Shiphandling/WatchstandingSeminar II
Lesson Contents• Shiphandling Theory  • Laws of Motion  • Controllable Forces  • Uncontrollable Forces• Shiphandling  •   ...
Shiphandling Theory: Motion• Various forces acting on the ship create  movement.• Newton’s Laws of Motion  1. Unless acted...
Shiphandling Theory: Forces• Controllable           • Uncontrollable  •   Propeller            •   Wind  •   Rudder       ...
Controllable  Forces
Controllable Forces                      Propellers   • Provides the most important source of     force on a ship.   • (Us...
Controllable Forces                      Propellers   • Forces resulting from the use of the     propellers:      • Forwar...
Controllable Forces               Propeller Thrust   • A result of the propeller spinning on its     shaft.   • Caused by ...
Controllable Forces                  Propeller Thrust                             Resulting Thrust              Low Pressu...
Controllable Forces      Controlling Propeller Thrust   • Depends on type of propellers      • Fixed Pitch Propellers     ...
Controllable Forces     Controllable Pitch Propellers   • Found on all gas turbine ships and     some diesel amphibs   • 0...
Controllable Forces     Controllable Pitch Propellers   • >12 kts      • thrust controlled by changing the speed        (R...
Controllable Forces          Fixed Pitch Propellers   • Found on steam ships (carriers, subs,     amphibs)   • Cannot chan...
Controllable Forces                      Side Force   • Causes stern to move sideways in the     direction of propeller ro...
Controllable Forces                  Side Force             Side         Side            Force         Force          Sing...
Controllable Forces                 Screw Current   • Consists of two parts      • Suction Current - going into the propel...
Controllable Forces                      Rudders   • Used to control ship’s heading by     moving the stern.   • To have a...
Controllable Forces                      Rudder                                   Water   • Acts a wing                   ...
Controllable Forces           Propellers / Rudders   • Primary means of controlling the stern                  Thrust     ...
Controllable Forces                      Pivot Point   • Imaginary point on the ship’s centerline     about which the ship...
Controllable Forces   Pivot Point                  Ship twisting with no way on.
Controllable Forces                      Pivot Point   • Usually located 1/3 the length of the     ship from the bow. (Jus...
Controllable Forces          Forces which affect       location of the Pivot Point   • Headway or Sternway   • Ship’s Spee...
Uncontrollable Forces                         Wind   • Acts on the sail area of the ship      • Exposed superstructure    ...
Uncontrollable Forces               Depth of Water   • Squat - Occurs a high speeds      • bow of a ship rides up onto the...
Shiphandling          SHIP TERMINOLOGY • Bow          •   Superstructure   •   Shaft • Stem         •   Pilothouse       •...
Shiphandling          SHIP TERMINOLOGY
Shiphandling: Terms Turning Circle:             The path described by a ship’s pivot point as it executes a 360° turn.    ...
Shiphandling: Terms              Turning Circle     Kick                  Final Diameter                Tactical Diameter
Shiphandling: Terms         Advance and Transfer   • Advance     • Distance gained toward the direction of the       origi...
Shiphandling: Terms    Advance & Transfer 90° Turn                          Advance               Transfer     Kick
Shiphandling: Terms   Advance & Transfer 180° Turn                      Transfer     Kick                    Advance
Shiphandling: Terms   Advance & Transfer 360° Turn       Transfer                  Advance     Kick
Shiphandling: Terms   • Headway     • moving forward thru the water   • Sternway     • moving backwards thru the water   •...
Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Mooring Lines                        Mooring Lines         6 5               4               ...
Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Mooring Lines               Mooring Lines   • Lines     • 1-6     • Lines 1 and 6 are thicker...
Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Mooring Lines                Mooring Lines   • Terms:     •   Heaving Line     •   Tattletale...
Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Mooring Lines                       Sequence:   • Stand by lines          • Slack   • Take in...
Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Mooring Lines                     Safety   •   Battle dress   •   Snap back zone   •   Tugs  ...
Shiphandling: Ground Tackle         Deck and Pier Fittings
Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Anchors                   Anchors   • Most common anchor     • Standard Navy Stockless   • Mo...
Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Anchoring              Scope of Chain                     15 fathoms                     30 f...
Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Anchoring              Scope of Chain                  Next to Last Shot                     ...
Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Anchoring                 Anchoring   •   Approach   •   Standby   •   Let Go the Anchor   • ...
Shiphandling: Getting Underway, Mooring                          • Concerns:                             • Watch the stern...
Shiphandling: Getting Underway, Mooring                 The Ideal Approach   •   Approach on a converging course 10 to    ...
Shiphandling: Getting Underway, Mooring           Less than Ideal Conditions   • Being Set On:     • Stop parallel to the ...
Shiphandling: Getting Underway, Mooring   • Easier than anchoring     • Buoy held securely by several anchors.     • Chanc...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands             Conning Officer  • Drives the ship’s heading and speed    through standard com...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands               Basic Format      Conning Officer      Helm / Leehelm  Command              ...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands            HELM CONSOLE
Shiphandling: Standard Commands    ENGINE ORDER TELEGRAPH
MODERN HELM CONSOLE
Shiphandling: Standard Commands  • Direction: Either left, right or “Rudder    amidships”  • Amount: Expressed as a number...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands     COMMANDS TO THE HELM   Format                   Example -Direction               "Righ...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands     COMMANDS TO THE HELM  • Exception: Course changes of 10° or    less:     • For small c...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands     OTHER HELM COMMANDS  • Desired action: Increase or decrease    rudder angle from a pre...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands     OTHER HELM COMMANDS  • Desired action: Change rudder angle to    an equal amount of ru...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands     OTHER HELM COMMANDS   • Desired action: Steady the ship on the     current heading   •...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands      OTHER HELM COMMANDS • Desired action:   Determine current           • Desired action:...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands               HELM REPLY  • Whenever an order to the Helm is    given, the Helm repeats th...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands                HELM REPLY  • Examples:     • The Conn orders: “Right standard rudder,     ...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands               HELM REPLY  • Order: “Mark your head”  • Reply: “Mark my head, aye. 283.”  •...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands               HELM REPLY  • If the helm does not understand an    order from the Conn, the...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands REPORT & ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  • Once a desired action is complete, the    Helm reports it to t...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands                EXAMPLES  Order: “Right standard rudder, steady   course 298.”  Reply: “Rig...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands                EXAMPLES  Order: “Come left, steer course 345.”  Reply: “Come left, steer c...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands                EXAMPLES  Order: “Right full rudder.”  Reply: “Right full rudder, aye.”  Re...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands                EXAMPLES  Order: “Ease your rudder to right 15°.”  Reply: “Ease my rudder t...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands                EXAMPLES  Order: “Hard left rudder.”  Reply: “Hard left rudder, aye.”  Repo...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands                  EXAMPLES Order: “Right full rudder.” Reply: “Right full rudder, aye.” Rep...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands            ENGINE ORDERS  • For fixed pitch propellers, ship speed is    dependent on shaf...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands              ENGINE ORDERS  • Prescribed standard speeds are    predetermined ship’s speed...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands            ENGINE ORDERS             Typical Prescribed              Standard Speeds  • Ah...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands            ENGINE ORDERS   Format                    Example -Engines                ”All ...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands            ENGINE ORDERS  • Engines: Port, starboard, or all engines.     Unnecessary for ...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands             ENGINE ORDERS  • Speed:     “..indicate ____ turns for __ knots.”, OR     “..i...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands MANEUVERING COMBINATIONS  • In maneuvering situations, where    frequent engine changes ar...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands       REPLIES AND REPORTS  • Reply: Verbatim repeatback is required.  • Reports: Lee Helm ...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands                EXAMPLES  Order: “All engines ahead standard,   indicate 115 revolutions fo...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands                EXAMPLES       (Continued from previous slide)  Order: “Indicate 122 revolu...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands                EXAMPLES  Order: “Port engine ahead 1/3, starboard   engine back 2/3.”  Rep...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands                EXAMPLES       (Continued from previous slide)  Order: “Starboard engine st...
Shiphandling: Standard Commands                EXAMPLES  Order: “All engines ahead 1/3, indicate   pitch and turns for 5 k...
Shiphandling: Single Screw Ships    Ship Ahead    Propeller Ahead    Rudder Amidships
Shiphandling: Single Screw Ships    Ship Astern    Propeller Astern    Rudder Amidships    Ship   follows the rudder:    S...
Shiphandling: Single Screw Ships    Ship Ahead    Propeller Astern    Rudder Amidships
Shiphandling: Twin Screw Ships    Ship Ahead    Both Propellers Ahead
Shiphandling: Twin Screw Ships    Ship Ahead    One Propeller Trailing    Counteract with rudder
Shiphandling: Twin Screw Ships    Ship Astern    One Propeller Trailing    Counteract with rudder
Shiphandling: Twin Screw Ships    Ship Ahead    Both Propellers Ahead Different Speeds    Counteract with rudder
Shiphandling: Twin Screw Ships    Propellers Split
Shiphandling: Tug Tie-Ups               Single Headline   • Simplest Tie-up   • Best to allow tug to     push or pull only...
Shiphandling: Tug Tie-Ups             Double Headline   • Not as simple   • Allows tug to push     or pull and complex    ...
Shiphandling: Tug Tie-Ups                        Power   • Most versatile tie-up   • Good for general     purpose use   • ...
Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery           Recovery Maneuvers   •   Williamson Turn   •   Anderson Turn   •   Race Tra...
Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery              Easiest Method?   •   Daylight: Anderson   •   Night: Williamson   •   S...
Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery       Recovery considerations   • Helicopter     • average time to ready for takeoff ...
Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery         Small Boat Considerations   • PPE for boat crews   • manning     •   coxswain...
Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery                 Initial Actions   • Applicable for all recoveries:     • Full rudder ...
Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery            Follow-on actions   • Notify Captain, TAO and Flag   • Hoist Oscar flag (d...
Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery                               Man Overboard      Kicks Stern Away         Starboard S...
Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery              Williamson Turn    Shift Rudder    When 60° Off Course
Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery                    maneuvering   • Williamson                        port   60 deg   ...
Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery              Anderson Turn
Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery                     maneuvering    • Anderson                       port            s...
Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery              Racetrack Turn
Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery                     maneuvering   • Race track      - high speed                     ...
Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery                   Y-Turn
Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery                       maneuvering   • Y-backing      - poor control      - keeps ship...
Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery                     maneuvering   • tear drop      - Carriers        modified        ...
Ship handling
Ship handling
Ship handling
Ship handling
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Ship handling

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Ship handling

  1. 1. Shiphandling/WatchstandingSeminar II
  2. 2. Lesson Contents• Shiphandling Theory • Laws of Motion • Controllable Forces • Uncontrollable Forces• Shiphandling • Terminology • Ground Tackle • Getting Underway • Single Screw Characteristics • Twin Screw Characteristics • Tug Handling • Man Overboard Recovery
  3. 3. Shiphandling Theory: Motion• Various forces acting on the ship create movement.• Newton’s Laws of Motion 1. Unless acted upon by an outside force: • An object in motion tends to stay in motion. • An object at rest tends to stay at rest. 2. The resulting motion of an object is the sum of all forces acting on it. 3. Every action has an equal and opposite reaction.
  4. 4. Shiphandling Theory: Forces• Controllable • Uncontrollable • Propeller • Wind • Rudder • Current/Tides • Bow Thruster/APU • Seas • Mooring Lines • Water Depth • Anchors • Tugs
  5. 5. Controllable Forces
  6. 6. Controllable Forces Propellers • Provides the most important source of force on a ship. • (Usually) makes ship go forward. • Most ships have 2 propellers. • Aircraft carriers / Patrol Craft have 4. • Frigates have 1.
  7. 7. Controllable Forces Propellers • Forces resulting from the use of the propellers: • Forward (or reverse) thrust • Side Force
  8. 8. Controllable Forces Propeller Thrust • A result of the propeller spinning on its shaft. • Caused by a pressure differential between the opposite sides of the propeller blade.
  9. 9. Controllable Forces Propeller Thrust Resulting Thrust Low Pressure Water Flow Propeller Blade High Pressure Rotation of propeller blade
  10. 10. Controllable Forces Controlling Propeller Thrust • Depends on type of propellers • Fixed Pitch Propellers • Controllable Pitch Propellers
  11. 11. Controllable Forces Controllable Pitch Propellers • Found on all gas turbine ships and some diesel amphibs • 0 - 12 kts • shaft rotates at 55 RPM • thrust (speed) controlled by changing the pitch of the propeller blade
  12. 12. Controllable Forces Controllable Pitch Propellers • >12 kts • thrust controlled by changing the speed (RPM) of the shaft. • The shaft always spins in same direction whether going forward or backward.
  13. 13. Controllable Forces Fixed Pitch Propellers • Found on steam ships (carriers, subs, amphibs) • Cannot change pitch of propeller • Thrust (speed) controlled by changing speed of the shaft • To go backwards, must stop shaft and spin the shaft in the opposite direction.
  14. 14. Controllable Forces Side Force • Causes stern to move sideways in the direction of propeller rotation. Propeller
  15. 15. Controllable Forces Side Force Side Side Force Force Single Screw Astern Ahead Going Ahead Twin Screw Side Force Bottom
  16. 16. Controllable Forces Screw Current • Consists of two parts • Suction Current - going into the propeller • Discharge Current (Prop Wash)- comes out of the propeller Suction Current Discharge Current Acts on Rudder Propeller
  17. 17. Controllable Forces Rudders • Used to control ship’s heading by moving the stern. • To have an effect, must have a flow of water across the rudder. • Normally this flow of water is the discharge current of the screw.
  18. 18. Controllable Forces Rudder Water • Acts a wing Flow High Pressure Area Low High Pressure Area Low Rudder Rudder Force Force
  19. 19. Controllable Forces Propellers / Rudders • Primary means of controlling the stern Thrust Side Force Rudder Force
  20. 20. Controllable Forces Pivot Point • Imaginary point on the ship’s centerline about which the ship pivots Pivot Point Thrust Side Force Rudder Force
  21. 21. Controllable Forces Pivot Point Ship twisting with no way on.
  22. 22. Controllable Forces Pivot Point • Usually located 1/3 the length of the ship from the bow. (Just behind the bridge.) • Pivot point is not fixed
  23. 23. Controllable Forces Forces which affect location of the Pivot Point • Headway or Sternway • Ship’s Speed • Anchors • Mooring Lines • Tugs
  24. 24. Uncontrollable Forces Wind • Acts on the sail area of the ship • Exposed superstructure • Hull structure • Ships tend to back into the wind • 30kts of wind = 1kts of current Current • Acts on the underwater part of the ship. • Creates set and drift.
  25. 25. Uncontrollable Forces Depth of Water • Squat - Occurs a high speeds • bow of a ship rides up onto the bow wave • stern of a ship tends to sink • Shallow water effects.
  26. 26. Shiphandling SHIP TERMINOLOGY • Bow • Superstructure • Shaft • Stem • Pilothouse • Propeller • Forecastle • Mast • Rudder • Hawsepipe • Yardarm • Stern • Weather • Truck • Transom decks • Stack • Waterline • Draft • Keel • Freeboard
  27. 27. Shiphandling SHIP TERMINOLOGY
  28. 28. Shiphandling: Terms Turning Circle: The path described by a ship’s pivot point as it executes a 360° turn. Tactical Diameter (180°) Final Diameter (360°)
  29. 29. Shiphandling: Terms Turning Circle Kick Final Diameter Tactical Diameter
  30. 30. Shiphandling: Terms Advance and Transfer • Advance • Distance gained toward the direction of the original course after the rudder is put over. • Transfer • Distance gained perpendicular to the original course after the rudder is put over.
  31. 31. Shiphandling: Terms Advance & Transfer 90° Turn Advance Transfer Kick
  32. 32. Shiphandling: Terms Advance & Transfer 180° Turn Transfer Kick Advance
  33. 33. Shiphandling: Terms Advance & Transfer 360° Turn Transfer Advance Kick
  34. 34. Shiphandling: Terms • Headway • moving forward thru the water • Sternway • moving backwards thru the water • Bare Steerageway • the minimum speed a ship can proceed and still maintain course using the rudders
  35. 35. Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Mooring Lines Mooring Lines 6 5 4 3 2 1 After Quarter Forward Quarter After Bow Forward Bow Spring Spring Spring Spring Stern Spring Lines Bow Line Line
  36. 36. Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Mooring Lines Mooring Lines • Lines • 1-6 • Lines 1 and 6 are thicker than others • Mooring procedure • fake out lines • safety brief • heaving lines
  37. 37. Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Mooring Lines Mooring Lines • Terms: • Heaving Line • Tattletale • Fenders • Capstan (p. 188 Seamanship) • Rat Guards (p. 175 Seamanship)
  38. 38. Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Mooring Lines Sequence: • Stand by lines • Slack • Take in the slack • Ease • Take a strain • Take to the capstain Commands: • Heave around • Double up • Avast heaving • Single up • Hold • Take in • Check
  39. 39. Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Mooring Lines Safety • Battle dress • Snap back zone • Tugs • Pilots ladder
  40. 40. Shiphandling: Ground Tackle Deck and Pier Fittings
  41. 41. Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Anchors Anchors • Most common anchor • Standard Navy Stockless • Most ships have two • Deep water anchor - 14 shots of chain • Normal anchor - 12 shots of chain • Shot - 15 fathoms (90 feet)
  42. 42. Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Anchoring Scope of Chain 15 fathoms 30 fathoms 45 fathoms 60 fathoms
  43. 43. Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Anchoring Scope of Chain Next to Last Shot Last Shot
  44. 44. Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Anchoring Anchoring • Approach • Standby • Let Go the Anchor • Reports • P. 194 (Seamanship) • Anchor watch
  45. 45. Shiphandling: Getting Underway, Mooring • Concerns: • Watch the stern/pier • Watch for other ships • Winds / Currents • Set on or set off pier? • Using mooring lines and tugs as necessary to control bow / stern
  46. 46. Shiphandling: Getting Underway, Mooring The Ideal Approach • Approach on a converging course 10 to 20 degrees from the heading of our berth. • When parallel, swing the rudder opposite the pier, and stop the ship. • Stop headway by backing outboard engine. • “Walk” the ship in by tensioning line 1; “twist” the stern with the engines.
  47. 47. Shiphandling: Getting Underway, Mooring Less than Ideal Conditions • Being Set On: • Stop parallel to the pier, with 1/2 a beam width of open water between you and the pier. • Allow the current to push you onto the pier. • Being Set Off: • Make your approach at a larger angle to the pier at a considerable speed. • Be careful not to part your bow line.
  48. 48. Shiphandling: Getting Underway, Mooring • Easier than anchoring • Buoy held securely by several anchors. • Chance of dragging reduced. • Two methods Requires: • Ordinary MWB / RHIB with boat crew • Trolley Your ship A buoy
  49. 49. Shiphandling: Standard Commands Conning Officer • Drives the ship’s heading and speed through standard commands (orders) to the helm and leehelm • Helm - controls the rudder • Leehelm - controls the propellers
  50. 50. Shiphandling: Standard Commands Basic Format Conning Officer Helm / Leehelm Command Verbatim Repeat back (Carries out command) Report Acknowledges Report
  51. 51. Shiphandling: Standard Commands HELM CONSOLE
  52. 52. Shiphandling: Standard Commands ENGINE ORDER TELEGRAPH
  53. 53. MODERN HELM CONSOLE
  54. 54. Shiphandling: Standard Commands • Direction: Either left, right or “Rudder amidships” • Amount: Expressed as a number of degrees of rudder (10, 15, etc.), or one of the following: (nominal values given) • Standard: 15° • Full: 30° • Hard: 35°(maximum rudder angle) • Course: >10 degree change
  55. 55. Shiphandling: Standard Commands COMMANDS TO THE HELM Format Example -Direction "Right. . ." "Left. . ." -Amount ". . standard rudder. . ." ". . .ten degrees rudder. . ." -Course ". . .steady course two zero zero." ". . .steady on course one one five."
  56. 56. Shiphandling: Standard Commands COMMANDS TO THE HELM • Exception: Course changes of 10° or less: • For small course changes, a specific rudder angle is not given. This allows the Helm to use up to 10° of rudder to make the course change. • The standard command is: • Direction: “Come right/left” • Course to steer: “Steer course ___”
  57. 57. Shiphandling: Standard Commands OTHER HELM COMMANDS • Desired action: Increase or decrease rudder angle from a previously ordered angle • Command: • “Increase your rudder to ________” • “Ease your rudder to _______” • Note: Anytime a new rudder angle is ordered, a steering/steady course must be repeated if it is desired.
  58. 58. Shiphandling: Standard Commands OTHER HELM COMMANDS • Desired action: Change rudder angle to an equal amount of rudder in the opposite direction • Command: “Shift your rudder” • Note: Again, if desired, course to steer must be repeated.
  59. 59. Shiphandling: Standard Commands OTHER HELM COMMANDS • Desired action: Steady the ship on the current heading • Command: “Steady as she goes” • When given, the Helm immediately determines ship’s head at the instant of the command, and steadies the ship on that course. • This should normally be given only with the rudder at or near amidships.
  60. 60. Shiphandling: Standard Commands OTHER HELM COMMANDS • Desired action: Determine current • Desired action: ship’s heading Warn the Helm • Command: “Mark to steer more your head” exactly • When given, the Helm • Command: immediately “Mind your determines ship’s helm” head at the instant of the command,and reports it to the Conn.
  61. 61. Shiphandling: Standard Commands HELM REPLY • Whenever an order to the Helm is given, the Helm repeats the order back to the Conn verbatim. • This assures the conning officer that the order was heard and understood correctly.
  62. 62. Shiphandling: Standard Commands HELM REPLY • Examples: • The Conn orders: “Right standard rudder, steady course 260.” • The Helm replies: “Right standard rudder, steady course 260, aye.”
  63. 63. Shiphandling: Standard Commands HELM REPLY • Order: “Mark your head” • Reply: “Mark my head, aye. 283.” • Order: “Mind your helm” • Reply: “Mind my helm, aye.”
  64. 64. Shiphandling: Standard Commands HELM REPLY • If the helm does not understand an order from the Conn, the helm will reply: “Orders to the helm” • The Conn should immediately check his/her order and restate it clearly to the Helm.
  65. 65. Shiphandling: Standard Commands REPORT & ACKNOWLEDGEMENT • Once a desired action is complete, the Helm reports it to the Conn. • The Conn acknowledges all reports with “Very well’ • If the Conn does not acknowledge a report, the Helm should repeat the report until acknowledged.
  66. 66. Shiphandling: Standard Commands EXAMPLES Order: “Right standard rudder, steady course 298.” Reply: “Right standard rudder, steady course 298, aye.” Report: “Sir, my rudder is right standard, coming to new course 298.” Report: “Sir, steady on course 298, checking 309.”
  67. 67. Shiphandling: Standard Commands EXAMPLES Order: “Come left, steer course 345.” Reply: “Come left, steer course 345, aye.” Report: “Sir, my rudder is left 5°, coming to new course 345.” Report: “Sir, steady on course 345, checking 352.”
  68. 68. Shiphandling: Standard Commands EXAMPLES Order: “Right full rudder.” Reply: “Right full rudder, aye.” Report: “Sir, my rudder is right full, no new course given.” Report: “Passing 230 to the right.” Order: “Belay your passing heads.” Reply: “Belay my passing heads, aye.”
  69. 69. Shiphandling: Standard Commands EXAMPLES Order: “Ease your rudder to right 15°.” Reply: “Ease my rudder to right 15°, aye.” Report: “Ma’am, my rudder is right 15°, no new course given.” Order: “Steady course 143.” Reply: “Steady course 143, aye.” Report: “Ma’am, my rudder is right 15°, coming to new course 143.”
  70. 70. Shiphandling: Standard Commands EXAMPLES Order: “Hard left rudder.” Reply: “Hard left rudder, aye.” Report: “Sir, my rudder is left 35°, no new course given.” Order: “Shift your rudder.” Reply: “Shift my rudder, aye.” Report: “Sir, my rudder is right 35°, no new course given.”
  71. 71. Shiphandling: Standard Commands EXAMPLES Order: “Right full rudder.” Reply: “Right full rudder, aye.” Report: “Sir, my rudder is right 30°, no new course given.” Order: “Rudder amidships” Reply: “Rudder amidships, aye.” Report: “Sir, my rudder is amidships, no new course given.” Order: “Steady as you go.” Reply: “Steady as you go, aye. Course 098.” Report: “Steady on course 098, checking 107.”
  72. 72. Shiphandling: Standard Commands ENGINE ORDERS • For fixed pitch propellers, ship speed is dependent on shaft rpm only. • For controllable pitch propellers, ship speed is dependent on shaft rpm and, below about 12 knots, propeller blade pitch. • For gas turbines, the shaft is always spinning when the engine is on line. “All engines stop” is achieved by a blade pitch of 0°.
  73. 73. Shiphandling: Standard Commands ENGINE ORDERS • Prescribed standard speeds are predetermined ship’s speeds: • “Standard speed” - normally 15 knots • “1/3” - one third of standard speed • “2/3” - two thirds of standard speed • “Full” - speed higher than standard speed • “Flank” - maximum speed
  74. 74. Shiphandling: Standard Commands ENGINE ORDERS Typical Prescribed Standard Speeds • Ahead Bell Speed • Astern 1/3 5 Bell Speed 2/3 10 1/3 5 Std 15 2/3 10 Full 20 Full Max Flank Max speed speed
  75. 75. Shiphandling: Standard Commands ENGINE ORDERS Format Example -Engines ”All engines. . ." -Direction ". . ahead full. . ." ". . .back 2/3. . ." -Speed ". . indicate 108 revolutions for 15 knots." ". . .indicate 072 revolutions and 20% pitch for 3 knots."
  76. 76. Shiphandling: Standard Commands ENGINE ORDERS • Engines: Port, starboard, or all engines. Unnecessary for single screw ships. • Direction: Ahead, back or stop, and nearest standard speed (except for stop)
  77. 77. Shiphandling: Standard Commands ENGINE ORDERS • Speed: “..indicate ____ turns for __ knots.”, OR “..indicate turns for __ knots.” • For controllable pitch propellers below 12 knots: “..indicate ___ turns and __% pitch for __ knots.” OR, “..indicate pitch and turns for __ knots.” -Note: If proceeding at a prescribed standard speed, none of this is required.
  78. 78. Shiphandling: Standard Commands MANEUVERING COMBINATIONS • In maneuvering situations, where frequent engine changes are expected, the Conning Officer may set “maneuvering combinations”. • When set, the Lee Helm answers all bells at the prescribed standard speed increment. • On ships with an EOT, this is indicated by an RPM setting of “999”.
  79. 79. Shiphandling: Standard Commands REPLIES AND REPORTS • Reply: Verbatim repeatback is required. • Reports: Lee Helm reports when action is completed. • Note: Every report must include the complete status of all engines, even if only one was changed. • Acknowledgement: Conn will acknowledge all reports with “Very well”
  80. 80. Shiphandling: Standard Commands EXAMPLES Order: “All engines ahead standard, indicate 115 revolutions for 16 knots.” Reply: “All engines ahead standard, indicate 115 revolutions for 16 knots, aye.” Report: “Ma’am, engine room answers all engines ahead standard, indicating 115 revolutions for 16 knots.”
  81. 81. Shiphandling: Standard Commands EXAMPLES (Continued from previous slide) Order: “Indicate 122 revolutions for 17 knots.” Reply: “Indicate 122 revolutions for 17 knots, aye.” Report: “Ma’am, engine room answers all engines ahead standard, indicating 122 revolutions for 17 knots.”
  82. 82. Shiphandling: Standard Commands EXAMPLES Order: “Port engine ahead 1/3, starboard engine back 2/3.” Reply: “Port engine ahead 1/3, starboard engine back 2/3, aye.” Report: “Ma’am, engine room answers port engine ahead 1/3, starboard engine back 2/3.”
  83. 83. Shiphandling: Standard Commands EXAMPLES (Continued from previous slide) Order: “Starboard engine stop.” Reply: “Starboard engine stop, aye.” Report: “Ma’am, engine room answers starboard engine stop, port engine ahead 1/3.”
  84. 84. Shiphandling: Standard Commands EXAMPLES Order: “All engines ahead 1/3, indicate pitch and turns for 5 knots.” Reply: “All engines ahead 1/3, indicate pitch and turns for 5 knots, aye.” Report: “Sir, engine room answers all engines ahead 1/3, indicating 075 turns and 34% pitch for 5 knots.”
  85. 85. Shiphandling: Single Screw Ships Ship Ahead Propeller Ahead Rudder Amidships
  86. 86. Shiphandling: Single Screw Ships Ship Astern Propeller Astern Rudder Amidships Ship follows the rudder: Ship will tend into the wind: Ship will tend to port very easily Ship does not tend to starboard easily
  87. 87. Shiphandling: Single Screw Ships Ship Ahead Propeller Astern Rudder Amidships
  88. 88. Shiphandling: Twin Screw Ships Ship Ahead Both Propellers Ahead
  89. 89. Shiphandling: Twin Screw Ships Ship Ahead One Propeller Trailing Counteract with rudder
  90. 90. Shiphandling: Twin Screw Ships Ship Astern One Propeller Trailing Counteract with rudder
  91. 91. Shiphandling: Twin Screw Ships Ship Ahead Both Propellers Ahead Different Speeds Counteract with rudder
  92. 92. Shiphandling: Twin Screw Ships Propellers Split
  93. 93. Shiphandling: Tug Tie-Ups Single Headline • Simplest Tie-up • Best to allow tug to push or pull only • Not good if complex tug maneuvers required.
  94. 94. Shiphandling: Tug Tie-Ups Double Headline • Not as simple • Allows tug to push or pull and complex tug maneuvers
  95. 95. Shiphandling: Tug Tie-Ups Power • Most versatile tie-up • Good for general purpose use • Holds tug securely to ship.
  96. 96. Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery Recovery Maneuvers • Williamson Turn • Anderson Turn • Race Track • Y-Turn
  97. 97. Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery Easiest Method? • Daylight: Anderson • Night: Williamson • Subs: Y backing • Carriers: Racetrack • Boat / Helo?
  98. 98. Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery Recovery considerations • Helicopter • average time to ready for takeoff is 10-12 mins • Small boat • average time to launch 6-8 mins • Ship • fastest method
  99. 99. Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery Small Boat Considerations • PPE for boat crews • manning • coxswain • bow hook • corpsman • boat officer • signalman • SAR swimmer • 3-5 knots; no sternway
  100. 100. Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery Initial Actions • Applicable for all recoveries: • Full rudder to side of ship where person fell overboard. • Full speed. • Throw smoke float, life ring • Keep in sight • Pass the word • 6 short blasts • Mark on chart • Man Boat Deck • Notify other ships, Helos • Receive muster report
  101. 101. Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery Follow-on actions • Notify Captain, TAO and Flag • Hoist Oscar flag (day); turn on red- over-red pulsating (night) • Notify other ships in company • Gather Vitals from CIC • Time in water • Water temp and stay time • Bearing and range to man
  102. 102. Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery Man Overboard Kicks Stern Away Starboard Side Right Full Rudder All Engines Ahead Full
  103. 103. Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery Williamson Turn Shift Rudder When 60° Off Course
  104. 104. Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery maneuvering • Williamson port 60 deg starboard - slow - good for night or low vis
  105. 105. Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery Anderson Turn
  106. 106. Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery maneuvering • Anderson port starboard - fastest - most skill
  107. 107. Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery Racetrack Turn
  108. 108. Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery maneuvering • Race track - high speed port starboard - easier approach
  109. 109. Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery Y-Turn
  110. 110. Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery maneuvering • Y-backing - poor control - keeps ship close to man
  111. 111. Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery maneuvering • tear drop - Carriers modified starboard port racetrack

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