Monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of activities for reducing forest related GHG emissions (REDD+)


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Martin Herold

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Monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of activities for reducing forest related GHG emissions (REDD+)

  1. 1. Monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of activities for reducing forest related GHG emissions (REDD+) Martin Herold 5. February 2013
  2. 2. Distribution of aboveground biomass
  3. 3. Introduction  Monitoring key for management and tracking (positive) impact of activities  Purpose: provide information balancing uncertainties, costs and benefits
  4. 4. Experiences and guidelines Monitoring of forest related GHG emissions: ● Regular reporting of all countries to the UN climate convention on land use change and forestry - IPCC good practice guidelines ● Kyoto-countries: annual reporting for targets ● Project experiences from voluntary market ● Research and development Varying data and capacity gaps exist in developing countries (for larger area monitoring)
  5. 5. REDD+ monitoring capacities vs. engagement Capacity gap in REDD+ EngagementNotes:Capacity gap derived from Romijn et al., 2012, ESPEngagement: UN-REDD, WB-FCPF, Norway NIFCI
  6. 6. Data for REDD+ monitoring
  7. 7. Examples of activity data
  8. 8. Examples of activity data
  9. 9. Change in forest areas remaining as forest (degradation) • Caused by: – Selective logging – Forest fires – Forest use (wood, agricuture) – …. • Creates a complex environment: – Undisturbed forests – Canopy gaps – Exposed soils – Dead vegetation • Can be precursor to: – Deforestation – Further disturbances Ikonos Image – Paragominas, PA Souza Jr. and Roberts (2005) - IJRS
  10. 10. Global coverage of 5 m resolution data
  11. 11. Google Earth Engine1. Large satellite data catalogue2. Platform for scientists and analysts to implement and algorithms and upload own data3. Global-scale algorithm processing to implement mapping and monitoring (cloud)4. Tool for (non-) experts to run detailed remote sensing analysis5.
  12. 12. Data for REDD+ monitoring
  13. 13. Human induced disturbance causing loss of forest: fire, clearing, selective extraction, … Primary forestCarbon stock Deforestation Time
  14. 14. Estimating emission factors Considering changes in different carbon pools: ● Above- and belowground biomass ● Deadwood, litter and soil Main data sources: ● Ground measurements (forest inventory) ● Remote sensing (combining with ground data) Obtaining quality data on forest carbon stock change in efficient manner: ● Key category analysis ● Stratify to measure in areas of changes
  15. 15. How to estimate emission?  Use defaults (Tier 1)  Create a good carbon stock estimate (i.e. combining ground data with RS) – Tier 2  Repeated measurements with focus on (Tier 3): ● Key C-pools ● In and around areas of changes
  16. 16. Carbon stock change from deforestation/degradationTiers (C pool change) Certainty REDD Cost1.Default values: Red. Em. Simple & biomass in forest types by region conservative and ecol. stratification, carbon starting point fraction etc.2. Country/regional data: Conservative estimate Motivation to Red. Em. Inventories (date, focus) improve Ecological monitoring plots monitoring Project studies/field samples system over time3. Full inventory of C stocks: Accurate & Red. Em. Comprehensive assessment established Consider different carbon pools emissions and assessment for all associated monitoring changes Conservative estimates: 1) Incomplete: a pool (e.g. soil) may be omitted 2) Uncertain: use confidence intervals
  17. 17. REDD+ monitoring: capacities & engagement1. Institutional setup: coordination, roles, capacities: ● Clear, simple, and sustainable2. Build upon what is already available3. Who should/could be involved: ● National/provincial experts ● Local experts/REDD+ implementers ● International experts
  18. 18. Conclusions1. Thorough experiences for monitoring & reporting forest-related GHG emission2. Improvements in developing countries through REDD+ related capacity development3. Approaches for handling uncertainties when linking to financial incentives4. Technology is (usually) not a limiting factor; consider institutions and capacities5. Focus should be on REDD+ activities
  19. 19. GOFC-GOLD REDD+ Sourcebook A sourcebook of methods and procedures formonitoring and reporting anthropogenic greenhousegas emissions and removals caused by deforestation, gains and losses of carbon stocks in forests remaining forests, and forestation Latest version published for COP-18 in Doha