Management of forest
ecosystems and sustainable
livelihoods: compatible?

Robert Nasi
CIFOR
GBF 16, The Hague, 5-7/04/02
• There are some circumstances under which
forest management is unlikely to yield either
sustainable livelihoods or sustai...
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Land use intensif...
Hunger, Poverty

You have to have at least one
square meal a day to be an
environmentalist

(Borlaug)
‘Non-missing’ Markets
• The illegal trade in endangered species is
worth $5,000,000,000 / year
• A kg of Taxol (Taxus brev...
Harnessing Butterfly Biodiversity for
Improving Livelihoods and Forest
Conservation
The Kipepeo project:
• To change local...
Payment of Environmental
Services in Costa Rica
Land use
type

Total amount
paidover a five
year period (US$
ha-1)

Annual...
The logging case...
The use of tropical forests as a source of timber is a
contentious and emotive issue (Bawa and Seidler...
Logging and livelihoods
• The good, the bad and the worse co-exist
(CBFM to large scale illegal logging or poaching)

• Ra...
Conclusions?
• Management of forest ecosystems and
sustainable livelihoods can be compatible
But:
•
•
•
•

There is no one...
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Management of forest ecosystems and sustainable livelihoods: compatible?

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Management of forest ecosystems and sustainable livelihoods: compatible?

  1. 1. Management of forest ecosystems and sustainable livelihoods: compatible? Robert Nasi CIFOR GBF 16, The Hague, 5-7/04/02
  2. 2. • There are some circumstances under which forest management is unlikely to yield either sustainable livelihoods or sustainable biodiversity conservation (e.g.too little forest areas, too many dependant people) • There are also conditions which favor both socioeconomic returns and conservation (e.g. forests rich in valuable timber or multiple resources, well-organized communities, and diversified resource use)
  3. 3. n re ha bi lit at io ed en de pl et si fic at io n r fr on tie ia l tr us in d e- pr in t Land use intensification stages Forest cover Economic return Cost of BD cons./area
  4. 4. Hunger, Poverty You have to have at least one square meal a day to be an environmentalist (Borlaug)
  5. 5. ‘Non-missing’ Markets • The illegal trade in endangered species is worth $5,000,000,000 / year • A kg of Taxol (Taxus brevifolia): $11,900,000 • A breeding pair of Lear’s Macaw: $260,000 • Two Black Rhinoceros’ horns: $50,000 • A kg of dry Bear gall bladder: $7,000 • A kg of Tiger bones: $3,000 • One Giant Panda pelt = a Chinese peasant’s lifetime earnings
  6. 6. Harnessing Butterfly Biodiversity for Improving Livelihoods and Forest Conservation The Kipepeo project: • To change local attitudes by enabling the forest adjacent community to get cash incomes from rearing forest butterflies for export to the live butterfly exhibit industry in Europe and America. • Started in 1994 with $50,000 from GEF small grant program • In 1999, butterfly sales account for 87% of all recorded revenues for the forest, with 10% coming from Forest Department licenses, fines and royalties for timber products and 2% from tourism. • Replicable (e.g. Costa Rica currently exports around $1 million worth of live butterflies a year) • Sustainable (Butterfly populations seem not affected but monitoring continues...)
  7. 7. Payment of Environmental Services in Costa Rica Land use type Total amount paidover a five year period (US$ ha-1) Annual payments as percentage of total for years 1-5 1 2 3 4 Commitment period (years) 5 Reforestation 565 50 20 15 10 5 15 Natural Forest Management 344 50 20 10 10 10 10 221 20 20 20 20 20 5 Forest Preservation or Regeneration
  8. 8. The logging case... The use of tropical forests as a source of timber is a contentious and emotive issue (Bawa and Seidler 1998; Bowles et al. 1998; Rice et al. 1997, 1998; Struhsaker 1997; Salafsky et al. 1998; Cannon et al. 1998; Pearce et al. 1999; Putz et al. 2000b; Lugo 1999). However, for better or for worse, timber harvesting in many tropical forests looks set to continue (ITTO 1993, Global Forest Watch 2000) and making the best of this is a necessity.
  9. 9. Logging and livelihoods • The good, the bad and the worse co-exist (CBFM to large scale illegal logging or poaching) • Raise the issue of local vs. global stakeholders: who counts more? (forest dependent people vs. global conservation lobby) • Local and national interests might conflict: who benefit from forest income? (Only communities in the forest or the whole Nation)
  10. 10. Conclusions? • Management of forest ecosystems and sustainable livelihoods can be compatible But: • • • • There is no one-size-fits-all solution An integrated landscape approach is essential Relevant stakeholders must no feel like castaways Principles should be translated into actions • As well as probably a thousand of additional useful recommendations that I forgot....

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