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Management of Congo Basin
forest resources
The quest for sustainability
Robert Nasi
Sustainable Forest Management in Centr...
Contents
 Evolution of the international
agenda and related paradigm
changes
 Policies and practices
– Wood products
• T...
Agenda and paradigm changes














< 1960: ?
1962: “Silent Spring”
1972: Stockholm
1983: AIBT
1986: OI...
International, formal
timber
 Colonial forestry
(1890-1960)
 Timber rush (19451975)
 Silviculture and
resource assessment
(1950-1990; CTFT,
FAO, OFI...
State of Forests 2010
Impact of management and certification
on harvest intensity
Managed and certified
concessions have a
significantly reduced...
Logs
Congo Basin
Africa out of Congo
Basin
Asia-Pacific
Latin America /
Caribbean
Total production
(ITTO)

Sawn wood

Plyw...
Source: COMTRADE database
Domestic, informal timber
 Total ignorance till the
mid 90s
 Initial studies (19952005)
 Empirical research by
CIFOR (2007 present)
 Policy reco...
State of Forests 2010
 > 50,000 full time
jobs (more than the
formal sector)

80 000m3
12 000m3

6 000m3

150 000m3

 Turn over of about 40
bi...
Wood energy
 A non issue in the humid
part of the region
 Early warnings (mid 70s;
CTFT)
 Full blown but localized
problem (empiric...
75,446

17,664
3,200
Cameroon

1,315

CAR

Congo

190
DRC

1,070

Equatorial
Guinea

Gabon

 Kinshasa: 4,700,000 m3/yr
 ...
Before and after?

Degraded lands, Bas Congo

Luki forest reserve, Bas Congo
In 28 years, the quantity of
carbon stored in...
Non wood products
 A non issue before the
80s
 “Discovery” and
overselling (1990s)

 NTFP Domestication
(1990- present; ICRAF)
 Bushmeat...
Annual market value of key NTFPs in Cameroon
Piper guineensis
Carpolobia lutea, Carpolobia albea
Baillonella toxisperma
Ki...
Estimates of the
bushmeat trade range
from US$42 to US$205
million per year in WestCentral Africa.
Current harvest in
ex...
Gender issues
• NTFP play a disproportionately
important role in the livelihoods and
well-being of women (and children)
• ...
Raised awareness
 Regional guidelines for the sustainable management
of NTFPs developed for the 10 member countries of
CO...
Environmental services
 Background noise since
Millennium Ecosystem
Assessment
 Recognition:
Biodiversity, water, carbon
(REDD)
 Payment for E...
General
(Pearce &
Pearce 2001)

Cameroon
(Lescuyer
2007)

Gabon
(National
Park)
(Lescuyer
2006)

200 - 4,400

560

98

25-...
Total Carbon
(millions tonnes)

% C Total

27 299

59.3

1 761

3.8

3. Sub-mountain forests (900-1500m)

770

1.7

4. Mou...
Economics are not good…
 Conservation concessions:€ 13 million per year for
the Ngoyla Mintom forest (Karsenty, 2007); € ...
Policy recommendations
 The quest for a globally accepted definition of
sustainable forest management is pointless
 Management should be:
– def...
OBSERVATOIRE DES FORETS DE L’AFRIQUE CENTRALE
De Wasseige C., D. Devers, P. de Marcken, R. Eba’a Atyi, R. Nasi, P.
Mayaux,...
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Management of Congo Basin forest resources: the quest for sustainability

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Management of Congo Basin forest resources: the quest for sustainability

  1. 1. Management of Congo Basin forest resources The quest for sustainability Robert Nasi Sustainable Forest Management in Central Africa Yesterday, today and tomorrow Hilton Hotel Yaoundé, 22-23 May 2013
  2. 2. Contents  Evolution of the international agenda and related paradigm changes  Policies and practices – Wood products • Timber • Domestic wood • Wood energy – Non wood products – Environmental services  Policy recommendations
  3. 3. Agenda and paradigm changes              < 1960: ? 1962: “Silent Spring” 1972: Stockholm 1983: AIBT 1986: OIBT 1987: “Our Common Future” 1992: Rio 1993: FSC 1994: AIBT (2) 2002: Rio +10 2005-7: REDD 2011: AIBT (3) 2012: Rio +20  Segregation  Sustained timber production  Sustainable timber production  Sustainable production of multiple goods  Sustained provision of ecosystem services  Ecosystem approach
  4. 4. International, formal timber
  5. 5.  Colonial forestry (1890-1960)  Timber rush (19451975)  Silviculture and resource assessment (1950-1990; CTFT, FAO, OFI)  Forest management (1965, 1993-present; CIRAD, CIFOR)  Certification /Legality (1995, 2002- present; CIRAD, CIFOR)
  6. 6. State of Forests 2010
  7. 7. Impact of management and certification on harvest intensity Managed and certified concessions have a significantly reduced harvesting intensity Cerutti et al. 2011
  8. 8. Logs Congo Basin Africa out of Congo Basin Asia-Pacific Latin America / Caribbean Total production (ITTO) Sawn wood Plywood 7,815 (3 %) 1,524 (2 %) 117 (1 %) 10,248 3,077 290 94,413 29,346 12,834 122,615 31,941 4,282 235,091 65,888 17,523 State of Forests 2010
  9. 9. Source: COMTRADE database
  10. 10. Domestic, informal timber
  11. 11.  Total ignorance till the mid 90s  Initial studies (19952005)  Empirical research by CIFOR (2007 present)  Policy recognition but inadequate legal frameworks
  12. 12. State of Forests 2010
  13. 13.  > 50,000 full time jobs (more than the formal sector) 80 000m3 12 000m3 6 000m3 150 000m3  Turn over of about 40 billion CFA/year ($80 million/year)  Affordable building material for populations (80% cheaper than export sawn wood)
  14. 14. Wood energy
  15. 15.  A non issue in the humid part of the region  Early warnings (mid 70s; CTFT)  Full blown but localized problem (empirical research in DRC; CIRAD, CIFOR)  Still not really recognized and remains a poor people issue
  16. 16. 75,446 17,664 3,200 Cameroon 1,315 CAR Congo 190 DRC 1,070 Equatorial Guinea Gabon  Kinshasa: 4,700,000 m3/yr  Kisangani: 200,000 m3/yr  Formal timber sector for DRC: < 300,000 m3/yr State of Forests 2010; Makala project
  17. 17. Before and after? Degraded lands, Bas Congo Luki forest reserve, Bas Congo In 28 years, the quantity of carbon stored in the vegetation around Kinshasa has decreased by 29% Makala project
  18. 18. Non wood products
  19. 19.  A non issue before the 80s  “Discovery” and overselling (1990s)  NTFP Domestication (1990- present; ICRAF)  Bushmeat crisis (2000 – present; BCTF, NGOs, ZSL, CIFOR)  Inappropriate legal frameworks
  20. 20. Annual market value of key NTFPs in Cameroon Piper guineensis Carpolobia lutea, Carpolobia albea Baillonella toxisperma Kigelia africana Chinconia spp. Apiculture: honey Rauvolfia vomitoria Tetrapleura tetraptera Garcinia lucida Apiculture: beeswax Garcinia kola Cola acuminata Rattans Cola nitida Voacanga africana Ricinodendron heudelotii Pausinystalia johimbe Dacryodes edulis Raphia spp. Bushmeat Prunus africana Acacia senegal, Acacia polyacantha Irvingia gabonensis, Irvingia wombulu Gnetum africanum, Gnetum bulchozium Fuelwood (wood, charcoal & sawdust) Fish (Silures & other species) 78.9 5,911 11,868 18,000 31,500 61,105 94,803 124,489 171,175 244,420 249,938 269,083 284,013 430,639 585,586 730,325 847,182 989,504 1,574,661 2,799,330 2,874,928 4,040,000 8,089,580 12,197,503 378,641,309 613,600,000 1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 US$ (2010 equivalent) State of Forests 2010 1,000,000 10,000,000 100,000,000 1,000,000,000
  21. 21. Estimates of the bushmeat trade range from US$42 to US$205 million per year in WestCentral Africa. Current harvest in excess of 5 million tonnes annually 30 to 80% of the protein intake of many rural populations Looming food security issue
  22. 22. Gender issues • NTFP play a disproportionately important role in the livelihoods and well-being of women (and children) • The collection of fuelwood or other wild products is often a task for women and children • Women play an important role in the different value chains of these products and derive crucial income from the sales • Women generally invest back their income into household food and wellbeing; men more into non essential goods
  23. 23. Raised awareness  Regional guidelines for the sustainable management of NTFPs developed for the 10 member countries of COMIFAC).  Adopted by the Conference of Ministers of COMIFAC – This in turn has resulted in raising the status of NTFPs within the forestry administration in most countries.  Gabon and Cameroon have now created directorates within their forestry administration for the design and implementation of all policies related to NTFPs (FAO, ICRAF, CIFOR…)  Still lacking for bushmeat and fish as well as in terms of gender equity…
  24. 24. Environmental services
  25. 25.  Background noise since Millennium Ecosystem Assessment  Recognition: Biodiversity, water, carbon (REDD)  Payment for Environmental Services offers potential  Infancy stage in the region and realization is unknown
  26. 26. General (Pearce & Pearce 2001) Cameroon (Lescuyer 2007) Gabon (National Park) (Lescuyer 2006) 200 - 4,400 560 98 25-78 40 61 NA 165 0 - 100 41 - 70 3 172 0 - 3,000 7 1< Na Recreation 2 - 470 19 4 34 Watershed benefits 15 - 850 54 - 270 0 998 360 - 2,200 842 - 2,265 211 632 Option values 2 -12 3 NA NA Non-use values 4,400 19 - 32 24 NA Forest Good or Service (in discounted US$/ha or in US$/ha/yr) Timber Fuelwood NTFPs Genetic resources Climate benefits Cameroon (community forests) (Akoa Akoa, 2007)
  27. 27. Total Carbon (millions tonnes) % C Total 27 299 59.3 1 761 3.8 3. Sub-mountain forests (900-1500m) 770 1.7 4. Mountain forests (>1500m) 119 0.3 29 949 65.1 Closed deciduous forests 2 791 6.1 Mosaic forest/croplands 3 955 8.6 Mosaic forest/savannas 3 403 7.4 Deciduous woodland 4 149 9.0 Grassland, shrub land, sparse trees 1 770 3.8 46 016 100.0 Land cover(LC) 1. Closed evergreen lowland forests 2. Swamp forests Humid dense Forest (1-4) Congo basin sub-region (TSR) State of Forests 2008
  28. 28. Economics are not good…  Conservation concessions:€ 13 million per year for the Ngoyla Mintom forest (Karsenty, 2007); € 10 million for the forest reserve of Dzanga-Sangha (Lescuyer, 2008)  Certification has yet to provide the expected “premium” on the sensitive markets  REDD (Carbon) although the obvious candidate of choice does not stand against opportunity costs of agro-business development (e.g. oil palm or plantain) State of Forests 2010; FORAFAMA project
  29. 29. Policy recommendations
  30. 30.  The quest for a globally accepted definition of sustainable forest management is pointless  Management should be: – defined by societal demands – designed across sectors at the landscape level imagining new forms of land-uses  Outcomes should be monitored based on agreed objectives; unrealistic, unachievable or vague targets are of little use  Informal sectors should be recognized and proper regulatory frameworks developed to manage these resources  Private-public sector collaboration should become the norm rather than the exception
  31. 31. OBSERVATOIRE DES FORETS DE L’AFRIQUE CENTRALE De Wasseige C., D. Devers, P. de Marcken, R. Eba’a Atyi, R. Nasi, P. Mayaux, Eds (2009) Les Forêts du Bassin du Congo – Etat des Forêts 2008. Office des publications de l’Union Européenne. Luxembourg, 426 p. Les forêts du bassin du Congo - Etat des Forêts 2010. (2012) Eds : de Wasseige C., de Marcken P., Bayol N., Hiol Hiol F., Mayaux Ph., Desclée B., Nasi R., Billand A., Defourny P et Eba’a R..– Office des publications de l’Union Européenne. Luxembourg. 276 p. http://www.observatoire-comifac.net/

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