Sustainable use of tropical rainforests


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Sustainable use of tropical rainforests

  1. 1. Sustainable Use of Tropical Rainforests Dr. Mark A. McGinley Honors College and Department of Biological Sciences Texas Tech University
  2. 2. People Have Been Living Sustainably in Tropical Rainforests for Thousands of Years• Some tribes continue this same lifestyle today – A small number of tribes has never been in contact with the outside world – (cool video)
  3. 3. Sustainable Use of Rainforests• With small population sizes shifting agriculture (slash and burn), collecting products from the forest, and hunting have minimal effects on the environment.
  4. 4. Sustainable Use of Rainforests• Logging for wood • Peruvian Amazon• Non-wood forest – logging a one-hectare products patch of forest generated $1,000. – Food colorings – The annual net yield of the – Fruits and nuts sustainable harvest of fruit – Rubber and rubber, after deducting – Secondary wood products the cost for collecting and – Rattan transport, was estimated – Fragrances to be $422 – Medicines – -
  5. 5. Global Human Population Growth
  6. 6. Human Population GrowthAsia1950 1.4 Billion1990 3.2 Billion2000 3.7 Billion2010 4.2 BillionSE Asia1950 178 million2005 555 million2020 652 million
  7. 7. Increasing Population Sizes• Increases the number of people directly depending on the rainforests for their livelihoods – Displaced people emigrate to new places• Increases population sizes in urban centers – Exploitation of rainforest resources can provide currency that governments can use to support rapidly growing urban populations
  8. 8. Possible Strategies• Provide financial incentives for people to use rainforest resources in a responsible and sustainable manner• Provide financial incentives for people to conserve rainforest resources
  9. 9. Forest Stewardship Council• FSC is an independent, non-governmental, not- for-profit organization established to promote the responsible management of the world’s forests.• Established in 1993 as a response to concerns over global deforestation, FSC is a pioneer forum where the global consensus on responsible forest management convenes and through democratic process effects solutions to the pressures facing the world’s forests and forest-dependent communities.
  10. 10. FSC Certification• FSC certification provides a credible link between responsible production and consumption of forest products, enabling consumers and businesses to make purchasing decisions that benefit people and the environment as well as providing ongoing business value.
  11. 11. Forest Stewardship Council Vision• The world’s forests meet the social, ecological, and economic rights and needs of the present generation without compromising those of future generations.
  12. 12. Forest Stewardship Council Mission• The Forest Stewardship Council A.C. (FSC) shall promote environmentally appropriate, socially beneficial, and economically viable management of the worlds forests.• Environmentally appropriate forest management ensures that the production of timber, non-timber products and ecosystem services maintains the forests biodiversity, productivity, and ecological processes.• Socially beneficial forest management helps both local people and society at large to enjoy long term benefits and also provides strong incentives to local people to sustain the forest resources and adhere to long-term management plans.• Economically viable forest management means that forest operations are structured and managed so as to be sufficiently profitable, without generating financial profit at the expense of the forest resource, the ecosystem, or affected communities. The tension between the need to generate adequate financial returns and the principles of responsible forest operations can be reduced through efforts to market the full range of forest products and services for their best value.
  13. 13. Forest Stewardship Council Principles and Criteria• Principle 1. Compliance with all applicable laws and international treaties• Principle 2. Demonstrated and uncontested, clearly defined, long–term land tenure and use rights• Principle 3. Recognition and respect of indigenous peoples rights• Principle 4. Maintenance or enhancement of long-term social and economic well-being of forest workers and local communities and respect of worker’s rights in compliance with International Labour Organisation (ILO) conventions• Principle 5. Equitable use and sharing of benefits derived from the forest
  14. 14. Forest Stewardship Council Principles and Criteria• Principle 6. Reduction of environmental impact of logging activities and maintenance of the ecological functions and integrity of the forest• Principle 7. Appropriate and continuously updated management plan• Principle 8. Appropriate monitoring and assessment activities to assess the condition of the forest, management activities and their social and environmental impacts• Principle 9. Maintenance of High Conservation Value Forests (HCVFs) defined as environmental and social values that are considered to be of outstanding significance or critical importance• Principle 10. In addition to compliance with all of the above, plantations must contribute to reduce the pressures on and promote the restoration and conservation of natural forests.
  15. 15. High Conservation Value Forest• High conservation value forest (HCVF) is a Forest Stewardship Council forest management designation used to describe those forests who meet criteria defined by the FSC Principles and Criteria of Forest Stewardship.• Specifically, high conservation value forests are those that possess one or more of the following attributes: – forest areas containing globally, regionally or nationally significant: concentrations of biodiversity values (e.g. endemism, endangered species, refugia); and/or large landscape-level forests, contained within, or containing the management unit, where viable populations of most if not all naturally occurring species exist in natural patterns of distribution and abundance
  16. 16. High Conservation Value Forests– forest areas that are in or contain rare, threatened or endangered ecosystems– forest areas that provide basic services of nature in critical situations (e.g. watershed protection, erosion control)– forest areas fundamental to meeting basic needs of local communities (e.g. subsistence, health) and/or critical to local communities traditional cultural identity (areas of cultural, ecological, economic or religious significance identified in cooperation with such local communities).
  17. 17. High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF) Toolkit for Malaysia: A national guide for identifying, managing and monitoring High Conservation Value Forests• al-hcv- interpretations/HCVF%20Toolkit%20For%20M alaysia_softcopy%20version.pdf
  18. 18. FSC Around the World• FSC has Network Partners in more than 50 countries around the world. Additionally FSC maintains regional offices. The FSC International Center is located in Bonn, Germany.• FSC Network Partners in Asia/Pacific – India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Japan, Fiji, China, Australia• None in SE Asia
  19. 19. Global FSC certificates: type and distribution• data/public/document_center/powerpoints_g raphs/facts_figures/2012-03-15-FSC-FIG- Global_FSC_certificates-EN.pdf
  20. 20. Formation of Successful Sustainable Forest Cooperative in Indonesia• This Indonesian case describes the successful formation of a 550 member cooperative, the Koperasi Hutan Jaya Lestari (KHJL), which received FSC group certification in 2005, and supplies teak for use in the international furniture market.• 30% of the profit is divided amongst members; the cooperative also lobbies government for reform of unjust forestry laws, distributes government aid related to agriculture and forestry, and is starting a small loan program• data/public/document_center/publications/Case_Studi es/English_-_Case_Study_-_Indonesia.pdf
  21. 21. Background• In Konawe Selatan District in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia, individual families own one or more teak agroforest plots of an average size of less than one hectare. Due to legality restrictions – primarily related to the issue of harvesting and transport permits – most districts in the province have only one or two wood buyers who could therefore gain a monopoly over teak prices.• Not being organised into groups meant that individual farmers in the district were obliged to sell their teak for very low prices.
  22. 22. Background• In Konawe Selatan District in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia, individual families own one or more teak agroforest plots of an average size of less than one hectare. Due to legality restrictions – primarily related to the issue of harvesting and transport permits – most districts in the province have only one or two wood buyers who could therefore gain a monopoly over teak prices.• Not being organised into groups meant that individual farmers in the district were obliged to sell their teak for very low prices.
  23. 23. The Cooperative• The cooperative’s primary reason for becoming certified was the strong demand for FSC teak among European and American buyers, and the opportunity to sell wood for a higher price directly to factories in Java.• Another driver was the potential for increased local government recognition of farmers’ forest management abilities.• Farmers were managing their teak in a largely sustainable manner, and had a willingness to work toward FSC Certification. – organize farmers into a cooperative: 46 villages were helped to form farmer groups and elect representatives to come together as founding members of the cooperative.
  24. 24. Interesting Video• MvnCrA
  25. 25. Videos by WWF About Palm Oil• How can palm oil be more sustainable? – E• Oil Palm – culture/palm_oil/
  26. 26. Oil Palm article• Sustainable Palm Oil: Rainforest Savior or Fig Leaf?• m_oil_rainforest_savior_or_fig_leaf/2345/
  27. 27. Sustainable Palm Oil• Sustainable palm oil production is comprised of legal, economically viable, environmentally appropriate and socially beneficial management and operations.• %20Principles%20&%20Criteria.pdf
  28. 28. Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil• RSPO president, Unilever’s Jan Kees Vis, says properly labeled sustainable palm oil will show that the product “does not contribute to the sustained destruction of valuable tropical forests or damage the interests of people in the regions where the palms are grown.”
  29. 29. RSPO Principles and Criteria for Sustainable Palm Oil Production• Commitment to transparency• Compliance with applicable laws and regulations• Commitment to long-term economic and financial viability• Use of appropriate best practices by growers and millers• Environmental responsibility and conservation of natural resources and biodiversity• Responsible consideration of employees and of individuals and communities affected by growers and mills• Responsible development of new plantings• Commitment to continuous improvement in key areas of activity
  30. 30. Responsible development of new plantings• New plantings since November 2005, have not replaced primary forest or any area required to maintain or enhance one or more High Conservation Values.• No new plantings are established on local peoples’ land without their free, prior and informed consent, dealt with through a documented system that enables indigenous peoples, local communities and other stakeholders to express their views through their own representative institutions.• Local people are compensated for any agreed land acquisitions and relinquishment of rights, subject to their free, prior and informed consent and negotiated agreements.
  31. 31. Responsible development of new plantings• McG’s personal note-• I am not at all convinced that they wont try the “we just logged the area so now we can plant ‘sustainable’ oil palm” approach.
  32. 32. Sustainable Palm Oil Websites• Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil –• Green – oil/what-is-sustainable-palm-oil
  33. 33. Do Consumers Care?• Home Depot: Eco Options – FSC certified molding – =ExternalDirectView• Target: FSC Certified Furniture – =google&CPNG=patio+garden&adgroup=patio+furniture5&LNM=FSC furniture&MT=broad&LID• FSC Certified Wood Flooring – floor/tips/buy-fsc-certified-wood-floors• Nestles to use only certified sustainable palm oil after 2015 – sourced-palm-oil/6449/
  34. 34. Does Texas Tech University buy onlyFSC certified wood and paper products and sustainably grown palm oil?• How Does TTU fare as a Green Campus??
  35. 35. The College Environmental Sustainability Report Card 2011 TTU Overall Grade = C-• Administration- F• The sustainability task force and the facilities and physical plant departments address sustainability issues at Texas Tech. The university has no other known policies or initiatives relating to campus-wide sustainability.• Climate Change & Energy- F• The university has an energy conservation plan that began in 2005. The plan includes lighting retrofits, monthly energy audits, and air handler upgrades. Quarterly reports are released and published online to track energy conservation progress.• Food & Recycling- C• The university buys some local produce and organic products. Dining services uses some cage-free eggs and hormone-free chicken, and some seafood is purchased according to sustainability guidelines. Fair trade coffee is served in some locations, and the school offers discounts for the use of reusable mugs and bags. Texas Tech has completed a food waste audit and recycles used cooking oil for biodiesel production.• Green Building- D• The Rawls College of Business was built to meet LEED Certified-level criteria but is not formally certified. The university has no known green building policy.
  36. 36. Environmental Sustainability Report Card• Student Involvement- D• Students have established a U.S. Green Building Council student chapter that includes over 80 members. The group promotes green building and other sustainability initiatives through educational workshops. Recently, the group helped organize Texas Tech’s Arbor Day events and Spring into Green, a community event focused on sustainability. The group also coordinated a green apparel fashion show with eco- friendly clothing designs.• Transportation- C• Staff receive assistance with carpool arrangements, and students receive free access to public transportation. The university runs a shuttle service around campus and to various off-campus housing locations, and the local bus system provides transportation for students and staff. Students can rent bikes through the Outdoor Pursuits Center, and bike racks have been installed around campus.• Endowment Transparency- B• Proxy voting records and a list of endowment holdings are made available to the public per open records law. This information is available at the investment office or similar office on campus.• Investment Priorities A• The university aims to optimize investment returns and is currently invested in community development loan funds.• Shareholder Engagement --• The university does not have the ability to vote proxies, as the entire endowment is invested in mutual funds or other commingled investment vehicles.•
  37. 37. Creating a Green Campus Action Plan at TTU• Texas Tech University successfully pulled its community together to develop a plan of action in the spring 2009 after receiving consecutively dismal scores from the Campus Sustainability Report Card.• One year later on Arbor Day, University President Guy Bailey publically announced the University’s membership in AASHE, a commitment to STARS and the appointment of a University liaison for sustainability. These announcements fulfilled the recommendations rooted in these events. – Not sure of the results
  38. 38. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries• REDD- A United Nations Collaborative Program – REDD is a mechanism to create an incentive for developing countries to protect, better manage and wisely use their forest resources, contributing to the global fight against climate change. – REDD strategies aim to make forests more valuable standing than they would be cut down, by creating a financial value for the carbon stored in trees. – Once this carbon is assessed and quantified, the final phase of REDD involves developed countries paying developing countries carbon offsets for their standing forests.
  39. 39. REDD• REDD is a cutting-edge forestry initiative that aims at tipping the economic balance in favor of sustainable management of forests so that their formidable economic, environmental and social goods and services benefit countries, communities, biodiversity and forest users while also contributing to important reductions in greenhouse gas emissions•
  40. 40. REDD• The destruction of tropical rainforests is responsible for an estimated 17 percent of global CO2 emissions — six times the amount of emissions fromaircraft.
  41. 41. How is the UN-REDD Program Funded?• Norway continues to be the UN-REDD Programme’s first and largest donor. Since the Programme was launched in September 2008, Norway has committed US$52.2 million for 2008-2009, US$31 million for 2010 and at least US$40 million for 2011-2012.• Denmark became the second donor country to join the UN-REDD Programme, committing US$2 million in June 2009 and another US$6 million in November 2010. At the end of 2009,• Spain announced its pledge of US$20.2 million to the UN-REDD Programme over a period of three years, and confirmed US$1.4 million for 2010 in November 2010.• Japans first funding commitment to the Programme of US$3 million for the UN-REDD Global Programme, and a first-time funding pledge from the• European Commission of approximately US$14 million (€10 million). The UN-REDD Programme is now actively looking for more donors, to meet the increasing demand from countries seeking support from the Programme
  42. 42. REDD CritiqueWill REDD Preserve Forests Or Merely Provide aFig Leaf? – 2011/week%206/Will%20REDD%20Preserve%20F orests%20Or%20Merely%20Provide%20a%20Fig% 20Leaf_%20by
  43. 43. REDD Critiques• REDD-Monitor –• No REDD Platform issues “wakeup call to funders” – redd-platform-issues-wakeup-call-to-funders/
  44. 44. Video Make by Indigenous People Against REDD• http://www.redd- indigenous-activists-say-no-to-redd/#more- 8288