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Management of Congo Basinforest resourcesThe quest for sustainabilitySustainable	  Forest	  Management	  in	  Central	  Af...
Contents§  Evolution of the internationalagenda and related paradigmchanges§  Policies and practices–  Wood products•  T...
Agenda and paradigm changes§  < 1960: ?§  1962: “Silent Spring”§  1972: Stockholm§  1983: AIBT§  1986: OIBT§  1987: ...
International, formaltimber
§  Colonial forestry(1890-1960)§  Timber rush(1945-1975)§  Silviculture andresource assessment(1950-1990; CTFT,FAO, OFI...
State	  of	  Forests	  2010	  
Impact	  of	  management	  and	  cer?fica?on	  on	  harvest	  intensity	  Ceru<	  et	  al.	  2011	  Managed and certifiedco...
Logs	   Sawn	  wood	   Plywood	  Congo	  Basin	   7,815	  (3	  %)	   1,524	  (2	  %)	   117	  (1	  %)	  Africa	  out	  of	...
Source:	  COMTRADE	  database	  
Domestic, informal timber
§  Total ignorance till themid 90s§  Initial studies(1995-2005)§  Empirical research byCIFOR (2007 -present)§  Policy ...
State	  of	  Forests	  2010	  
80	  000m3	  6	  000m3	  12	  000m3	  150 000m3§  > 50,000 full timejobs (more than theformal sector)§  Turn over of abo...
Wood energy
§  A non issue in the humidpart of the region§  Early warnings (mid 70s;CTFT)§  Full blown but localizedproblem (empiri...
§  Kinshasa: 4,700,000 m3/yr§  Kisangani: 200,000 m3/yr§  Formal timber sector forDRC: < 300,000 m3/yr17,664	  3,200	  ...
Before and after?Luki	  forest	  reserve,	  Bas	  Congo	  Degraded	  lands,	  Bas	  Congo	  In	  28	  years,	  the	  quan?...
Non wood products
§  A non issue before the80s§  “Discovery” andoverselling (1990s)§  NTFP Domestication(1990- present; ICRAF)§  Bushmea...
613,600,000	  378,641,309	  12,197,503	  8,089,580	  4,040,000	  2,874,928	  2,799,330	  1,574,661	  989,504	  847,182	  7...
§ Estimates of thebushmeat trade rangefrom US$42 to US$205million per year in West-Central Africa.§ Current harvest inex...
Gender issues•  NTFP play a disproportionatelyimportant role in the livelihoods andwell-being of women (and children)•  Th...
§  Regional guidelines for the sustainable managementof NTFPs developed for the 10 member countries ofCOMIFAC).§  Adopte...
Environmental services
§  Background noise sinceMillennium EcosystemAssessment§  Recognition: Biodiversity,water, carbon (REDD)§  Payment for ...
Forest Good orService (indiscounted US$/haor in US$/ha/yr)	  General	  (Pearce &Pearce 2001)	  Cameroon(Lescuyer2007)	  Ga...
Land cover(LC)Total Carbon(millions tonnes) % C Total1. Closed evergreen lowland forests 27 299 59.32. Swamp forests 1 761...
§  Conservation concessions:€ 13 million per year forthe Ngoyla Mintom forest (Karsenty, 2007); € 10million for the fores...
Policy recommendations
§  The quest for a globally accepted definition ofsustainable forest management is pointless§  Management should be:–  d...
OBSERVATOIRE	  DES	  FORETS	  DE	  L’AFRIQUE	  CENTRALE	  	  De	  Wasseige	  C.,	  D.	  Devers,	  P.	  de	  Marcken,	  R.	...
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Management of Congo Basin forest resources: The quest for sustainability

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Robert Nasi, Director of the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees, Agroforestry gives an overview of the evolution of forest management in the Congo Basin. He gave this policy keynote address on 22 May 2013 during a two-day policy and science conference entitled "Sustainable forest management in Central Africa: Yesterday, today and tomorrow", organized by CIFOR and its partners and held in Yaounde, Cameroon.

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Management of Congo Basin forest resources: The quest for sustainability

  1. 1. Management of Congo Basinforest resourcesThe quest for sustainabilitySustainable  Forest  Management  in  Central  Africa  Yesterday,  today  and  tomorrow  Robert  Nasi  
  2. 2. Contents§  Evolution of the internationalagenda and related paradigmchanges§  Policies and practices–  Wood products•  Timber•  Domestic wood•  Wood energy–  Non wood products–  Environmental services§  Policy recommendations
  3. 3. Agenda and paradigm changes§  < 1960: ?§  1962: “Silent Spring”§  1972: Stockholm§  1983: AIBT§  1986: OIBT§  1987: “Our Common Future”§  1992: Rio§  1993: FSC§  1994: AIBT (2)§  1999: Yaounde§  2002: Rio +10§  2005-7: REDD§  2011: AIBT (3)§  2012: Rio +20§  Segregation§  Sustained timberproduction§  Sustainable timberproduction§  Sustainableproduction ofmultiple goods§  Sustained provisionof ecosystemservices§  Ecosystem approach
  4. 4. International, formaltimber
  5. 5. §  Colonial forestry(1890-1960)§  Timber rush(1945-1975)§  Silviculture andresource assessment(1950-1990; CTFT,FAO, OFI)§  Forest management(1965, 1993-present;CIRAD, CIFOR)§  Certification /Legality(1995, 2002- present;CIRAD, CIFOR)
  6. 6. State  of  Forests  2010  
  7. 7. Impact  of  management  and  cer?fica?on  on  harvest  intensity  Ceru<  et  al.  2011  Managed and certifiedconcessions have asignificantly reducedharvesting intensity
  8. 8. Logs   Sawn  wood   Plywood  Congo  Basin   7,815  (3  %)   1,524  (2  %)   117  (1  %)  Africa  out  of  Congo  Basin  10,248   3,077   290  Asia-­‐Pacific   94,413   29,346   12,834  La?n  America  /  Caribbean  122,615   31,941   4,282  Total  produc?on  (ITTO)  235,091   65,888   17,523  State  of  Forests  2010  
  9. 9. Source:  COMTRADE  database  
  10. 10. Domestic, informal timber
  11. 11. §  Total ignorance till themid 90s§  Initial studies(1995-2005)§  Empirical research byCIFOR (2007 -present)§  Policy recognition butinadequate legalframeworks
  12. 12. State  of  Forests  2010  
  13. 13. 80  000m3  6  000m3  12  000m3  150 000m3§  > 50,000 full timejobs (more than theformal sector)§  Turn over of about 40billion CFA/year ($80million/year)§  Affordable buildingmaterial forpopulations (80%cheaper than exportsawn wood)
  14. 14. Wood energy
  15. 15. §  A non issue in the humidpart of the region§  Early warnings (mid 70s;CTFT)§  Full blown but localizedproblem (empiricalresearch in DRC; CIRAD,CIFOR)§  Still not really recognizedand remains a poorpeople issue
  16. 16. §  Kinshasa: 4,700,000 m3/yr§  Kisangani: 200,000 m3/yr§  Formal timber sector forDRC: < 300,000 m3/yr17,664  3,200   1,315  75,446  190   1,070  Cameroon   CAR   Congo   DRC   Equatorial  Guinea  Gabon  State  of  Forests  2010;  Makala  project  
  17. 17. Before and after?Luki  forest  reserve,  Bas  Congo  Degraded  lands,  Bas  Congo  In  28  years,  the  quan?ty  of  carbon  stored  in  the  vegeta?on  around  Kinshasa  has  decreased  by  29%  Makala  project  
  18. 18. Non wood products
  19. 19. §  A non issue before the80s§  “Discovery” andoverselling (1990s)§  NTFP Domestication(1990- present; ICRAF)§  Bushmeat crisis (2000 –present; BCTF, NGOs,ZSL, CIFOR)§  Inappropriate legalframeworks
  20. 20. 613,600,000  378,641,309  12,197,503  8,089,580  4,040,000  2,874,928  2,799,330  1,574,661  989,504  847,182  730,325  585,586  430,639  284,013  269,083  249,938  244,420  171,175  124,489  94,803  61,105  31,500  18,000  11,868  5,911  78.9  1   10   100   1,000   10,000   100,000   1,000,000   10,000,000   100,000,000  1,000,000,000  Fish  (Silures  &  other  species)  Fuelwood  (wood,  charcoal  &  sawdust)  Gnetum  africanum,  Gnetum  bulchozium  Irvingia  gabonensis,  Irvingia  wombulu  Acacia  senegal,  Acacia  polyacantha  Prunus  africana  Bushmeat    Raphia  spp.  Dacryodes  edulis    Pausinystalia  johimbe  Ricinodendron  heudeloUi  Voacanga  africana  Cola  niUda  RaWans    Cola  acuminata  Garcinia  kola  Apiculture:  beeswax  Garcinia  lucida  Tetrapleura  tetraptera    Rauvolfia  vomitoria  Apiculture:  honey  Chinconia  spp.  Kigelia  africana  Baillonella  toxisperma  Carpolobia  lutea,    Carpolobia  albea  Piper  guineensis  US$    (2010  equivalent)    Annual  market  value  of  key  NTFPs  in  Cameroon    State  of  Forests  2010  
  21. 21. § Estimates of thebushmeat trade rangefrom US$42 to US$205million per year in West-Central Africa.§ Current harvest inexcess of 5 milliontonnes annually§ 30 to 80% of the proteinintake of many ruralpopulations§ Looming food securityissue
  22. 22. Gender issues•  NTFP play a disproportionatelyimportant role in the livelihoods andwell-being of women (and children)•  The collection of fuelwood or other wildproducts is often a task for women andchildren•  Women play an important role in thedifferent value chains of these productsand derive crucial income from thesales•  Women generally invest back theirincome into household food andwellbeing; men more into non essentialgoods
  23. 23. §  Regional guidelines for the sustainable managementof NTFPs developed for the 10 member countries ofCOMIFAC).§  Adopted by the Conference of Ministers of COMIFAC–  This in turn has resulted in raising the status of NTFPs withinthe forestry administration in most countries.§  Gabon and Cameroon have now created directorateswithin their forestry administration for the design andimplementation of all policies related to NTFPs(FAO, ICRAF, CIFOR…)§  Still lacking for bushmeat and fish as well as in termsof gender equity…Raised awareness
  24. 24. Environmental services
  25. 25. §  Background noise sinceMillennium EcosystemAssessment§  Recognition: Biodiversity,water, carbon (REDD)§  Payment for EnvironmentalServices offers potential§  Infancy stage in the regionand realization is unknown
  26. 26. Forest Good orService (indiscounted US$/haor in US$/ha/yr)  General  (Pearce &Pearce 2001)  Cameroon(Lescuyer2007)  Gabon(NationalPark)  (Lescuyer2006)  Cameroon(communityforests)  (Akoa Akoa,2007)  Timber   200  -­‐  4,400   560   98   25-­‐78  Fuelwood   40   61   NA   165  NTFPs   0  -­‐  100   41  -­‐  70   3   172  GeneUc  resources   0  -­‐  3,000   7   1<   Na  RecreaUon   2  -­‐  470   19   4   34  Watershed  benefits   15  -­‐  850   54  -­‐  270   0   998  Climate  benefits   360  -­‐  2,200   842  -­‐  2,265   211   632  OpUon  values   2  -­‐12   3   NA   NA  Non-­‐use  values   4,400   19  -­‐  32   24   NA  
  27. 27. Land cover(LC)Total Carbon(millions tonnes) % C Total1. Closed evergreen lowland forests 27 299 59.32. Swamp forests 1 761 3.83. Sub-mountain forests (900-1500m) 770 1.74. Mountain forests (>1500m) 119 0.3Humid dense Forest (1-4) 29  949   65.1Closed deciduous forests 2 791 6.1Mosaic forest/croplands 3 955 8.6Mosaic forest/savannas 3 403 7.4Deciduous woodland 4 149 9.0Grassland, shrub land, sparse trees 1 770 3.8Congo  basin  sub-­‐region  (TSR) 46  016 100.0State  of  Forests  2008  
  28. 28. §  Conservation concessions:€ 13 million per year forthe Ngoyla Mintom forest (Karsenty, 2007); € 10million for the forest reserve of Dzanga-Sangha(Lescuyer, 2008)§  Certification has yet to provide the expected“premium” on the sensitive markets§  REDD (Carbon) although the obvious candidate ofchoice does not stand against opportunity costs ofagro-business development (e.g. oil palm orplantain)Economics are not good…State  of  Forests  2010;  FORAFAMA  project  
  29. 29. Policy recommendations
  30. 30. §  The quest for a globally accepted definition ofsustainable forest management is pointless§  Management should be:–  defined by societal demands–  designed across sectors at the landscape level imaginingnew forms of land-uses§  Outcomes should be monitored based on agreedobjectives; unrealistic, unachievable or vague targetsare of little use§  Informal sectors should be recognized and properregulatory frameworks developed to manage theseresources§  Private-public sector collaboration should become thenorm rather than the exception
  31. 31. OBSERVATOIRE  DES  FORETS  DE  L’AFRIQUE  CENTRALE    De  Wasseige  C.,  D.  Devers,  P.  de  Marcken,  R.  Eba’a  Atyi,  R.  Nasi,  P.  Mayaux,  Eds  (2009)  Les  Forêts  du  Bassin  du  Congo  –  Etat  des  Forêts  2008.  Office  des  publicaUons  de  l’Union  Européenne.  Luxembourg,  426  p.      Les  forêts  du  bassin  du  Congo  -­‐  Etat  des  Forêts  2010.  (2012)    Eds  :  de  Wasseige  C.,  de  Marcken  P.,  Bayol  N.,  Hiol  Hiol  F.,  Mayaux  Ph.,  Desclée  B.,  Nasi  R.,  Billand  A.,  Defourny  P  et  Eba’a  R..–  Office  des  publicaUons  de  l’Union  Européenne.  Luxembourg.  276  p.    hWp://www.observatoire-­‐comifac.net/    

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