Developing Adaptation Strategies:   Training for Adaptation                    Background
Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundIdentifying the Main Climate Change Adaptation StrategiesThis m...
Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundWhat is adaptation?Adaptation is an evolutionary process. It oc...
Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundClimate change and adaptation IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on ...
Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundClimate change and adaptationIn it’s broadest sense adaptation,...
Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundIdentifying adaptation needsSo when looking at climate change a...
Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundVulnerabilityVulnerability refers to the nature and extent to w...
Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundResilienceA system’s resilience is measured by the magnitude of...
Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundExposure and sensitivityExposure to climate variation is primar...
Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundWhat is Adaptive Capacity?Adaptive capacity is the ability toun...
Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundWhat is Adaptive Capacity?The capacity to adapt is dynamic and ...
Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundWhat is adaptation?     Climate Adaptation                     ...
Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundAdaptation StrategiesClimate specific adaptations can occur over...
Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundAdaptation StrategiesClimate adaptations can also be classed as...
Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundFour Main Approaches to Climate Change Adaptation1.	 Effect ori...
Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundFour Main Approaches to Climate Change Adaptation1.	 Effect ori...
Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundThe effect- and cause-oriented approach to climate change adapt...
Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundFinal key pointsWhen considering adaptation options itis import...
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Developing adaptation strategies background training for adaptation

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Identifying the Main Climate Change Adaptation Strategies

This module provides an general overview of the main strategies for climate change adaptation and includes more detailed definitions of
-adaptation
-vulnerability
-resilience
-exposure and sensitivity

Published in: Education, Technology
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  • Developing adaptation strategies background training for adaptation

    1. 1. Developing Adaptation Strategies: Training for Adaptation Background
    2. 2. Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundIdentifying the Main Climate Change Adaptation StrategiesThis module provides an general overview of the main strategies for climate change adaptation andincludes more detailed definitions of-adaptation-vulnerability-resilience-exposure and sensitivity Climate Adaptation C. Aall & D. Davies, 2012Online Training Resource
    3. 3. Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundWhat is adaptation?Adaptation is an evolutionary process. It occurs in physical,ecological, and human systems and addresses many factors andstresses, not simply climate change alone.Adaptation refers both to the process of adapting and to thecondition of being adapted (Grothman & Pratt, 2005) and hasspecific interpretations in particular disciplines.Within ecology, adaptation is the process by which organisms orspecies becomes better suited to its environmentIn the social sciences, it refers to adjustments by individuals, orcollective behaviour within a system.In the field of climate change and number of definitions areavailable… Grothmann, T. & Patt, A. (2005) Adaptive capacity and human cognition: the process of individual adaptation to climate change Climate Adaptation D. Davies, 2012Online Training Resource
    4. 4. Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundClimate change and adaptation IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) defines climate change adaptation as: An adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities UKCIP 2011 ‘any action taken to minimise the adverse effects or to take advantage of any beneficial effects of climate change’ Climate Adaptation D. Davies, 2012 Online Training Resource
    5. 5. Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundClimate change and adaptationIn it’s broadest sense adaptation, and adaptation toclimate change in particular, is nothing new.Societies and individuals have been adapting tochanging conditions for millennia and existingnatural and human systems are - in their very nature- an adaptive response to spatial differences inclimate.Adaptation to climate variability can be seen insocial and economic systems such as agriculture,forestry, industry, transportation, settlements etc.These have all evolved to accommodate inherenttemporal variations from normal conditions.However, the advent of this new era of climatechange brings new challenges that question theinherent adaptability of natural and human systems. Climate Adaptation D. Davies, 2012Online Training Resource
    6. 6. Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundIdentifying adaptation needsSo when looking at climate change adaptation it is good practiceto consider the following:• Changes in social and environmental processes • Perceptions of climate risk• Practices and functions to reduce risk• Exploration of new opportunities to cope with the changed environmentTo determine adaptation needs, it is crucial to identify andcomprehend issues of:• Vulnerability,• Resilience,• Exposure,• Sensitivity,• Capacity to adapt. Climate Adaptation D. Davies, 2012Online Training Resource
    7. 7. Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundVulnerabilityVulnerability refers to the nature and extent to which a community issusceptible to factors that directly or indirectly affect the wellbeing orsustainability of the community (Smit et al., 2008).In economies dependent on natural resource utilisation, the sensitivity ofthe ecosystem of which the community is part of, and depends upon,is crucial.However, use of this term does not presume that communities arevulnerable (Smit et al., 2008).Vulnerability is the combined result of exposure and sensitivity to climaticrisks, and the adaptive capacity to deal with those risksVulnerability stems, in part, from the uncertainty concerning the rate andmagnitude of changes to expect, the potential for non-linear changes tooccur, and the long time horizons involved. Vulnerability can also stemfrom constraints on the ability of a system to adapt. Smit, B., Wandel, J., & Hovelsrud, G. (2008). CAVIAR (Community adaptation and vulnerability in Arctic regions): framework document for an International Polar Year consortium. Climate Adaptation D. Davies, 2012Online Training Resource
    8. 8. Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundResilienceA system’s resilience is measured by the magnitude of damage itcan tolerate and still autonomously return to its original state. Itbegins to fail once it can no longer withstand changes withoutsignificant adverse impacts.The capacity of systems to accommodate variations in climaticconditions from year-to-year, without significant adverse impactsor the crossing of critical thresholds, is their “coping range”, alsoreferred to as their vulnerability or damage threshold.The coping range, varies among systems and regions and mayitself change reflecting new technologies and information to asystem or, conversely, a loss of knowledge and skills from asystem.The coping range thus reflects the adaptive capacity of a system todeal with current variability. Climate Adaptation D. Davies, 2012Online Training Resource
    9. 9. Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundExposure and sensitivityExposure to climate variation is primarily a function ofgeography. For example, coastal communities will have higherexposure to sea level rise and cyclones, while communities insemi-arid areas may be most exposed to drought.Sensitivity is the degree to which a given community orecosystem is affected by climatic stresses. For example, acommunity dependent on rain-fed agriculture is much moresensitive to changing rainfall patterns than one where mining isthe dominant livelihood. Likewise, a fragile, arid or semi-aridecosystem will be more sensitive than a tropical one to adecrease in rainfall, due to the subsequent impact on waterflows. careclimatechange.orgThe exposure-sensitivity reflects the likelihood of climaticconditions or natural hazards occurring in relation toa community’s physical location, social and economic situation,governance, and political systems. Climate Adaptation D. Davies, 2012Online Training Resource
    10. 10. Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundWhat is Adaptive Capacity?Adaptive capacity is the ability tounderstand climate changes and hazards,to evaluate their consequences forvulnerable communities, places andeconomies, and to moderate potentialdamages, to take advantage ofopportunities, or to cope withconsequences.Adaptation can be seen as a process ofsocial learning for a sustainable future. Climate Adaptation D. Davies, 2012Online Training Resource
    11. 11. Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundWhat is Adaptive Capacity?The capacity to adapt is dynamic and influenced by economic andnatural resources, social networks, entitlements, institutions andgovernance, human resources, and technology. Reducingvulnerability involves reducing exposure through specificmeasures like building a dyke in case of sea level rise, orincreasing adaptive capacity through activities that are closelyaligned with development priorities.Key elements of adaptive capacity include:• access to information on climate variability and change;• skills to make use of the information;• institutions with the ability to facilitate and manage for adaptation; and• equitably distributed economic resources.The greater the adaptive capacity, the lesser the vulnerability. Climate Adaptation D. Davies, 2012Online Training Resource
    12. 12. Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundWhat is adaptation? Climate Adaptation D. Davies, 2012Online Training Resource
    13. 13. Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundAdaptation StrategiesClimate specific adaptations can occur over a range of temporal and spatial scales from individualhouseholds, communities and firms, to entire economic sectors, watersheds and countries, fromimmediate reactionary responses to long-term planning.Assessment of impacts on both biophysicaland socio-economic processes can form the basis for adaptation strategies.Climate specific adaptation can be defined by the nature of the driver, by the outcome or process,and by the type of strategy and/or action taken. The table below provides a list of drivers, as outlinedby the United Kingdom Climate Impacts Programme, UKCIP. Measures Drivers Adaptation measures implemented before impacts of climate change are Anticipatory/ Pro-active observed. Adaptation measures triggered by changes in natural systems and market or Autonomous welfare changes in human systems. Deliberate policy decisions, based on an awareness of changing conditions and Planned understanding that action is required Climate Adaptation D. Davies, 2012Online Training Resource
    14. 14. Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundAdaptation StrategiesClimate adaptations can also be classed as• Process-oriented strategiesAimed at developing the information, social structures, and governance needed to support adaptationthis is also known as building adaptation capacity (creating information and conditions that enableadaptation actions to take place)• Outcome-oriented actions.Measures taken to reduce vulnerability and exploit opportunities that arise from a changing climatei.e. delivering adaptation actionsThese actions and strategies fall into one of the following groups:➡ Living with and bearing losses or risks;➡ Preventing effects or reducing exposure to risks;➡ Sharing responsibility for any losses or risks;➡ Exploiting opportunities (UKCIP, 2011). Climate Adaptation D. Davies, 2012Online Training Resource
    15. 15. Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundFour Main Approaches to Climate Change Adaptation1. Effect oriented adaptation to local climate change– E.g. build flood protection2. Cause oriented adaptation to local climate change– E.g. change location of areas for new housing developmentPossible additional perspectives3. Indirect oriented adaptation to climate change taking place elsewhere– E.g. protect farmed land from housing or road development4. Climate change mitigation policy adaptation– E.g. secure access to public transportation in tourism development Climate Adaptation D. Davies, 2012Online Training Resource
    16. 16. Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundFour Main Approaches to Climate Change Adaptation1. Effect oriented adaptation to local climate change– E.g. build flood protection2. Cause oriented adaptation to local climate change– E.g. change location of areas for new housing developmentPossible additional perspectives3. Indirect oriented adaptation to climate change taking place elsewhere– E.g. protect farmed land from housing or road development4. Climate change mitigation policy adaptation– E.g. secure access to public transportation in tourism development Climate Adaptation D. Davies, 2012Online Training Resource
    17. 17. Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundThe effect- and cause-oriented approach to climate change adaptation Source: The Western Norway Research Institute, 2011. Climate Adaptation C. Aall & D. Davies, 2012Online Training Resource
    18. 18. Process Stage 2Developing Adaptation Strategies: BackgroundFinal key pointsWhen considering adaptation options itis important to decide whether ageneral or specific approach isnecessary.• Should you aim at all sectors and develop a general local adaptation plan?or• Is there a specific type of natural vulnerability (e.g. flooding) or sector (e.g. agriculture) that should be addressed first? Climate Adaptation C. Aall & D. Davies, 2012Online Training Resource

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