DIPLOMA IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
PEDAL POWERED WATER PUMP
Submitted To : Submitted By:
Mr. D.K. Soni Jaspreet Singh-(5328/12)
We hereby declare that major project which is presented on this report entitled “PEDAL
POWERED WATER PUMP” submitted in partial fulfilments of requirements of the
award of the Diploma in MECHANICAL ENGINEERING to the Punjab State Board
of Technical Education & Indusrial Training ,Sector-36-A, Chandigarh, is an authentic
record of our own work carried at Chandigarh College Of Engineering & Technology,
Sector-26,Chandigarh campus is carried out under the supervision of Mr. D.K. Soni
The material embodied in this project work has not been submitted to any other
institution for award of any Diploma/ Degree.
This to certify that above statement made by the candidate is best to my knowledge.
Mr. D.K. Soni
We express our sincere thanks & profound gratitude to Mr. D.K. Soni for contributing
his valuable time for completing the project “PEDAL POWERED WATER PUMP”
Our special thanks to Mr. Chaman Lal , H.O.D. Mechanical for his encouragement
during the project.
Finally we thank all unmentioned names & visible names who helped us in bringing this
major project report to form.
Last but not the least I wish to avail myself this opportunity, express a sense of gratitude
& love to my friends and my beloved parents for their mutual support , strength, and help
Place : Chandigarh
Certified that the present project work entitled “PEDAL POWERED WATER
in partial fulfilments of requirements of the award of the Diploma in MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING to the Punjab State Board of Technical Education & Indusrial
Training ,Sector-36-A, Chandigarh, is an authentic record of our own work carried out
in Final Year of Diploma in Mechanical Engg. Under my supervision & guidance.
Place: Chandigarh Date:
1. Introduction to Pumps
2. Types of pumps
3. Centrifugal pump
4. Reciprocating -(Piston Plunger type pump)
5. Working principle of Reciprocating pump
6. Major components Used in the project
7. Energy Losses in Pipe Fittings and pump
8. Performance Terms & Definitions
9. Trouble shooting Pump problems
10. Actual Project Image
11. Workshops, tools & Extra Materials Used
12. Total Cost of Project
Pumps – convert mechanical energy into fluid energy.
Pumps come in a variety of sizes for a wide range of applications. They can be
classified according to their basic operating principle as dynamic or displacement
pumps. Dynamic pumps can be sub-classified as centrifugal and special effect pumps.
Displacement pumps can be sub-classified as rotary or reciprocating pumps.
In principle, any liquid can be handled by any of the pump designs. Where different
pump designs could be used, the centrifugal pump is generally the most economical
followed by rotary and reciprocating pumps. Although, positive displacement pumps
are generally more efficient than centrifugal pumps, the benefit of higher efficiency
tends to be offset by increased maintenance costs.
Since, worldwide, centrifugal pumps account for the majority of electricity used by
pumps, the focus of this chapter is on centrifugal pump.
A centrifugal pump is of a very simple design. The two main parts of the pump are the
impeller and the diffuser. Impeller, which is the only moving part, is attached to a shaft
and driven by a motor. Impellers are generally made of bronze, polycarbonate, cast iron,
stainless steel as well as other materials. The diffuser (also called as volute)
houses the impeller and captures and directs the
water off the impeller.
Water enters the center (eye) of the impeller and
exits the impeller with the help of centrifugal
force. As water leaves the eye of the impeller a
low-pressure area is created, causing more water
to flow into the eye. Atmospheric pressure and
centrifugal force cause this to happen. Velocity
is developed as the water flows through the
impeller spinning at high speed. Thewater
velocity is collected by the diffuser and
converted to pressure by specially designed passageways that direct the flow to the
discharge of the pump, or to the next impeller should the pump have a multi-stage
The pressure (head) that a pump will develop is in direct relationship to the impeller
diameter, the number of impellers, the size of impeller eye, and shaft speed. Capacity is
determined by the exit width of the impeller. The head and capacity are the main
factors, which affect the horsepower size of the motor to be used. The more the quantity
of water to be pumped, the more energy is required.
A Centrifugal Pump
Reciprocating pumps are those which cause the fluid to move using one or more
oscillating pistons, plungers or membranes (diaphragms).
To 'Reciprocate' means 'To Move Backwards and Forwards'.A
'RECIPROCATING' pump therefore, is one with a forward and backward
operating action.The simplest reciprocating pump is the 'Bicycle Pump', which
everyone at some time or other will have used to re-inflate their bike tyres.
Reciprocating-type pumps require a system of suction and discharge valves to
ensure that thefluid moves in a positive direction. Pumps in this category range
from having "simplex" onecylinder, to in some cases "quad" four cylinders or
more. Most reciprocating-type pumps are"duplex" (two) or "triplex" (three)
Furthermore, they can be either "single acting" independent suction and discharge
strokes or"double acting" suction and discharge in both directions. The pumps
can be powered by air,steam or through a belt drive from an engine or motor
This type of pump was used extensively in the early days of steam propulsion
(19th century) as boiler feed water pumps
Reciprocating pumps are now typically used for pumping highly viscous fluids
including concrete and heavy oils, and special applications demanding low flow
rates against high resistance.
Reciprocating pump is a positive displacement pump, which causes a fluid to move by
trapping a Fixed amount of it then displacing that trapped volume into the discharge
pipe. The fluid enters a pumping chamber via an inlet valve and is pushed out via a
outlet valve by the action of the piston or diaphragm. They are either single acting;
independent suction and discharge strokes or double acting; suction and discharge in
both directions. During the suction stroke the piston moves left thus creating vacuum in
the Cylinder. This vacuum causes the suction valve to open and water enters the
Cylinder. During the delivery stroke the piston moves towards right. This increasing
pressure in the cylinder causes the suction valve to close and delivery to open and water
is forced in the delivery pipe. The air vessel is used to get uniform discharge.
Reciprocating pumps are self priming and are suitable for very high heads at low flows.
They deliver reliable discharge flows and is often used for meteringduties because of
constancy of flow rate. The flow rate is changed only by adjusting the rpm of the driver.
Working Principle of Reciprocating Pump
These pumps deliver a highly pulsed flow. If a smooth flow is required then the
discharge flow system has to include additional features such as accumulators. An
automatic relief valve set at a safe pressure is used on the discharge side of all positive
The performance of a pump is characterized by its net head h, which is defined as the
change in Bernoulli head between the suction side and the delivery side of the pump. h
is expressed in equivalent column height of water.
RECIPROCATING PUMP or PISTON- PLUNGER Pump
The piston pump is one of the most common reciprocating pumps and, prior to the
development of high speed drivers which enhanced the popularity of centrifugals, it was
the pump of choice for a broad range of applications. Today , they are most often seen
in lower flow, moderate (to 2000 PSI) pressure applications. Its close cousin, the
plunger pump, is designed for higher pressures up to 30,000 PSI.
The major difference between the two is the method of sealing the cylinders. In a piston
pump the sealing system (rings, packing etc) is attached to the piston and moves with it
The sealing system for the plunger pump is stationary and the
plunger moves through it during its stroke.
Reciprocating pumps operate on the
principle that a solid will displace a
volume of liquid equal to its own
volume. The figure to the right is
that of a generic double acting
piston pump. If we were to remove
the two valves at the left hand side
of the figure and replace them with
an extension of the cylinder, we would have a single acting pump. The single acting
pump discharges water only on its forward stroke while the double cting pump
discharges on its return stroke as well. During the suction stroke (right to left) the ingle
acting pump’s discharge valve closes and allows fluid to enter the cylinder via the
suction valve. When the piston changes direction (reciprocates) the suction valve closes
and water is discharged through the discharge valve. In the double acting pump, the
same sequence occurs during both strokes and almost twice as much fluid is discharged
per unit time.
Reciprocating Pumps- classifications-construction and working of single acting and
double acting reciprocating pumps-plunger and piston pumps-discharge of a
reciprocating pump-theoretical power required- coefficient of discharge-slip-problems-
negative slip-indicator diagram-separation-air vessel (functions and working) Special
pumps-jet pump-Turbine pump-Submersible pump.
Piston or Bucket Pumps: Basic Principles
The most common and well-known form of displacement pump is the piston or
"bucket" pump, a common example of which is illustrated in. These work by
applying both the principles i.e., in the example of, water is sucked
into the cylinder through a check valve on the up-stroke, and the piston valve is
held closed by the weight of water above it; simultaneously, the water above
the piston is propelled out of the pump as. On the down-stroke, the lower check
valve is held closed by both its weight and water pressure, while the similar
valve in the piston is forced open as the trapped water is displaced through the
piston ready for the next up-stroke.
A typical traditional design of brass-lined cylinder borehole pump with a metal
foot valve and a metal piston valve; the piston has two leather cup-washer
seals(indicated on the diagram). The outer casing and end fittings are normally
cast iron in a pump of this kind.
There are various basic relationships between the output or discharge rate (Q),
piston diameter (d), stroke or length of piston travel (s), number of strokes per
minute (n), and the volumetric efficiency, which is the percentage of the swept
volume that is actually pumped per stroke (nVol)
Piston for use in Bore hole
Pistons and Valves
Type of seal, commonly used in single-acting bucket pumps, is the leather cup
washer. Suitable grades of leather, commonly impregnated with "neatsfoot oil"
boiled from the hooves of cattle, will function for surprisingly long periods
(several years) in smooth drawn brass cylinders, or in smooth PVC. With the
high cost of servicing deep boreholes, it is worth paying a premium to get a
good life out of pump seals. Various synthetic leather "compound" materials
based on plastics have been used for seals; these are often more consistent in
their performance than leather and will often have bettor wear resistant
Vertical section through a borehole pump (with extractable foot valve)
Hand pumps are manually operated pumps they use human power and mechanical
advantage to move fluids or air from one place to another. They are widely used in
every country in the world for a variety of industrial, marine, irrigation and leisure
activities. There are many different types of hand pump available, mainly
operating on a piston, diaphragm or rotary vane principle with a check valve on the
entry and exit ports to the chamber operating in opposing directions. Most hand pumps
have plungers or reciprocating pistons, and are positive displacement.
Types Suction and lift hand pumps
Suction and lift are important considerations when pumping fluids. Suction is the
vertical distance between the fluid to be pumped and the center of the pump, while lift
is the vertical distance between the pump and the delivery point. The depth from which
a hand pump will suck is limited by atmospheric pressure to an operating depth of less
than 7 meters. The height to which a hand pump will lift is governed by the ability of
the pump and the operator to lift the weight in the delivery pipe. Thus the same pump
and operator will be able to achieve a greater lift with a smaller diameter pipe than they
could with a larger diameter pipe.
Water will always try to find its lowest level. Using this principle, very simple pumps
with plastic or rubber bulb with flap valve at each end are used for emptying fuel or
water cans into tanks. Once the bulb is full the fluid will flow without further effort
from the higher to the lower container. Many hand pumps will allow the passage of
fluid through them in the direction of flow and diaphragm pumps are particularly good
at this. Thus where the levels are correct large volumes of liquid such as swimming
pools can be emptied with very little effort and no expensive energy use.
Direct action hand pumps have a pumping rod that is moved up and down, directly by
the user, discharging water. Direct action hand pumps are easy to install and maintain
but are limited to the maximum column of water a person can physically lift of up to
Deep well hand pumps are used for high lifts of more than 15 m. The weight of the
column of water is too great to be lifted directly and some form of mechanical
advantage system such as a lever or flywheel is used.
High lift pumps need to be stronger and sturdier to cope with the extra stresses. The
installation, maintenance and repair of deep well hand pumps is more complicated than
with other hand pumps. A deep well hand pump theoretically has no limit to which it
can extract water. In practice, the depth is limited
by the physical power a human being can exert in lifting the column of water, which is
around 80 m.
Diaphragm pumps have the advantage that they pump relatively lightly due to the lack
of pulling rods
and are corrosion resistant. Their disadvantage is that they need a specific length of
tubing and high quality
rubber diaphragms, which are costly and are relatively inefficient due to the extra work
needed to deform the
Rubber diaphragms will eventually leak and need to be replaced. Because this is usually
and costly, diaphragm pumps operating in poor rural areas are often abandoned once the
diaphragm wears out.
Progressive cavity pumps consist of a single helix rotor inserted into a double helix
stator. As the rotor
is turned, the voids in the stator are screwed upwards along the axis of rotation.
Progressive cavity pumps can
have complicated gearing mechanisms and are difficult for local pump technicians to
maintain and repair.
A rope and washer pump is a type of progressive cavity hand pump.
Range of lift
The range of lift of different types of hand pumps is given below:
Suction pumps 0 – 7 meters
Low lift pumps 0 – 15 meters
Direct action pumps 0 – 15 meters
Intermediate lift pumps 0 – 25 meters
High lift pumps 0 – 45 meters, or more
MAJOR COMPONENTS USED IN PEDAL POWERED
2. Pedal Arrangement- (Ball Bearings and Bi-Cycle pedals )
4. Ball valve
5. Pipe Fittings
6. Pressure Measuring gauges
7. Supporting frame
HAND PUMP :- Hand pumps are manually operated pumps; they use human
power and mechanical advantage to move fluids or air from one place to another.
They are widely used in every country in the world for a variety of industrial,
marine, irrigation and leisure activities.
PEDAL ARRANGEMENT :-
This type link is used to connect the piston rod and foot step mechanism. This link is
very sturdy due it will withstand cyclic load.
Pedalling a modern stationary bicycle to produce electricity might be a great work-out,
but in many cases, it is not sustainable. While humans are rather inefficient engines
converting food into work, this is not the problem we want to address here; people have
to move in order to stay healthy, so we might as well use that energy to operate
The trouble is that the present approach to pedal power results in highly inefficient
It is connect the piston and foot pedal. It is also used push the piston according to the
foot pedal action. Rod is used to connect the piston and foot pedal pump link. The
maximum pressure is achieved pumping lifting height. It will convert angularity motion
to linear motion
Forged ball valve is used to start or stop the flow of water from
outlet port as desired
The main requirements of valves are a good seal when closed combined with lack of
resistance to flow when they are open, and rapid opening and closing while achieving
good durability. Usually rubber or alternatively precision ground metal mating surfaces
are necessary to ensure there are no leakage gaps when the valve is closed. Effective
sealing is particularly important with foot valves.
Pipe Fittings :-
Different pipe fittings are used ;-
1. 90° bend
2. Round Elbow
3. Straight normal pipe
4. Standard Tees
Pressure Measuring gauges:-
It is often convenient to express pressure in terms of the height of a column of
water, in meters or feet, instead of terms of psi or kPa. This is called pressure
head. Two Pressure measuring gauges are used i.e, for Suction and Exhaust
Delivery Pressure gauge
7. Supporting frame :-
It acts as base stand for the hand pump and supports all moving and non-moving parts
attatched the pump.
Suction Pressure gauge
ENERGY LOSSES IN PIPE FITTINGS
"When a fluid flows through a pipe line consisting of straight pipe and fittings, there is a
definite loss of pressure due to friction, This loss of head is often considerable and has
been investigated many times.
Various Pipe Fittings
Losses Due to Friction
The length of the pipe: The friction losses are cumulative as the water travels through
the length of pipe. The greater the distance, the greater the friction losses will be.
As water moves through the pumping system, pressure losses occur due to water contact
with pipes, valves, and fittings. The four factors that determine friction losses in pipe
1. The velocity of the water: Water velocity is measured in feet per second. As
velocity increases, pressure losses increase. Velocity is directly related to flow rate. An
increase or decrease in flow rate will result in a corresponding increase or decrease in
2. The size (inside diameter) of the pipe: Smaller pipe causes a greater proportion of
the water to be in contact with the pipe, which creates friction. Pipe size also affects
velocity. Given a constant flow rate, decreasing pipe size increases the water’s velocity,
which increases friction.
3. The roughness of the inside of the pipe: Pipe inside wall roughness is rated by a
“C” factor, which is provided by the manufacturer. The lower the C value, the rougher
the inside and the more pressure loss due to friction.
LOSSES IN VARIOUS PIPE FITTINGS
Losses due to friction
Losses due to Elevation change
Water pressure can be expressed as either “psi” (pounds of pressure per square inch) or
“feet of head.” A column of water 1 foot high exerts 0.433 psi at the bottom and
therefore 1 psi is equivalent to 2.31 feet of head. This means that for every foot of
elevation change from the pump to the discharge point, the corresponding change in
pressure will be 0.433 psi.
Fresh Water Salt Water
1 foot of head = 0.433 psi 1 foot of head = 0.444 psi
1.0 psi = 2.31 feet of head 1.0 psi = 2.25 feet of head
Performance Terms and Definitions
Pumps are commonly rated by horsepower, flow rate, outlet pressure in feet (or metres)
of head, inlet suction in suction feet (or metres) of head. The head can be simplified as
the number of feet or metres the pump can raise or lower a column of water at
atmospheric pressure. From an initial design point of view, engineers often use a
quantity termed the specific speed to identify the most suitable pump type for a
particular combination of flow rate and head.
Pump material can be of Stainless steel ( SS 316 or SS 304) , cast iron etc. It depend
upon the application of pump. In water industry for pharma application, SS 316 is
normally used. As at high temperature stainless steel give better result.
The power imparted into a fluid will increase the energy of the fluid per unit volume.
Thus the power relationship is between the conversion of the mechanical energy of the
pump mechanism and the fluid elements within the pump. In general, this is governed
by a series of simultaneous differential equations, known as the Navier-Stokes
However a more simple equation relating only the different energies in the fluid, known
as Bernoulli's equation can be used. Hence the power, P, required by the pump:
where ΔP is the change in total pressure between the inlet and outlet (in Pa), and Q, the
fluid flowrate is given in m^3/s. The total pressure may have gravitational, static
pressure and kinetic energy components; i.e. energy is distributed between change in the
fluid's gravitational potential energy (going up or down hill), change in velocity,
or change in static pressure. η is the pump efficiency, and may be given by the
manufacturer's information, such as in
Pump Capacity, Q = Volume of liquid delivered by pump per unit time,m/sec
Q is proportional to N, where N- rotational speed of the pump
Total developed head, H = The difference of discharge and suction pressure 99
Bureau of Energy Efficiency 3 /hr or m
The pump head represents the net work done on unit weights of a liquid in passing from
inlet of the pump to the discharge of the pump.
There are three heads in common use in pumps namely
(i) Static head
(ii) Velocity head
(iii) Friction head.
The frictional head in a system of pipes, valves and fittings varies as a function (roughly
as the square) of the capacity flow through the system.
System resistance: The sum of frictional head in resistance & total static head.
Pump Efficiency: Fluid power and useful work done by the pump divided by the power
in the pump shaft
Determination of Pump Efficiency
To determine pump efficiency, three key parameters are required: Flow, Head and
PowerOf these, flow measurement is the most crucial parameter as normally online flow
hardly available, in a majority of pumping system. The following methods outlined
be adopted to measure the flow depending on the availability and site conditions.
Determination of total head, H
Suction head (h)
This is taken from the pump inlet pressure gauge readings and the value to be converted
in to meters (1kg/cm
2 s = 10. m). If not the level difference between sump water level to the centerline
of the pump is to be measured. This gives the suction head in meters.
Discharge head (h)
This is taken from the pump discharge side pressure gauge. Installation of the pressure
gauged in the discharge side is a must, if not already available.
Troubleshooting Pump Problems
i. Pump Fails to Deliver Required Capacity
- air leaking into pump
- liquid cylinder valves, seats, piston packing, liner, rods or plungers worn
- pump not filling
- makeup in suction tank less than displacement of pump
- capacity of booster pump less than displacement of power pump
- vortex in supply tank
- one or more cylinders not pumping
- suction lift too great
- broken valve springs
- stuck foot valve
- pump valve stuck open
- clogged suction strainer
- relief, bypass, pressure valves leaking
- internal bypass in liquid cylinder
ii. Suction and/or Discharge Piping Vibrates
- piping too small and/or too long
- worn valves or seats
- piping inadequately supported
iii. Pump Vibrates
- gas in liquid
- pump not filling
- one or more cylinders not pumping
- excessive pump speed
- worn valves or seats
- broken valve springs
- loose piston or rod
- unloaded pump not in synchronism
- loose or worn bearings
- worn crossheads or guides
Open ended Spanners
Extra Materials Used
Pipe fastening paste (Safeda)
TOTAL COST OF PROJECT
Hand pump 1 1200
Frame Material Hollow and Solid rods
of Different sizes
Pipe Fittings 3 -> 90° Elbows,
5 -> Straight pipes,
Brass Forged Ball
1 – Dia-1” 150
Pressure Gauges Suction 150
Paint 1 litre 275
Other Expenses Transportation &
Total Seven Thousand Nine
Hundred Twenty Five
This modeling was centered towards the development of a hand pump by operating it
with help of Pedals that would conveniently alleviate the portable water supply
problems of rural communities throughout the underdeveloped and developing countries
of the world at minimum energy input. The requirement of Village Level Operation and
Management (VLOM) of maintenance was considered in the course of this modeling.
The model can be fabricated in the workshops as the design is made simple, while the
standard parts like bearings, bolts and nuts, etc., are readily available locally.
We have learnt alot from this project about types of tools, machines & how are they
used in mechanical workplaces in Industry, Some basic techniques like cutting, Surface
finishing, planning, grinding are introduced very nicely. In addition to this we have also
learnt about painting and welding. Moreover this project gave us a good experience of
purchasing material from market and increased our surveying capabilities
In the end I would like to thanks my teacher who guided us throughout the project
especially Mr. D.K. Soni .
It has been argued that current models of plunger pumps are inadequate in respect of the
complex interactions which take place between the pump and attached pipelines. These
arise because of the distributed parameter nature of the pipelines and because of
cavitation. A finite difference method for modelling pipelines, based on a Galerkin
method incorporating frequency-dependent friction, has been proposed. This approach
circumvents the computationally intensive demands associated with the use of the
method of characteristics.