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# A Group Minor Project

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### A Group Minor Project

1. 1. MINOR PROJECT ON BICYCLE ELECTRICITY GENERATION
2. 2. INTRODUCTION:-  Bicycle is the main mode of transportation for many Indian villagers. Most of these villages are un-electrified. Power generated by pedaling can be converted from mechanical to electrical energy by using either dynamo or alternator.  Small Powered lighting devices can be charged using dynamo and can be used in the night by students for study purposes. This principle can be extended to power mobiles, iPods, laptops etc. Power can be also generated from the rotation of the wheels of alternator vehicles like bikes and cars, where there is a possibility of generating more power. The generated power can be either used in the same vehicle or can be stored in a battery for powering some other devices. Riding bicycle helps in maintaining a good physic and along with it power can be also Generated.  This paper presents methods in generating electricity by pedaling a bicycle. It also explains in detail the method using bottle dynamotor generate power. A detailed analysis of using pedal power is also presented.
3. 3. THEORY:- 1. Faraday’s Law  Faraday take a magnet and a coil and connect a galvanometer across the coil. At starting the magnet is at the rest , so there is no deflection on galvanometer. i.e. the needle of galvanometer remain at center or zero position.  When the magnet is moved towards the coil, the needle of galvanometer shows deflection. When it is held stationary, the needle of the galvanometer comes back to the center position. Now, the magnet is moved away from the coil, the galvanometer shows deflection but in the opposite direction.  Any change in the magnetic field of a coil of wire will cause an emf to be introduced in the coil. This emf introduced is called induced emf and if the conductor circuit is closed, the current will also circulate through the circuit and this current is called induced current.
4. 4. Position of Magnet Deflection in Galvanometer  Magnet at rest No deflection in Galvanometer  Magnet moves toward the coil Deflection in galvanometer in one Direction  Magnet is held stationary at No deflection in galvanometer Same point  Michael Faraday formulated two laws on the basis of the above experiments. These  two laws are called Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction.
5. 5. FARADAY’S FIRST LAW,  Any change in the magnetic field of a coil of wire will cause an emf to be introduced in the coil. This emf introduced is called induced emf and if the conductor circuit is closed, the current will also circulate through the circuit and this current is called induced current. Method to change magnetic field:-  By moving a magnet toward or away from the coil.  By moving the coil into or out of the magnetic field.  By changing the area of the coil placed in magnetic field.  By rotating the coil relative to the magnet.
6. 6. FARADAY’S SECOND LAW,  The magnitude of the emf induced in the coil is equal to the rate of change of the flux that linkages with the coil. The flux linkage with the coil is the product of number of turns in the coil and flux associated with the coil.  Considering Lenz’s law, E=-Ndφ dt Where flux φ in Wb=B.A B=Magnetic field strength, A=Area of the coil
7. 7. HOW TO INCREASE EMF INDUCED IN THE COIL:-  By increasing the no. of the turns of the coil. i.e. N-from the formulae derived above it is easily seen that if no. of turns of the coil is increased , the emf induced is also increased.  By increasing the magnetic field strength. i.e. B- surrounding the coil-mathatically if the magnetic field increases, the flux increases and if flux increases emf induced will also increased. So, if the coil is passed through a strong magnetic field, there will be more line of force of coil to cut and hence there will be more emf produced.  By increase the speed of the relative motion between the coil and the magnet-if the relative speed between the magnet and coil is increased from the previous value, the coil will cut the line of the flux at a faster rate, so more induced emf would be produced.
8. 8. APPLICATION OF FARADAY LAW  It is one of the most basic and important law of the electromagnetism. This law finds its application in most of the electric machines, industries and medical field etc.  Electrical transformer  It is a static AC device which is used to either step up or step down the voltage or current. It is used in the generating station, transmission and distribution system. The transform work on the Faraday law.  Electrical generators  The basic working of the electrical generator is Faraday law of mutual induction. It is used to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.  Three are also many application of the Faraday law which are as given:-  Induction cooking  Electromagnetic flow meters  Form the basis of electromagnetic theory  Musical instruments
9. 9. Progress Report: 1. We have taken a bicycle. 2. We have removed the last tyre and the tube of it and in place of that we have fitted a pulley there.
10. 10. 3. We have prepared a frame with dimensions of 20” x 20” of M.S. bars. The cutting of the bar was done by power hexa.
11. 11. 4. After the completion of the holding frame, the bicycle is putted over the frame on to the axles of the last wheel. 5. The belt is fitted over the wheel and the accumulator. 6. The wire of the accumulator is connected with the inverter by connecting the diode in the middle of the connections. 7. The battery is attached to the inverter, which store the energy produced by the rotation of belt. 8. A electrical device is connected to the battery to desire the power produced
12. 12. Components used: -2"X4" (M.S.) -Wrench -V-belt -Saw -Diode -Wood -Battery -Hammer -Inverter -Scale -Wire -Screwdriver -Motor(12-Vorhigher)
13. 13.  Using a few easily accessible parts, you can make a bicycle generator that can power various electronic appliances, such as laptops and batteries! Materials needed: Bicycle Stand Bicycle frame 24V DC scooter motor DC-DC battery charger A car battery, or something similar DC-AC inverter Wires for electrical connections and various bike parts and tools. A multi-meter might be useful to check various voltage differentials between different objects. The specific hardware we used: Motor: 24V 300W Scooter Motor Battery: 12V 18 amp-hr lead-acid battery model 7448k51 Charger: Thunder 620 battery charger- 300 Watt 20 Amp Inverter: 400 Watt inverter Model 6987k22
14. 14. STEP 1: BIKE STAND  First you need something to hold your bike. You can either build your own bike stand or buy them. We used a bought stand for the back and made our own for the front.  These stands are especially nice for the back wheel because some of them are adjustable from side to side (right and left to the rider). This variation makes aligning the connection to the motor easier.
15. 15. STEP 2: BICYCLE FRAME  Any bike frame will do, as long as the pedals spin the chain.  This step is the most hands-on and difficult of the process. We recommend that you use the back wheel as the connection to the motor. However, if you want to have a more efficient connection, we also have a more complex option.
16. 16. STEP 3: BICYCLE TO MOTOR  Here we again face a choice: we can use the back wheel to spin the motor, or you can go more directly from the chain to the motor. Using the back wheel wastes some energy in friction and spinning a mass. But getting the correct gear ratio for the chain-to-motor strategy proves difficult.  This step is the most hands-on and difficult of the process. We recommend that you use the back wheel as the connection to the motor. However, if you want to have a more efficient connection, we also have a more complex option.
17. 17. WHY WE NEED A MOTOR: The motor converts movement of your legs into DC electricity. Choosing a Motor: A stepper motor, car alternator, or an electric scooter motor will all work. We used a scooter motor. The motor produced voltage proportional to its RPM . The motor produces current based on the load attached. For reference, a mountain bike tire going at 20 mph spins at 250 RPM. Additional RPMs for the motor come from the ratio of the wheel size to the frictional cylinder on the motor.
18. 18. STEP 4: BACK WHEEL OPTION  Making a bike generator using the back wheel is the more common method. Find a motor that can mount a cylinder that can grip well to the back wheel of the bike. Using a hinge and various plates of aluminum, you can construct an adjustable mount for the motor that will allow you to vary the amount of contact between the cylinder and the wheel. You attach the motor to the upper plate, and adjust the position or angle of the plate with a bolt or screw.  The back wheel option will give you all the RPM that you need-the gear ratio between the wheel and the cylinder in the back creates plenty of RPM and thus more than enough voltage. Additional RPMs for the motor come from the ratio of the wheel size to the frictional cylinder on the motor.
19. 19. STEP 5: V-BELT TO MOTOR OPTION  To attach the belt of the bike directly to the motor, you will need a few changes of gear ratio.  Adjust the belt from the back wheel to the motor  Even with the belt, you will probably still only be producing 3-6 volts but the pedaling will be very easy. The scooter motor produces voltage proportional to the RPMs (revolutions per minute) of the motor shaft.
20. 20. STEP 6: MOTOR TO CHARGER  Why we need a charger: To charge, batteries need a voltage slightly higher than their output voltage. Putting in too high a voltage can damage the internal circuitry of the battery, reducing its lifetime. Usually, circuits trickle a little bit of current in a battery. But with a bicycle cranking out watts, you want to put whole amps. Battery chargers hold the voltage steady at the appropriate point, and then increase the current allowing higher than normal transmission of power.  Picking a Charger: Remember that the voltage of your motor will be varying with the speed of your pedaling. The charger we used takes anywhere from 12- 24V. Though chargers may brag outputs of 10s to 20s of amps, batteries cannot stand such current. For example, the battery we used has a maximum charging current of 5.4 amps. Check that the current of your charger matches the limit of your battery.
21. 21.  Connecting: With a multimeter, measure the voltage coming out of your motor. Connect the positive output of the motor to the positive input of the charger and vice versa with the ground wire. Depending on the direction you spin the motor, the positive wire may not be the red wire; the motor works both directions but gives inverse voltage. If you can adjust the output current. As you may expect, larger current charges the battery faster but makes pedaling harder. A word of warning: Do not overload the charger! Depending on your gear system, it can be very easy to put out more than 24V. Doing so will break your charger. If you will not be the only one using the system, consider adding zener diodes in case of excess voltage.
22. 22. STEP 7: CHARGER TO BATTERY  Why we need a Battery: Charging your laptop could take a few hours, but you probably do not want to be on your stationary bike for that long. The battery holds your generated watts to be dowled out on an as-need basis. Choosing a Battery: If a traditional car batterys are called lead-acid batteries; You do not want lead-acid dripping from you battery if you tip it over. Furthermore, we heard that if a car battery is tipped over, it can short circuit and explode. . Marine batteries or sealed batteries can withstand the tipping of a tumultuous world. Make sure your battery is rechargeable. And finally, choose the capacity of the battery to match your needs. We chose a 18 Amp-h battery because it holds about three laptops worth of energy.
23. 23. Connecting:  Use the same caution as you do when jumping your car. Connect the positive terminal first for added safety. The voltage across your battery will be different when you are charging, when it is sitting, and when it is discharging; they will be about 14V, 12.5V, and 11 V respectively. The spec sheet for our battery warned to stop charging when the voltage reached 14.4 V. Check your battery’s spec sheet for its max voltage point.  Most capacitors suitable for creating a single bike generator have been designed for 12v car audio systems and come with a safety cut out to protect against over voltage linked to rpm for a pm motor. Another reason why car audio capacitors are a good buy as they often come with their own built in volt meter.
24. 24.  AN INVERTER If you are wishing to use AC mains powered appliances you will need to purchase an inverter. There are 2 types of inverters. A pure sine wave inverter creates a smooth AC output. A quasi sine makes a square wave. Some devices may not work with a quasi sine. Inverters are designed to work with batteries so they usually work with voltages between 9 and 14volts.  CABLES AND CONNECTORS We used 30A Anderson Connectors when connecting the bikes into either a multiple or single bike system. The connectors hold a good connection but are also designed to ‘pop’ easily, if your foot trips on a cable for example, so you don’t damage any soldering. It’s a good idea to get fairly chunky cable for your ‘Bike Power Cables’, especially if the lengths start to get long. You want to avoid voltage drop as it’s a waste of energy. The smaller the cable diameter, the more it will heat up, the more energy you loose. It’s also possible to knock out 25A on a bike for bursts, so your cable should be able to handle that. We managed to get some paired (black & red wires in the same sheath) 4mm core speaker cable, which meant the cable kept nice and neat
25. 25. STEP 8: BATTERY TO INVERTER  Why we need an inverter: The AC inverter converts the DC voltage from the battery into AC voltage, which is what comes out of most electrical wall sockets. You’ll often see inverters on a small scale in car adaptors, where they take the power from the cigarette lighter (which is hooked up to the car’s battery). Most general purpose AC inverters are Modified Sine Wave inverters. If you want to know more about how these inverters work, here is a good reference source. Choosing an inverter: When shopping for inverters, you want to look for a few features. First, make sure that the output AC voltage is at the level of wall plugs. Wall sockets usually put out about 120V, but it isn’t absolutely necessary to have your voltage match that; anything from 110-130 Volts AC will be fine. Be sure that the frequency of the output is at 60 Hz, which is standard in the India.
26. 26. GROUP MEMBERS:  Angel Bajaj - 1243289  Akkshit Kumar - 1243280  Abhishek Majajan - 1243275  Amrojpreet Singh - 1243288  Bupinder Singh - 1243296  Bupinder Singh - 1243295  Gurbir Singh - 1243303  Amaninder Singh - 1243281  Parteek Sharma - 1243351  Jagdeep Singh - 1310556  Gurunam Singh - 1243315  Jaskaran Singh - 1243108  Arvind Kumar - 1310544  Lovepreet Singh - 1310565
27. 27. THANK YOU !!!!!