Online Training Resource for Climate Adaptation: Implementing Adaptation - Implementing Measures


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Implementing Adaptation Measures

This module outlines how to implement measures and how to incorporate actions into existing projects and strategies

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  • Online Training Resource for Climate Adaptation: Implementing Adaptation - Implementing Measures

    1. 1. Online Training Resource: Climate AdaptationImplementing Adaptation
    2. 2. Process Stage 3Implementing Adaptation: ImplementationImplementing Adaptation MeasuresThis module outlines how to implement measures and how to incorporate actions into existing projectsand strategies Climate Adaptation Deborah Davies, Carlo Aall, Eli Heiberg, 2012Online Training Resource
    3. 3. Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundWhat is adaptation?Adaptation is an evolutionary process. It occurs in physical,ecological, and human systems and addresses many factors andstresses, not simply climate change alone.Adaptation refers both to the process of adapting and to thecondition of being adapted (Grothman & Pratt, 2005) and hasspecific interpretations in particular disciplines.Within ecology, adaptation is the process by which organisms orspecies becomes better suited to its environmentIn the social sciences, it refers to adjustments by individuals, orcollective behaviour within a system.In the field of climate change and number of definitions areavailable… Grothmann, T. & Patt, A. (2005) Adaptive capacity and human cognition: the process of individual adaptation to climate change Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
    4. 4. Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundWhat is adaptation? IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) defines climate change adaptation as: An adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities UKCIP 2011 ‘any action taken to minimise the adverse effects or to take advantage of any beneficial effects of climate change’ Climate Adaptation Online Training Resource
    5. 5. Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundWhat is adaptation?Of course adaptation is nothing new. Societies and individualshave been adapting to changing conditions for millennia andexisting natural and human systems are - in their very nature - anadaptive response to spatial differences in climate.Adaptation to climate variability can be seen in social andeconomic systems such as agriculture, forestry, industry,transportation, settlements etc.These have all evolved toaccommodate inherent temporal variates from normal conditions.However, the advent of this new era of climate change bringsnew challenges that question the inherent adaptability of naturaland human systems. Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
    6. 6. Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundWhat is adaptation?So when looking at climate change adaptation it is good practiceto consider the following:• Changes in social and environmental processes • Perceptions of climate risk• Practices and functions to reduce risk• Exploration of new opportunities to cope with the changed environmentTo determine adaptation needs, it is crucial to identify andcomprehend issues of:• Vulnerability,• Resilience,• Exposure,• Sensitivity,• Capacity to adapt. Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
    7. 7. Process Stage 3Implementing Adaptation: ImplementationImplementing Adaptation MeasuresThe UK Climate Impacts Programme report ‘IdentifyingAdaptation Actions’ (2007) advises that;‘adaptation measures should be fit for purpose, bebased on a good evidence base, involve allstakeholders and aim to achieve SMART" [Specific,Measurable, Achievable, Relevant and Timed]objectives’. Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
    8. 8. Process Stage 3Implementing Adaptation: Implementation Climate Adaptation © 2010 UK Climate Impacts ProgrammeOnline Training Resource
    9. 9. Process Stage 3Implementing Adaptation: ImplementationImplementing Adaptation Effect-oriented: Cause-oriented: (Measures to reduce possible (Measures to reduce society’s negative effects of expected exposure to the effects of climate climate change) change) Technical e.g. constructing avalanche e.g. preventing construction of level protection walls houses in risk-prone areas (technical means) Strategic e.g. making a flood-protection plan e.g. incorporate risk zones related to level expected effects of climate change in (planning) existing land-use plans WNRI/VESTLANDSFORSKING, 2011 Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
    10. 10. Process Stage 3Implementing Adaptation: ImplementationEffect Versus Cause Orientated MeasuresEffect-oriented adaptation measures:– Measures to reduce possible negative effects of expected climate change (e.g. constructingavalanche protection walls), or trying to exploit possible positive effects (e.g. growing plants adaptedto higher average temperatures). Effect- oriented measures are by nature often technical or physical.They are often associated with high economic costs.Cause-oriented adaptation measures:– Measures to reduce society’s exposure to the effects of climate change, and in turn reducing thelikelihood that negative effects of climate change occur in the first place (e.g. preventing constructionof houses in risk-prone areas). Cause- oriented measures tend to be of a regulatory nature, such asland-use planning. Therefore, these measures often come at a high political (rather than economic)cost. Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
    11. 11. Process Stage 3Implementing Adaptation: ImplementationTechnical Versus Strategic Level MeasuresThe strategic level:– Encompasses planning processes such as rehabilitation plans for water and sanitation; the use ofland-use plans to plan flood drainage channels and ocean- rise zones; plans for adaptation ofculverts; and securing roads, buildings and other infrastructure in relation to various risk zones.The technical level:– Encompasses a choice of climate-proof building materials and resilient technical buildingsolutions; minimum height requirements for new harbours and dimensioning of piers; detailedplanning and dimensioning of water and sanitation systems; etc. Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource
    12. 12. Process Stage 3Implementing Adaptation: ImplementationFinal key points Adaptation cannot avoid all impacts and realistically the following need to be considered in the selection and implementation of adaptation measures• There are ecological and physical thresholds - melting Arctic, coral bleaching etc• There are economic thresholds, - where the costs of adaptation exceed the costs of impacts averted, this is particularly the case in preventing/limiting geo-hazard risks and the building of sea defences• There are technological thresholds, -where available technologies cannot avoid climate impacts• There are social limits, -where groups judge adaptation actions to have failed Climate AdaptationOnline Training Resource