Targeting technologies  - from fields to farms and farming systems  - from silver bullets to ‘best fits’       How do we ‘...
Legume technologies in Western Kenya                                                                     The niche for leg...
Genotype ! Environment ! Management               (GL ! GR) ! E ! M    Where:    GL = legume genotype    GR = rhizobial st...
Response to P and inoculation with soybeanin DRC                                                                          ...
Drought problems !       Differential establishmentClimbing beans in Rwanda          4.00       Grain yield (Mg ha-1)     ...
Climbing beans in DRC                                                   N2Africa is a development to research project     ...
Problems encountered/ being addressed                            For updates see                                          ...
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Giller - N2Africa: Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa

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Presentation delivered at the CIALCA international conference 'Challenges and Opportunities to the agricultural intensification of the humid highland systems of sub-Saharan Africa'. Kigali, Rwanda, October 24-27 2011.

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Giller - N2Africa: Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa

  1. 1. Targeting technologies - from fields to farms and farming systems - from silver bullets to ‘best fits’ How do we ‘do’ local adaptation?
Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa ??
  2. 2. Legume technologies in Western Kenya The niche for legumes The socio-ecological niche Climate Labour Economic yield Soil fertility Resource Y Substitution Investment rceZ sou Cropping system Re But what can we use these crops Resource X for? The niche as an n -dimensional hyperspace The legume niche has agroecological and Hutchinson (1957) socioeconomic dimensions Ojiem, de Ridder, Vanlauwe & Giller (2006) Int. J. Agric. Sust. 4, 79-93.Participatory evaluation of legume technologies N2Africa – target countries and legumes •  First choice – grain legumes West Africa •  Second choice – multi-purpose grain legumes •  Cowpea, groundnut, soybean •  Third choice – fodder legumes, fodder trees East & Central Africa •  Fourth choice – woody legumes •  Common bean, groundnut, soybean Southern Africa •  !very last choice – green manures, cover crops and fertilizer •  Common bean, groundnut, soybean trees •  ‘pseudo-adoption’ due to artificial market for seed of green manures or trees Throughout all regions Evaluations conducted in Ghana (Adjei-Nsiah), Kenya (Ojiem), Uganda (Ebanyat), Rwanda (Bucagu), •  Legume forages Zimbabwe (Chikowo, Malawi (Kamanga)" Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa
  3. 3. Genotype ! Environment ! Management (GL ! GR) ! E ! M Where: GL = legume genotype GR = rhizobial strain E = environment - climate (temperature x rainfall x daylength etc) - to encompass length of growing season etc - soils (nutrient limitations, acidity and toxicities) M = management -  agronomy – inoculation, seeding rates, plant density, weeding - (Diseases and pests are also a function of G x E x M....) Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa N2Africa – target countries and legumes control +Pfert +ino +Pfert+ino
  4. 4. Response to P and inoculation with soybeanin DRC "$# !"#$%&"&()#*(+#(,&-"(.&/&*%01)&2&&3(0.*4& "!# &"$# &"!# %"$# %"!# ()*+#,+-.,+-/0.# !"$# ()*+#)1-20304# ()*+#)1-20304#516#,+-.,+-/0.# !"!# !"!# !"$# %"!# %"$# &"!# &"$# "!# "$# !"#$%&"&51()1$&()#*(+#(&3(0.*4& Potassium deficiency? – in plots without KClN2Africa demonstration trial results in Mushomo, Sud Kivu, DRC 2010Soyabean response to P and inoculation in Response to P and inoculation with soybeanDRC in DRC %"&# Mushomo Bughore !"#$%&"&()#*(+#(,&-"(.&/&&*%01)&2&3(0.*4& "$# "$# !"#$%&"&()#*(+#(,&-"(.&/&607&&2&&3(0.*4& %"!# "!# "!# !"9# &"$# &"$# &"!# &"!# 500 500.00 !"8# 400 %"$# %"$# 400.00 ()*+#:# 300 %"!# 300.00 %"!# ()*+#;# !"7# ()*+#:# ()*+#;#516#:# 200 ()*+#;# 200.00 !"$# !"$# ()*+#:#<#;# ()*+#:# 100 100.00 !"&# !"!# !"!# ()*+#;# !"!# !"$# %"!# %"$# &"!# &"$# "!# "$# !"!# !"$# %"!# %"$# &"!# &"$# "!# "$# 0 0.00 ()*+#;#516#:# !"#$%&"&51()1$&()#*(+#(&3(0.*4& !"#$%&"&51()1$&()#*(+#(&3(0.*4& 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0 10 10 10 10 10 0 10 10 01 01 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 !"!# /2 /2 3/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 5/ / 7/ 7/ 3/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 5/ 7/ 7/ 06 02 06 /0 /0 /0 /0 /0 /0 /0 /0 /0 /0 /0 /0 /0 /0 / / !"!# !"&# !"7# !"8# !"9# %"!# %"&# / 11 03 23 12 02 22 11 01 21 03 23 12 02 22 11 01 21 !"#$%&"&51()1$&()#*(+#(&3(0.*4&N2Africa demonstration trial results in Bugorhe, Sud Kivu, DRC 2010 N2Africa demonstration trial results in Sud Kivu, DRC 2010
  5. 5. Drought problems ! Differential establishmentClimbing beans in Rwanda 4.00 Grain yield (Mg ha-1) r = 0.73 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 Climbing bean yields depend on the length, number and quality of stakes The poorer farmers have fewer, shorter (no. ha ) Stake density stakes of inferior quality -1Reckling MSc thesis 2011, Klapwijk MSc thesis 2011 maize following maize maize following climbing beans
  6. 6. Climbing beans in DRC N2Africa is a development to research project •  Dissemination and development are the core Research •  M&E is provides the learning With manure M&E •  Research analyses and feeds back D&D No manure Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa Long rains season 2010 in Sud Kivu, DRC Conclusions 1. Good (GL ! GR) key, but E ! M overriding 2.  But mineral fertilizers and organic matter are both necessary - neither is sufficient alone 3.  Need better ex ante methods for advising policy and development agencies, and to ‘do’ local adaptation 4.  Success stories all depend on good technology and market linkages 5.  Legume nitrogen fixation has a great role to play in African agriculture Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa
  7. 7. Problems encountered/ being addressed For updates see 1.  Accessing high quality inoculants in Africa 2.  Lack of useful quality control regulations in Africa www.N2Africa.org a)  Problems of cross-border trade in inoculants 3.  Dearth of trained staff at all technical and academic levels Lots of video resource materials 4.  Non-responsive soils (unknown and/or multiple constraints) N2Africa Podcaster - Monthly Newsletter 5.  The market paradox (an institutional problem) a)  National deficit for legumes such as soybean in all countries b)  But farmers lack of markets for legume grain at local level Giller et al. (2011) Communicating complexity: Integrated assessment of trade-offs c)  And they lack input suppliers for P fertilizer, inoculant etc concerning soil fertility management within African farming systems to support innovation and development. Agricultural Systems, 104, 191-203.Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa

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