% WIND POWER N season > August < fall season > November < winter season > March < spring season > May < summer 0º 330º 30º 14th 21st 14th 21st 20º 9:25 40º 5:33 300º 9pm 60º 6am 9am 60º m 9a 6p m 270º 90º 3pm 1pm 12 m 9 6a6p 240º 120º m 7:5 1 4:4 3 9am 12 6pm 3pm 210º 150º 180º
  27. 27. geology //Glacial movement_glacial melt_soil depth & composition /long-term drought water supply /sustainable water resources use glacial river lake above sea level surface outwash overbank offshore sands Qlg holocene Oahe Fm. Qha caisson depth 900ft Sherack Formation Qlo Poplar River Fm. Qpwf W.Fargo Mbr. Qph Harwood Mbr. 850 Brenna Formation Qb Argusville Formation Qarg sediment Qrs sediment Qro QUATERNARY 800 till Qus sand & gravel Qgo SURFICIAL GEOLOGY aquifers till Qgs pleistocene BURIED sand & gravel Qoo SURFICIAL 750 till Qos sand & gravel Qto till Qts 700 undivided bedrock CRETACEOUS Cretaceous bedrock 550 Pre-Cretaceous bedrock
  28. 28. precipitation evaporation moorhead aquifer transperation & evaporation SURFICIAL GEOLOGYwest fargo aquifer system buffalo aquifer West Fargo Aquifer 415 bgals buried Moorhead surficial Buffalo Aquifer 250 bgals surficial SECTION near surface water flow deep regional water flow
  29. 29. workinglandscape DATASTREAM>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> average monthly average monthly water use water system losses These water losses are attributed to pipe leaks>> FARGO 1996 440 120.1 Distance transport suggested by the Red River Valley 1997 326 49.6 Location Past area (ha.) Current area (ha.) Decline (%) 1998 421 12.3 Water Supply Project would be far more expensive 1999 361 39.3 in losses and construction than acquiring land for a Manitoba 600,000 300 99.9 2000 420 29.9 high performance ‘Wetland Recharge’ landscape. 2001 415 21.1 Minnesota 7,300,000 30,000-60,000 99.2-99.6 Bureau of Reclamation’s solutions range: North Dakota 130,000 120 99.9 total ~2383 ~366.4 millions of gal. $28,240,000 - 150,711,000 TALLGRASS PRAIRIE ECOSYSTEM PRAIRIE/FLOOD CORRELATION OVER TIME ANNUAL PEAK STREAMFLOW 120,000 80,000 50YR 40,000 100YR 500YR 0 cubic ft/sec 18 19 20 19 20 50 50 10 00 001800 1870 1970> One 2000)the biggest wetland areas in the world was from Manitoba/Dakotas to Ontario/Ohio of . American farmers drained 17 million hectares of wetland, United States drained half. (McNeill, (McNeill, 2000) settlement> prairie grasses removed>> fields ploughed>>> drainage ditches>>>> drainage tiles>>>>> increased runoff>>>>>> landform > climate >> limited waterholding/slowing vegetative cover >>> impervious surfaces >>>> encouraged drainage >>>>> upstream development >>>>>> .FLOOD STAGES Channelization = fewer floods + invites people to settle in floodplains . . when it does flood causes = > damage + damages alluvial ecosystems ex. 1990_Mississippi had 26 dams 1993_flood $12 billion in damage flooding ponding protected floodwall levee [constructed] levee [earthen] levee [sandbag]0 40,000FT N0 6MI
  30. 30. hydrology //Red River Basin_~45,000 sq mi /flood control /water quality control upstream RED RIVER Whapeton, ND USA Elv. 948 Lake Winnipeg, ON Canada Elv. 712 Elv. Change 223ft downstream FLOOD base 34103 prelim 285 brkout 3269 site of erosion 100yr 70401 site of deposition 500yr 34102 total 142160 acres HYDROLOGY_FLOOD Annual Fargo-Moorhead metropolitan flood damages est. $194.8 million 2011 Fargo submitted FEMA claims of $5.9 million. This is not a Federal problem and should not grant federal aid. This is an annual issue that locals need to solve, financed out of their own community for choosing to live in a floodzone silt & clay deposits Army Corps of Engineers flood solutions range: oxbow lake $1,032 - 1,462 million All alternatives consist of a >24 mile ditch often concrete0 10,000 30,000FT Rochester, MN solved a similar problem with a park0 1 2 6MI system and limited hard infrastructure for $140boundary_ site water_ river million municipal streamflood_ brkout built_ channel/levee 50YR manmade water 100YR drainage ditch 500YR
  31. 31. MASS WASTING _riverbank slumping Development >septic install >added weight >water adds weight >increases runoff weakening soils < >>ground water builds >>>native vegetation removal >>>>vegetation removal HYDROLOGY_DRAINAGE >added weight >deep rooted plant removal >soil saturates with no reduces slope stability plants take water >reduces infiltration >increases rate of runoff >Riverbank begins to slump >>further slumping >>>foundation shifts >>>>foundation cracks >>>>>house removed0 10,000 30,000FT0 1 2 6MI The stratigraphic relationships of offshore lacustrine Sherack and Brennaboundary_ site municipal Formations cause engineering and environmental geologic problems inwater_ river built_ channel/levee manmade water combination with hydraulic movement. stream o/l_ 100YR drainage ditch 100YR/aquifer
  32. 32. workinglandscape1 acre of established prairie can absorb 9” of rainfall/hr before runoff occurs, and will drainage ditches_cass 31.97 DATASTREAM>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>intercept as much as 53 tons of water during a 1-inch per hour rain event (Tallgrass drainage ditches_clay 1033.09Prairie Restorations, LLC). total 135.6 milesIn IL, est. percentage increase in wetland area reduces downstream peak flows 3.7%average flood flows 1.4%. Study of sub-watersheds of the Mississippi River found:deep wetlands reduce flood peaks 1-23%, shallow wetlands 5-9%. classified as threatened ammoniaIn Minnesota, wetland restoration costs range $95 -30,000 per acre biological oxygen demand dissolved oxygen fecal coliform bacteria. . . restoring the entire acreage of Fargo to sulfate concentrationwetland would cost half as much as the pro- agricultural chemicalsposed diversion Atrazine: average annual use 2.152-9.855 lbs/sq. mi TALLGRASS PRAIRIE ECOSYSTEM lethal:750 mg/kg in rabbits Endosulfan: average annual use 0.26 lbs/sq. mi lethal: 35 mg/kg in humans (usgs.gov) The United State pays around $20 billion per year in“sustainable and effective management of Agricultural subsidies.water resources demands a holistic approach - Wind and flood erosion in the area removes the nu-linking socioeconomic development with the trient rich black topsoil formed by the prairie fireprotection of natural ecosystems and appropriate regime, requiring increasing dependence on fertiliz- ers, in turn polluting waterways.management links between land and water uses.”World Meteorological Organization, 2011 Decaying prairie plants assimilated nutrients and re- turned them to the ground, creating rich, dark soils
  33. 33. land use/transport LAND USE & ZONING SCHEMATIC PLAN0 10,000 30,000FT0 1 2 6MIboundary_ site municipal built_ channel/leveewater_ river manmade water stream o/l_ 100YR 0 10,000 30,000FT drainage ditch 100YR/aquifer 0 1 2 6MI
  34. 34. Ru Rural Park System preventative_ highly functional tallgrass prairie wetland ecological parks 1. Wastewater Wetland Park Sub-System 2. West Aquifer Park Sub-System 3. Buffalo Aquifer Park Sub-System 1. Rural to Suburban transition parksSu Suburban Park System mitigative_ neighborhood park with integrated wetland functions SCHEMATIC ANALYSIS 2. Neighborhood parks 3. Suburban to Urban systemsUr Urban Park System interpretive_ wet tallgrass prairie functions integrated into highly structured spaces 1. Urban parks 2. Urban river parks 0 10,000 30,000FT 0 1 2 6MI
  35. 35. Ur Su Ru grey material green material grey fabric green fabric structure ecology educational mitigative functionalprocess) (describing process) (programming interpretive ecologicalReniassance Zone aesthetic Great Plains Microsoft aesthetic
  36. 36. I-29 27TH ST N HWY HWY 9 N 75 NRu Rural Park System preventative_ BROADWAY ST NW highly functional tallgrass prairie wetland ecological parks 1. Wastewater Wetland Park Sub-System r ve Ri 2. West Aquifer Park Sub-System Ru1 sh Ru 3. Buffalo Aquifer Park Sub-System 40 AVE N r e Rive Mapl 28TH AVE NSu Suburban Park System 19 AVE N 12 AVE NE 15 AVE N HWY 10 mitigative_ Ur2 neighborhood park with integrated wetland functions MAIN AVE E Ur1 1. Rural to Suburban transition parks 13 AVE S 12 AVE S 2. Neighborhood parks Su2 3. Suburban to Urban systems Su1 Su3 32 AVE S Ru2 60TH AVE S HWY 9 40 AVE S VETERANS BLVDUr 45 ST Urban Park System 25 ST interpretive_ wet tallgrass prairie functions integrated into highly structured spaces 1. Urban parks I-94 2. Urban river parks I-29 SHEYANNE ST HWY 75 S UNIVERSIT Y DR S Ru3 HW Y5 2S Ag1 boundary_ site water_ river park_ rural municipal stream rural < > suburban suburban street_ arterial trail_ w/ snowmobile trails [Ag a] suburban < > urban urban 160AVE S collector w/ street/sidewalk [Ag b] local core red river trail rail drainage ditch 0 10,000 30,000FT Buffalo Ri Red R r Wild Ric iver e Rive 0 1 2 6MI yan n
  37. 37. I-29 27TH ST N HWY HWY 9 N 75 NRu Rural Park System preventative_ BROADWAY ST NW highly functional tallgrass prairie wetland ecological parks 1. Wastewater Wetland Park Sub-System r ve Ri 2. West Aquifer Park Sub-System Ru1 sh Ru 3. Buffalo Aquifer Park Sub-System 40 AVE N r e Rive Mapl 28TH AVE N 19 AVE N 15 AVE N 12 AVE NE HWY 10 MAIN AVE E 13 AVE S 12 AVE S 32 AVE S Ru2 60TH AVE S HWY 9 40 AVE S VETERANS BLVD 45 ST 25 ST I-94 I-29 SHEYANNE ST Ru31 HWY 75 S RURAL PARK ENTRY SIGNAGE (typ.) UNIVERSIT Y DR Sa n.t.s. HW Y5 2S boundary_ site water_ river park_ rural municipal stream rural < > suburban suburban street_ trail_ suburban < > urban arterial collector w/ snowmobile trails [Ag a] w/ street/sidewalk [Ag b] urban 160AVE S local core red river trail rail drainage ditch 0 10,000 30,000FT Buffalo Ri Red R r Wild Ric iver e Rive 0 1 2 6MI yan n
  38. 38. 1 Ru 2 3functional Buffalo Aquifertallgrass prairie wetland ecological parks preventative_highly functional Park PROGRAM walking/running hunting/fishing/ camping (permitted) dog walking hiking field trips biking interpretive education horseback riding research canoeing (water level dependent) kayaking (water level dependent) prescribed burning adaptive management snowshoeing CRP integration cross country skiing natural resource use ice skating flood control aquifer recharge festivals (permitted) sustainable energy generation 5 RURAL PARK MASTER/SECTION SAMPLE a n.t.s.
  39. 39. 1 2 3 Ru 8’ marker details see cutsheet 3b2. soil bedding soil/gravel mix infill geoweb subbase geotextile2 GEOWEB TRAIL STRUCTURE (typ.)a1 n.t.s.
  40. 40. 1 2 3 1’ reinforced poured concrete engraved trail marker dock structure slides vertical Ru with water level along trail marker 3 1/2” corten steel support 4” steel hex blots 1’ rebar reinforced poured concrete (to bedrock) 4x4 and corten support meet 1’ concrete base for structural trail support at low water levels floating dock 6-4’ resin treated 2x4s & 4x4s 1x6” galvanized steel eye bolts 1” steel washer 1’ rebar reinforced poured concrete 6’ (to bedrock) 1/4” steel cable3 FLOATING SUSPENSION BRIDGE (typ.)b1 n.t.s.

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