This course is designed as an introduction to sustainable development concepts and models, with an emphasis on the contribution that is being made to this field by Indigenous peoples. Its intended audience is senior-level government managers working in a wide variety of disciplines related to social and economic development. The course has the following objectives: To introduce participants to the variety of contexts (such as urban planning, forestry, health promotion, international development) within which the term “sustainable development” is used and the richness of the definitions that are the result. To introduce participants to a range of definitions for the terms “sustainable”, “development” and “sustainable development” from the literature, as well as commonly identified criticisms of these definitions. To introduce participants to models for understanding sustainable development processes, including the five “pillars” and the medicine wheel. To introduce participants to key strategies for implementing sustainable development through three case studies from Indigenous communities. To introduce participants to leadership characteristics that support the implementation of sustainable development processes To provide the opportunity for participants to reflect on and share with each other the ways in which sustainable development processes are relevant to their own work and the opportunities and challenges they face in providing leadership in this field.
This first section of the course provides an overview of the contexts within which the term “sustainable development” is commonly encountered.
When sustainable development is proposed as a value or goal in the context of resource extraction industries, the emphasis is primarily on the relationship between economic development and environmental protection. The term is used by the private sector to discuss their business practices and by civil society to advocate for environmental protection. Government has a regulatory role in this regard.
In the context of urban planning, sustainable development is used to discuss the link between the rate of population growth and economic development and the carrying capacity of the infrastructure. The term is used in the context of municipal planning and debate about population growth by both government and civil society.
This use of the term sustainable development focuses on the relationships between social and economic development. For example, there is currently considerable debate about the impact of intensive economic activity in Alberta on the social wellbeing of workers, citizens, and the most vulnerable segments of the population.
A primary concern related to the involvement of government, private philanthropy and the not-for-profit sector in international development work is whether the projects undertaken will be sustainable once “outside” funding and technical support is withdrawn.
This discussion opportunity is designed to give participants the opportunity to relate the workshop topic to their own experience.
In all of these contexts within which the term “sustainable development” is used, a key concern is the impact of human activity, values and worldviews on health of both the natural and social worlds.
Module I will explore definitions for the terms “sustainable”, “development”, and “sustainable development”.
According to standard dictionary definitions, the etymology of the word “development” is the French verb développer, which literally means to unfold or unroll.
We commonly use the word development to describe the process by which babies grow into children and then youth and then adults, or by which plants grow from seeds into sprouts and then into mature plants which produce their own seeds.
We also commonly use the term development to talk about economic activity that converts land into commercial purposes such as housing or industrial uses.
A basic use for the term “sustainability” relates to the capacity to maintain activities or processes.
Sustainability also has to do with the capacity to maintain life through the satisfaction of basic needs.
The term “sustainable development” has been in use for just over 25 years, after it first appeared in the World Conservation Strategy of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. A prime concern at this point was environmental protection.
The United Nations’ Brundtland 1987 Commission generated the most widely quoted definition of sustainable development. This definition attempts to balance the social and economic wellbeing of the present with the impact of current patterns for the future.
Many other definitions for the term “sustainable development” are being used by government, international agencies and civil society groups. The next six slides give a sample. These definitions vary in terms of the emphasis that they place on social, economic and environmental concerns. Reading #1 for this course offers an even more comprehensive look at current uses for the term “sustainable development”. While you review this material, it can be helpful to think about the mission and world view of the agency that is putting forward a particular definition.
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Most current definitions of sustainable development are normative; that is, they state a desired end state or commendable set of values. They do not really tell us much about how to achieve these goals.
A common critique from civil society is that current definitions tend to support the status quo. The considerable gap between the standard of living of the industrialized and non-industrialized nations is not addressed. As well, the emphasis on managing resource extraction and other types of economic activities to minimize economic impact does not raise the questions about whether or not the pace and type of economic activity should be radically changed. Critics of current approaches compare much of what passes as sustainable development to “rearranging the deck chairs on the Titanic”.
An Indigenous worldview, as expressed by the Cuna of Panama, emphasizes balance and harmony as a starting point for determining what is healthy in the social, political, economic and cultural aspects of life on the planet.
This discussion provides the opportunity for participants to explore their own philosophical biases related to sustainable development, as well as the ways in which the term is used in their own fields of work.
This module introduces two basic models for uncovering the elements that must be considered as part of sustainable development processes: 1) the “pillars” model, and 2) the medicine wheel model.
A very common approach to sustainable development is to talk about the “three pillars” that have to be built: social development, economic development and environmental protection. These three domains are often shown as overlapping circles, and it is in these overlapping portions that sustainability must be sought.
Some people argue that cultural diversity must be seen as the fourth pillar of sustainable development. This approach points out that current globalization trends are threatening the cultural diversity of the planet, just as population growth and economic activity are threatening the bio-diversity of the planet. Sustainability cannot be achieved if we lose the tremendous knowledge and world views that reside in cultural minorities around the globe.
The term “culture” also has a broad range of definitions. Several metaphors for understanding what is meant by culture are presented in this and the next three slides.
The visible aspects of culture are just the tip of the iceberg, so to speak. The beliefs, values, and assumptions that underlie the artifacts, behaviour, language and customs of culture are largely invisible. The biggest part of the iceberg, which lies under the surface of daily life, is sometimes referred to as primary culture.
Edward T. Hall, the author of books like The Dance of Life (Doubleday, 1983) , offers the above description of how primary level culture operates.
Culture can also be thought of as the software that operates in the background to shape what we do. Someone quipped that it was not a fish that discovered water. Without an outside mirror, we cannot see our own eyes, because they are the organs through which we look at the world around us.
Finally, an additional pillar to hold up a sustainable world is political sustainability. CIDA (see Reading #5) argues that political sustainability includes such aspects as human rights and good governance. Without these in place, efforts to achieve equitable social development, as well as economic development that does not exceed the carrying capacity of the environment environmental protection, will not be successful.
One way to view the relationship between these five pillars is shown here. This model places the domains of human activity—political, social, economic and cultural—within the context of environmental protection.
People all over the world give answers such as those listed on this slide to the question, What should the goals of sustainable development be? Others talk about full employment, participation in the decisions that affect your life, health, education , cultural identity, healthy environment, rational use of renewable natural resources, conservation of nonrenewable natural resources, stable economic growth, etc.
The principles that should govern the overlap of the pillars of sustainable development can be characterized as follows. 1. Economic development should be pursued in ways that lead to equitable social development for all the world’s peoples.
2) Economic development cannot exceed the carrying capacity of the environment.
3) Social development must occur in harmony with the natural world.
These overlap of these three principles provides a model for sustainable development processes. Readings #2, #3 & #4 provide more background on theses approaches.
In 1994, CIDA released its framework for sustainability, which, as mentioned previously, highlights the areas of work related to all five of the pillars of sustainable development. (See Reading #5)
Environmental protection must consider factors such as those listed here.
Political sustainability encompasses protection of human rights, good governance and the rule of law.
Sustainable economic development is governed by appropriate policy, ensures equitable access to resources, and enhances the productive capacity of the poorest.
In order to be sustainable, social development lessens the income gap between the rich and the poor and between men and women, invests in basic health and education and is carried out in a way that fully engages the beneficiaries.
Development that protects cultural diversity pays attention to the values underlying economic, social and political endeavors and operates in a culturally sensitive way.
The term “medicine” in tribal tradition refers to any substance, process, teaching, song, story or symbol that helps to restore balance in human beings and their communities. The medicine wheel is an ancient symbol which represents an entire world view and the teachings that go with it. The medicine wheel is simply a circle divided into four parts. Seeing things in fourness, or what Jung called quaternity, is very common to most indigenous people in the world. It is used to show how, within whatever whole we are talking about (the whole person, the whole family, the whole community, etc.) there are dimensions or parts which make up the whole and which are interrelated to each other.
Each human has the potential to develop capacities in these four interrelated areas of life. Each aspect of the self is affected by all the others. So, for example, a sickness affecting the physical body can also affect how well a child’s intellectual faculties function. People filled with jealous and angry feelings about another person may well find their mental capacities blocked, and their bodies filled with stress.
Families and clans hold their members as a mother holds her children. As children grow in strength and wisdom, only gradually do they learn to be responsible, and to care for those who have cared for them. The family is the womb out of which the community and the nation spring. It is impossible to build a healthy and prosperous community unless and until the families within that community are healthy and strong.
Families in turn live within communities like fish live in water. The invisible web of relationships that make up community life can either have the aggregate effect of leading to human wellbeing and prosperity, or to its opposite. Like individual people or families, each community has its own commonality (the personality of the group). In order to effectively initiate strategies that will alter (for the better) the collective habits and relationships that are affecting people’s lives within a particular community, it is helpful to be specific about the nature of those relationships and habits. The medicine wheel of the community mirrors of the “pillars of sustainable development” introduced in previous slides.
Communities do not exist in isolation, free from the impact of the world around them, any more than an individual person does. By the wider world, here is meant the entire human world outside the community. It can refer to the tribe or nation, the various levels of government up to the nation state and beyond, other countries and regions, or the global monetary market and regulatory systems. The four aspects of the “wider world” in this slide are the same as those identified as critical to sustainable development processes in dominant culture models.
Using the medicine wheel model allows us to reflect on the interconnected web of relationships that need to be transformed in order to create balance, wellbeing and sustainability.
The key elements that drive growth, or development, are pictured here. The wheel, made of interlocking wheels within wheels, turns through a process of learning and transformation. Vision refers to our capacity to see ourselves in conditions other than the ones in which now find ourselves. Vision is not a pipe dream or wish list. It is rooted in a profound understanding of human nature and possibility. Imagination - It is nearly impossible to enter into a condition that we cannot imagine. Learning is the process of acquiring the attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and skills to make the changes that are needed within ourselves or in our families , organizations and communities to reach a goal such as building a more sustainable world. Volition/participation means the meaningful involvement of the people whose lives are being affected in all aspects of development processes.
This sharing opportunity is designed to give participants the opportunity to use the models that have been explored in this module to clarify their own thinking about the dimensions involved in sustainable development work.
Module II uses case studies from Indigenous communities to explore three key strategies for implementing sustainable development models.
These three strategies can enform sustainable development initiatives that have very different starting points.
In their book, Why some People are Healthy and Others are Not, Evans, Barer and Marmor (1994) drew together a useful synthesis of work that spanned at least a dozen disciplines as they compiled available evidence on the critical conditions and factors that determine human health. Their work was proceeded by a number of creative leaps in health thinking that gradually encouraged a considerable broadening of perspective from the dominant medical model, “which tends to focus on disease rather than health, and is preoccupied with bio-mechanical problems and solutions” (Ibid., p. 31). A determinants analysis can be used as a fundamental methodology for understanding how development interventions should be focused.
People all over the globe, when asked variants of the seemingly simple question, “What do people need to have in their lives in order to have a good life, to have sustainable wellbeing and prosperity?, give remarkably similar answers. The list presented in the following four slides was synthesized from Four Worlds work with First Nations, Inuit and Metis communities across Canada between 1994 and 2006.
Basic physical needs include adequate nutrition, clothing, shelter, pure drinking water, sanitary waste disposal and access to medical services. Spirituality and a sense of purpose - connection to the Creator and a clear sense of purpose and direction in individual, family and community life, as well as in the collective life of the nation. Life-sustaining values, morals and ethics - guiding principles and a code of conduct that informs choices in all aspects of life, so that at the level of individuals, families, institutions and whole communities, people know which pathways lead to human wellbeing, and which to misery, harm and death. Safety and security - freedom from fear, intimidation, threats, violence, criminal victimization, and all forms of abuse both within families and homes and in all other aspects of the collective life of the people.
Adequate income and sustainable economics - access to the resources needed to sustain life at a level that permits the continued development of human wellbeing, as well as processes of economic engagement that are capable of producing sustainable prosperity. Adequate power - a reasonable level of control and voice in shaping one’s life and environment through processes of meaningful participation in the political, social and economic life of one’s community and nation. Social justice and equity - a fair and equitable distribution of opportunities for all, as well as sustainable mechanisms and processes for rebalancing inequities, injustices and injuries that have or are occurring. Cultural integrity and identity - pride in heritage and traditions, access to and utilization of the wisdom and knowledge of the past, and a healthy identification with the living processes of one’s own culture as a distinct and viable way of life for individuals, families, institutions, communities and nations.
Community solidarity and social support - to live within a unified community that has a strong sense of its common oneness and within which each person receives the love, caring and support they need from others. Strong families and healthy child development - families that are spiritually centered, loving, unified, free from addictions and abuse, and which provide a strong focus on supporting the developmental needs of children from the time of conception through the early years and all the way through the time of childhood and youth. Healthy eco-system and a sustainable relationship between human beings and the natural world - the natural world is held precious and honoured as sacred by the people. It is understood that human beings live within nature as fish live within water. The air we breath, the water we drink, the earth that grows our food and the creatures we dwell among and depend on for our very lives are all kept free from poisons, disease and other dangers. Economic prosperity is never sought after at the expense of environmental destruction. Rather, human beings work hand-in-hand with nature to protect, preserve and nurture the gifts the Creator has given.
Critical learning opportunities - consistent and systematic opportunities for continuous learning and improvement in all aspects of life, especially those connected to key personal, social and economic challenges communities are facing, and those which will enhance participation in civil society. Adequate human services and social safety net - programs and processes to promote, support and enhance human healing and social development, as well as to protect and enable the most vulnerable to lead lives of dignity and to achieve adequate levels of wellbeing. Meaningful work and service to others - opportunities for all to contribute meaningfully to the wellbeing and progress of their families, communities, nations, as well as to the global human family.
See Reading # 6 for an executive summary of this initiative.
The United Indians of All Tribes Foundation, based in Seattle, has received a $3.5 million grant from the Northwest Area Foundation to lead and facilitate a comprehensive poverty alleviation initiative focused on urban Native Americans living in the Seattle and King County areas. This document introduces the Pathways to Prosperity Program core models and strategies.
The Pathways to Prosperity Program is a comprehensive initiative designed to address the root causes of poverty in the Seattle area Native American community. The model and approaches to be utilized build on the community’s strategic strengths to systematically deal with long standing obstacles to the sustainable wellbeing and prosperity of Native American families.
Since 2003, with the support of the Northwest Area Foundation, more than 300 Native Americans participated in community-based meetings through the Shelengan Coalition. (Note: Shelengen means together in Coast Salish.) Their purpose was to identify the challenges faced by Seattle’s urban Native American population and to explore ways of eliminating poverty. Key results of their community-based research are shown here and on the following slide.
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The tree of poverty has many roots Poverty is not one thing for Native Americans, it is many things braided together Poor health Basic needs not met Disconnected from spiritual and cultural identity Loss of social support systems Lack of education and training Facing the climate of prejudice Lack of economic opportunities and many other factors 3. We call these root causes “The Determinants of Poverty”
The web of interwoven problems referred to by Walsh can also be described as the “determinants of poverty”. The determinants (or root causes) of poverty comprise the complex set of factors or conditions that combine to make it difficult for people to live with dignity and relative comfort and to participate actively in the society around them. Pathways to Prosperity Program is based on a “Determinants of Poverty” approach. These 10 factors, shown here and on the following slide, need to be addressed if Native American poverty in Seattle is to be overcome.
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Creating a comprehensive initiative that can strategically address the ten determinants that trap a significant portion of the AI/AN population of Greater Seattle in poverty will require a clear vision of the positive pattern that needs to be built. Once the determinants of poverty have been clearly identified, it is much more fruitful to focus energy on building their positive opposite than it is to try to eliminate a negative. Since people cannot build on what they do not have, the Pathways to Prosperity Program will draw on the strengths, resources and resilience that already reside in the American Indian and Alaskan Native peoples, families and communities and will move toward a positive vision of wellbeing and prosperity. For the purposes of developing strategic lines of action that can address the determinants of poverty, therefore, it is important to identify the corresponding determinants of wellbeing and prosperity. In this way, pathways to positive action can be pursued.
In this way, “poor health” becomes “vibrant health”; “fractured social networks” becomes “strong social networks”; and so on.
All the “determinants of poverty” become converted to “determinants of wellbeing”.
In human and community development work it is as important to focus on how the work is done as it is to focus on what must be done. The United Indians of All Tribes Foundation is very conscious of the value of working in a way that is culturally appropriate, and that supports real capacity building rather than the creation of dependence on a new project. Three crosscutting themes will therefore characterize the way that the Pathways to Prosperity Program will be implemented: 1. Using a systems approach that simultaneously addresses four levels of change: a) individual, b) families, c) communities, and d ) relations with the wider world. 2. Starting small before scaling up - Specifically, in the first year, an initial focus on 30 families from United Indians’ Headstart and Early Headstart programs (families that are by definition struggling to raise children in poverty) will be targeted. This focus will be broadened to include 100 families from across the Native American community during the second year. By year three, all the program components, support systems and partnerships will be in place to allow for a much broader focus in implementation. 3. Working from principle - Principles such as “no participation, no development”, “no vision, no development” and “learning is the fundamental dynamic of human development” will guide and animate the work.
The various components of the Pathways to Prosperity strategy are not a menu to choose from (i.e., pick this or that option), but rather constitute a picture of an integrated organic system of growth and change. It clearly makes no sense to ask, “which would you rather be able to do, eat or breathe?” Similarly the various determinants of wellbeing are not optional. The fundamental strategy of the Pathways to Prosperity Program is to build the capacity of individual families and communities to address all the determinants . Only in this way can sustainable wellbeing and prosperity actually be achieved.
Our community needs to make a journey from poverty to sustainable well-being and prosperity Different people have different combinations of needs Healing Connection to culture and community Life skills, job skills Employment opportunities Social and professional support Literacy Academic upgrading Education and training Emergency help Access to credit Business start up support, etc
Pathways to Prosperity has chosen nine lines of action as the most strategic for achieving its aims.
A central strategy is to create a “culture of learning” within every aspect of the project. An initial focus on families involved in our Headstart program links the importance of early childhood education to long-term outcomes. A new accredited educational institution will emerge from within the Native community called Day Break Star College, focused on building the capacity of individuals and families for human and community development and for their participation in sustainable economic improvement. One hundred native families will be initially targeted.
A critical component of capacity building will be promoting the personal health and wellness of individuals and families and linking people to appropriate health care services. By “health” we mean the mental, emotional, physical and spiritual wellbeing of people, as well as their capacity to successfully address the full range of determinants that lead to health. In addition to facilitating access to needed health services, this line of action also entails engaging the Native American community and appropriate partners in collective action to address health conditions in a sustainable way.
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The United Indians of All Tribes Foundation will serve as an intermediary organization that brings together a wide range of individuals, organizations and agencies in the government, non-government and private sectors. As an intermediary, a key role of the Pathways to Prosperity Initiative will be to facilitate constructive dialogue between these partners to ensure that the net impact of their work is a comprehensive and coordinated approach to strengthening all the determinants of wellbeing and prosperity, and that individuals and families have one-stop shopping access to the services and support they need. These types of partnerships do not just happen on the side of people’s already busy lives. Mechanisms need to be created that will bring people together in a learning, planning, action and reflection process that is sustained long enough to see real results. These mechanisms will also support partners to share and leverage resources that any one partner may not have access to on its own, but that combine to make a real difference. In addition to seeking out partners who can participate in a collaborative capable of offering the full spectrum of services, supports and opportunities to those making the journey towards sustainable wellbeing and prosperity, United Indians will actively cultivate other strategic partnerships. Perhaps the most important of these are partnerships with other minority and disadvantaged communities and the organizations that serve them, with the aim of working together with other members of the human family facing similar challenges related to poverty.
Critical strategic communication goals include: a. increasing the flow of public access communication within the Native American community, focused on the work of poverty reduction and community development (that is communication as a community building strategy); b. maintaining a central flow of two-way constructive communication between the project implementer and intended beneficiaries such that beneficiaries are actively guiding the ongoing evolution of project thinking and decision making; c. maintaining a process of constructive dialogue with the network of partners and allies who are playing a part in the project implementation process; and d. communicating the challenges and lessons emerging from the project to partners, funders and the wider community. Specific strategies planned include regular radio and cable television programs, a community newspaper, very regular (at least monthly) face-to-face circles of consultation at the community and partner level, as well as systematic learning centered evaluation and documentation of the work.
A second key strategy for implementing sustainable development initiatives is transdisciplinarity. This strategy highlights the importance of working across the boundaries of academic disciplines, departmental mandates, and program criteria to build sustainability.
The models for sustainable development explored in Module II of this course illustrated the overlap between the five “pillars” of sustainable development. One of the strengths of the medicine wheel model is that it so clearly demonstrates the interrelation between the many dimensions of the socio-economic world that must become part of efforts to create greater sustainability.
There are persistent barriers to sustainability on the planet. These require urgent attention.
Einstein is quoted as saying that the problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking that we had when we created them. Issues such as those listed on the previous slide will not be solved without solutions that come from new perspectives.
Transdisciplinarity goes even further than multidisciplinarity to create new insights and knowledge.
See Reading #7 for a short summary of this case. The Sagamok Anishnawbek First Nation is a rural community of about 1,200 people situated in the beautiful Laurentian Shield region of Ontario. Over the past fifteen years, a solid core group of Sagamok people has been working on themselves, and working together to build new relationships of trust and mutual respect. Much of this work has been rooted in the process of recovering Anishnawbek cultural foundations. As in the case in most development processes, this quiet work went on for many years without much visible impact. Between 1998 and 2002, a series of opportunities began to shift the tide of community development in the direction of cultural recovery, community healing and nation building: 1. the election of a Chief and Council who saw healing and community development as the most important priority for the Nation; 2. A series of community workshops entitled “What Was Never Told” that helped Sagamok people to recover important parts of their cultural and historical past and to integrate Anishnawbek cultural perspectives and traditional knowledge into education, economic development, governance—indeed, into all aspects of community life.
Then, in 2001, Sagamok received funding from Canada’s Aboriginal Healing Foundation to address the legacy of residential schooling, which had traumatized so many of Canada’s Indigenous people. To assist them to take advantage of this third important opportunity, the Chief and Council asked Four Worlds to assist them to build a long-term community development and nation-building plan and the capacity to carry it out.
The first step in this work was the facilitation of a community Story process which brought together approximately two hundred people from the community of Sagamok to explore what exactly needed to be healed, built and learned, as well as who must take on this work, and how an ever-widening circle of people could be engaged in the process. Because the medicine wheel model, upon which the Community Story process is based, is central to the worldview of the Anishnawbek, this consultation not only produced very valuable information and insights, it also increasingly solidified a cultural foundation for the work ahead. This document, based solidly on the community’s own analysis, examined the current conditions for children, youth, women, men, elders and families as well as the social, economic, political and cultural realities of community life, as well as the Bands stewardship of its lands and resources. It looked at the strengths of the Anishnawbek culture and what could be learned from the traditional past, and it articulated a vision of the future to which the Sagamok Nation is committed and identified pathways for building that future.
A community report card was produced as one way to mirror back to the community their analysis of current conditions. This report became a kind of baseline against which to measure future progress.
After a period of reflection on the implications of the Sagamok Community Story and what needed to be done to rebuild their Nation, a Ten-Year Action Plan for Healing and Community Development was produced and adopted by the Nation. A key element of this plan is the initiation of a number of critical cross-department efforts to address the key issues arising from the Community Story.
It was recognized that the healing strategic line of action would need to permeate everything the Nation does. For example, it was recognized that individual, family and community healing could not simply be delivered to the community by Band programs. Community members, and the self-help networks and civil society organizations they build, must also play a key role. Professional service delivery would also need to be reoriented so that the work of building the determinants of wellbeing would be occur at the same time as workers were compassionately dealing with crises as they emerged. Cultural research would be needed to fully engage the rich healing knowledge and practices that already exist in the Nation. To have the needed impact, healing and development efforts would need to work through all the doorways that bring people together—education programs, recreation activities, faith communities, workplaces, etc.
Similarly, a primary focus of the community development strategic line of action of the Ten-Year Action Plan was to realign the work of all the community’s institutions and services with the Band’s new understanding of its conditions and its vision for the future.
None of this work could be successful if the Band’s programs and services continued to operate in the same way they always had. A number of transdisciplinary initiatives were launched to achieve the required results and to provide the Band’s departments with a solid base of experience in working collaboratively across boundaries.
For example, the comprehensive youth strategy brought together the following partners: the Education Department, the Health and Social Services Department, Saulteaux Enterprises (the Band’s economic development arm), the Sagamok Anishnawbek Police, Chief and Council, parents, elders, cultural and spiritual leaders, the Youth Council, churches, and other volunteers,
A third key strategy for implementing sustainable development initiatives is working from principle.
Steven Covey (Seven Principles of Highly Effective People) uses a story to illustrate the role of principles. In this story a fleet of ships on maneuvers in foggy weather. They hail a light that they see directly in their path to direct it to move out of their way. The light turns out to be a lighthouse, and they learn just in time that there are some things that we cannot move out of the way. Instead we have to adjust our own course of action in order to avoid disastrous consequences.
A principle-centered approach is a way of working that asks us to look again and again at what we are really trying to achieve, as well as at what is really required for development processes to be effective. By comparing our plans and our own actions in the field to known development principles, we are able to continually adjust our strategies and our practice. The 16 principles presented in this next series of slides represent a synthesis of Four Worlds’ twenty-five years of field experience.
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See Reading #8 for more information about this case study. The Reunion of the Condor and Eagle Initiative is an acknowledgement of prophecies among North American Indigenous peoples that the eagle of the north and the condor of the south would be reunited. In pre-contact times trade and exchange routes extended all up and down the spine of the Americas. These links need to be renewed to bring sustainable peace and wellbeing the Indigenous peoples of North and South America.
Indeed, Indigenous people have a great deal to contribute to the human family’s collective challenges. They are gifted with a vision, guiding principles and values and the growing capacity and collective resources to co-create with other members of the human family a peaceful and harmonious future for all of our children and grandchildren. Indigenous people hold a critical key to peace, security, and sustainable wellbeing for all members of the human family.
The Indigenous peoples of Mother Earth, who still have a connection to their land, language, culture, history and spiritual traditions are the poorest and most socially and politically marginalized populations in every country in which they reside. They have the poorest health, the worst levels of infant and child mortality; they are the most exposed and vulnerable to environmental pollutants; they have the lowest levels of education and the highest levels of perceived powerlessness, political oppression and frustration. Indeed, many Indigenous peoples have been, and are still being, pushed into extremes of poverty and misery, or even to the brink of extinction in some regions, all in the name of “progress” or “development”. Over the years, there have been a variety of responses among Indigenous people to this cruel set of conditions, ranging from assimilation, to passive resignation and to resistance. At the same time, there has always been a powerful core of Indigenous elders and spiritual leaders who advocated holding on to the ancient spiritual vision of the oneness of the human family, and the teaching that the way out of this period of oppression and suffering is not through violence, but rather through healing the trusts that were broken and through building constructive partnerships with all nations and peoples.
The “fourth way”, that of collaboration and partnership, calls on the creation of organized Indigenous and related social movements to focus on promoting the healing, wellbeing and prosperity of the people and on electing and supporting leaders who are truly responsive to the majority of the people—leaders who will not only improve education, health care, infrastructure and economic development, but will also work to create social and political “spaces” within the countries where Indigenous people reside, to enable true participation in an inclusive and equitable project of rebuilding nations. This approach is not merely political in nature. It also implies a systematic reclamation and recovery of Indigenous cultural foundations, identity and language, and the re-anchoring of social, economic and political change in the spiritual and cultural values and traditional knowledge at the heart of Indigenous cultures. This approach in no way implies a retreat into the historical past, but rather it is an active engagement of the challenge of shaping the future of nations within the framework of life-preserving, life-enhancing, sustainable values and patterns of action in harmony with all the members of the human family.
There is a spiritual awakening occurring throughout the Indigenous world. This growing spirit can be be directed towards rapidly and systematically building a new world civilization, beginning in the Americas, or it can be co-opted and translated into further insurgencies, violence and terror. The choice depends a great deal on how we all participate in the healing and development of Indigenous peoples.
Based on extensive consultation and development processes among Indigenous Americans, four key lines of action have been identified. It is recognized that these need to be woven together to create a sustainable development strategy.
Prosperity Development — Involves both micro-economic projects (including access to credit, capacity building and technical support, particularly related to small business developments) and medium to larger enterprises (requiring investment monies, capacity building of Indigenous business organizations and technical assistance, particularly related to product development, legal and financial support and marketing).
Capacity Building — Relating to basic processes of human and community development, healing from trauma (when required), and both formal and non-formal education and training initially tied to learning requirements for development and business projects on the immediate horizon.
Governance and Civil Society Development — This sector entails building the capacity of local community and regional organizations and groups to contribute constructively to the common good. As well, it involves developing the capacity of Indigenous organizations and Indigenous leadership to work effectively with their own communities and with the wider world.
Building Appropriate Partnerships and Networks — This work includes connecting Indigenous organizations and communities with viable partners (both from across the Indigenous world and from the wider society)—partners that bring a value-added contribution to Indigenous development and business initiatives. It also involves strengthening and mutually reinforcing Indigenous networks, so that the collective strengths of Indigenous people across the Americas can be brought to bear on specific international, national, regional and local development initiatives.
These four key lines of action can be pictured in a graphic like the one on this slide.
The previous five slides described the outcome objectives of the Reunion of the Condor and the Eagle strategy. which outline what we want to achieve. What follows describes the processes; i.e., how we plan to work to achieve these outcomes.
Listening and Visioning - This phase involves relationship building, recovering cultural resources and local knowledge, establishing a values foundation, listening to and documenting the people’s story and setting sustainable goals.
Participatory Planning - This phase involves engaging the heart and minds of Indigenous people who are to benefit from our initiatives in mapping the real situation and in defining and planning strategic lines of action.
Capacity Building - As a process, this aspect involves non-formal training, as well as formal (accredited) courses and programs; both which will eventually be offered by the Four Worlds College of Human and Community Development along with other related educational institutions of the Americas who would like to participate, as well as technical support, coaching and mentoring for specific business and development ventures.
System Building - This aspect involves building sustainable processes and practical mechanisms that actually promote human and community development at every level of society for all people (children, youth, adult women and men and elders) and in all sectors of life (economic, environmental, social well-being, governance and administration, cultural recovery and development, etc.).
Again, a graphic can illustrate the interrelationship between these four processes critical to actualizing the guiding principles at the heart of an Indigenous vision of sustainable development.
This discussion time is designed to allow deeper reflection on the three key strategies for implementing sustainable development processes and to build connections between these models and the opportunities that participants have to support this type of work.
This fourth, and final module focuses on the five characteristics essential for leaders of sustainable development processes.
These characteristics tell us as much about who we must become as about what we should do.
There is a often a significant difference between what we say we value and what we actually value. When we look back on the “footprints” of our actions, both as individuals and as collectives, we can learn a great deal about our lived values.
As we saw in Module II, many definitions of sustainable development focus on the impact our current actions will have on the future. When we commit to valuing sustainability, we also commit to ensuring that the plant will be healthy for future generations.
One of the case studies in Module III presented a principle-centered approach as a key strategy for sustainable development. Leaders of sustainable development can use principles as a scale for weighing the merit of particular pathways and decisions.
Principles must be able to stand up to two tests: 1) they articulate something inherently “true” about the nature of reality; and 2) they motivate people to use their energy and creativity to find viable courses of action.
Many of the 16 principles explored in Module III have direct application to sustainable development processes. Consider the implications of the principles of justice, interconnectedness, and no-vision-no-development, as examples.
The case study in Module III related to transdisciplinarity (the Sagamok Anishnawbek First Nation) argued that sustainability requires creative collaboration between individuals and agencies from many sectors, disciplines and departments.
All these stakeholders have different points of view, knowledge and skills sets, and avenues for action that are needed to create viable solutions.
Ronald Heifetz, one of the founders of the Leadership Education Project of the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, published a book entitled Leadership without Easy Answers in 1994. In this volume, he distinguishes between technical problems, which can be solved through the application of some type of recipe or technique. The really challenging issues related to creating sustainability, however, cannot be fixed through technical solutions alone, however sophisticated they may be. Heifetz calls these kinds of problems adaptive, and describes one of the skills that leaders need in these contexts is to be able to create safe holding spaces for all the stakeholders to do the challenging work of stepping outside their current ways of seeing things.
In a review of a broad range of the International Development Research Centre’s (IDRC) Eco-health projects in Africa, the Caribbean and Latin America, a transdisciplinary approach was defined as shown on this slide.
The qualities of effective leaders of transdisciplinary teams were identified as follows: Passion - A tangible and often communicated passion regarding the importance of the work related to the improvement of life for the people that the project is designed to serve. When enthusiasm and a sense of purpose permeate a work team, tremendous creative energy is released. Team members are willing to go the “extra mile”, because they believe in what they are doing. Facilitation - The capacity to facilitate collaborative consultation processes that draw the best out of each of the participants. Visioning - the willingness and capacity to help the work team to build a collaborative understanding of the work context, problem and process, and to synthesize and articulate that big picture understanding as a guiding light throughout the duration of the project.
Making spaces - The willingness and capacity to create and protect the necessary “working space” for collaborative inquiry and collective team management of the project. The term “space” here refers to is budgeted time and resources, as well as constructive processes and mechanisms in which all team members are enabled to contribute their very best to the process. Human relations - The capacity to build and manage constructive human relations among team members, and between the team and the various partners and stakeholders connected to the project.
Because the sustainable development challenges the world facs are extremely complex, involving political, social, cultural, economic and environmental dimensions and being played out in a world characterized by extremes of wealth and poverty, conflict and environmental degradation, no easy answers exist. The human family is going to have to learn its way into a sustainable future. Westley, Zimmerman & Paton, in their recent book entitled Getting to Maybe , distinguish between three types of problems. Simple problems, they say, can be solved by following a recipe. Baking a cake is an example of this type of problem. Relatively predictable results can be consistently obtained if the recipe is faithfully executed.
Complicated problems are more challenging than simple ones, but they can also be approached through the application of “recipes”, or what Heifetz called technical solutions. Again, the needed solutions can be generated through the application of existing knowledge in more and more sophisticated ways. Sending a rocket ship to the moon or building more fuel efficient engines are examples of complicated problems. Complex problems, on the other hand, are those that involve the interaction of many factors in the socio-economic world. There are many simple and complex components to responding to the AIDS epidemic in South Africa, but alone they cannot solve the problem. Transdisciplinary approaches, that step out of our current ways of understanding and responding to problems are needed. Most other sustainable development challenges are also complex.
As Paulo Freire and Miles Horton tell us, this is a journey that has not been traveled before. The human family will have to make a new path by walking it. In other words, we will have to put learning at the centre of our efforts to make change.
Westley, Zimmerman and Patton provide the following advice for “ordinary people who want to make connections that create extraordinary outcomes”: “ Develop your capacity to see and understand complex systems, and learn to draw action implications from what you see and understand.” “ Cultivate the discipline of reflective practice. Learn to value standing still long enough to see what is around you, to understand the flow of events and the context of the moment.” “ As you act, evaluate the consequences of your actions and make adjustments accordingly. Don’t expect to get it right the first or second or third or fourth time. Indeed, keep questioning what it even means to get it right.” “ Learn to live the paradox of action as reflection, and reflection as action.” ( Getting to Maybe , p. 91)
The action-reflection cycle, which development practitioners often refer to as participatory action research (PAR) , can be pictured in this way. Values and principles are placed in the centre because they serve as a reference point. They define the type of future we are learning our way toward. Planning, action, reflection and learning are moments in the process that are returned to many times. As innovations are launched, we learn from that experience and we adjust future action on the basis of that learning, as well as the introduction of new knowledge and skills.
This question provides the opportunity to reflect on whether or not the political, social, cultural and economic context in Canada can provide opportunities for change agents from government and from civil society to work from a life-preserving, life-enhancing values base, to use principles as a scale for measuring the worth for our actions, to engage in collaborative and transdisciplinary work, and to adopt a learning orientation.
This final discussion opportunity is geared to thoughtful reflection about the application of the course’s learning to professional and personal life.
Sustainable development 4
UNDERSTANDING & LEADING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Phil Lane, Jr. Four Worlds International www.fwii.net
The term “sustainable development” is being used in many different ways, for example: In the context of forestry, sustainable development can mean the harvesting of trees and other forest products at a rate that does not exceed the capacity of the forest to regenerate itself.
In the context of urban planning, sustainable development can mean managing growth within the capacity of infrastructure to service the population.
In the context of health promotion, sustainable development can mean a pace and type of economic activity that does not jeopardize the wellbeing of people.
In the context of international development projects, sustainable development can mean those activities designed not to exceed the socio-ecological capacity of the community to carry on from within.
Talking Circle Topic: What are other contexts within which you have heard the term sustainable development being used?
Social World Natural World Human Thinking & Activity Understanding & Leading Sustainable Development will focus on how human thinking and activity influence both the social and natural worlds
What is development? The root of the word “ development” is the French word développer - to unroll or unwrap
A process by which potentialities become apparent; by which a fuller, greater or better state is realized Development:
A process through which something is made more available or put into use A process through which something is exploited, or converted into a new function, or has its value increased Development:
What is sustainability? The capacity to keep up or keep going
The capacity to supply with necessities or nourishment; to provide for The capacity to support, hold, or bear up from below; bear the weight of Sustainability:
What is sustainable development? In 1980 the International Union for the Conservation of Nature published the World Conservation Strategy in which the term “ sustainable development ” was first used.
Development is sustainable if it “meets the needs of the present without comprom-ising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. (The 1987 Brundtland Commission, set up by the United Nations General Assembly)
“ Sustainable development is a socio-ecological process characterized by the fulfillment of human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment indefinitely. ” (Wikipedia) Other Definitions:
“… sustainable development is interpreted as a common currency that both unifies environmental, social and economic values and links today ’ s choices to tomorrow ’ s consequences. ” (A Guide to Sustainability, from Canadian Choices for Transitions to Sustainability, Ottawa: Projet de societe, May 1995)
“ Sustainable development involves the simultaneous pursuit of economic prosperity, environmental quality and social equity.” (World Business Council on Sustainable Development)
“ Sustainability is meeting the needs of all humans, being able to do so on a finite planet for generations to come while ensuring some degree of openness and flexibility to adapt to changing circumstances. ” (Jerry Sturmer, Santa Barbara South Coast Community Indicators)
“ Human beings are at the center of concern for sustainable development. They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature. ” (Rio Declaration, adopted by the United Nations conference on Environment and Development in 1992)
“ In the final analysis sustainable development is about long-term conditions for humanity ’ s multi-dimensional well-being. ” (Soubbotina, Beyond Economic Growth , The World Bank, 2004)
Criticisms of Current Definitions of Sustainable Development They do not provide clear guidance about what to do differently. 1.
Current uses of the term “sustainable development” in policy documents: They tend to favour the continued growth of industrialized nations at the expense of development in poorer nations. Economic policies based on concepts of growth and the continued depletion of resources cannot be sustainable. 2. 3.
An Indigenous view of Sustainable Development The closest equivalent that the Cuna Tribe of Panama has for the term “sustainable” is the word harmonious Harmony with all living things In tune Peaceful Marked by agreement
Talking Circle Topic: What other definitions of sustainable development have you heard/used? Which definition do you prefer? Why?
Module II: Models for Exploring Sustainable Development
Interdependent and Mutually Reinforcing Pillars of Sustainable Development United Nations 2005 World Summit Outcome Document Social Development Environ- mental Protection Economic Develop- ment
A Fourth Pillar “… cultural diversity is as necessary for humankind as biodiversity is for nature.” Sustainable development cannot be understood “simply in terms of economic growth, but also as a means to achieve a more satisfactory intellectual, emotional, moral and spiritual existence”. Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (UNESCO, 2001)
Culture: how human beings make sense of the world <ul><li>how people think, learn and solve problems, what they value and respect, what attracts and delights them, what offends them and their sense of what is appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>the soil in which the tree of identity </li></ul><ul><li>has its roots </li></ul><ul><li>manifest s itself in human relations, </li></ul><ul><li>systems of organization, technology, </li></ul><ul><li>arts, politics, economics, community </li></ul><ul><li>life - all the things that humans do. </li></ul>
A Metaphor for Culture <ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><li>Folklore </li></ul>Primary Culture highly patterned implicit rules of behavior hidden cultural grammar Language Laws Food Visible Culture Customs Artifacts and Behaviour Beliefs and Values Assumptions
Primary Level Culture <ul><li>There is an underlying, hidden level of culture that is highly patterned – a set of unspoken, implicit rules of behavior and thought that controls everything we do. This hidden cultural grammar defines the way in which people view the world, determines their values, and establishes the basic tempo and rhythms of life. Most of us are either totally unaware or else only peripherally aware of this. I call these hidden paradigms primary level culture . ( E.T. Hall) </li></ul>
Other Metaphors for Culture <ul><li>The collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group from another - the software of the mind </li></ul><ul><li>The eyes through which </li></ul><ul><li>we see the world </li></ul>
It can also be useful to speak about political sustainability, which refers to the processes through which decisions are made and power is arranged and distributed.” (Bopp & Bopp, Recreating the World , 2006) Adding One More Pillar
Putting it All Together Political Partici- pation Economic Develop- ment Cultural Diversity Social Develop- ment Environmental Protection
What are the desired outcomes of sustainable development? <ul><li>Clean water & air </li></ul><ul><li>Fertile soil & </li></ul><ul><li>good food </li></ul><ul><li>A livelihood & a </li></ul><ul><li>healthy economy </li></ul><ul><li>An optimum </li></ul><ul><li>population size </li></ul><ul><li>Safety from poverty </li></ul><ul><li>& disease </li></ul><ul><li>Social contact & a </li></ul><ul><li>sense of community </li></ul><ul><li>Work, rest & </li></ul><ul><li>celebration </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities to </li></ul><ul><li>learn </li></ul><ul><li>Halting global warming </li></ul>
Characteristics of Sustainable Development that Lead to these Outcomes Economic development is carried out in a way that is equitable for all the world’s peoples. Equitable Social Development Economic Development
Economic development is carried out in a way that is viable in terms of environmental protection. Viable Environ- mental Protection Economic Develop- ment
Bearable Social develop-ment that is bearable by the environment. Environ- mental Protection Social Development
Environ- mental Protection Economic Develop- ment Social Development Bearable Equitable Viable Sustainable
<ul><li>CIDA’s Framework identifies key features for the “pillars” of sustainable development: </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Economic development </li></ul><ul><li>Social development </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Political participation </li></ul>
Environmental Protection Political Participation Human rights Democratic development Good governance
Political Participation Economic Development Appropriate economic policies Efficient resource allocation More equitable access to resources Increasing the productive capacity of the poor Environmental Protection
Political Participation Economic Development Social Development Improved income distribution Gender equity Investing in basic health & education Emphasizing participation of the beneficiaries Environmental Protection
Political Participation Economic Development Cultural Diversity Sensitivity to cultural factors Recognition of values conducive to development Social Development Environmental Protection
The Medicine Wheel Model A Powerful Mapping Tool A Universal Archetype
The Individual Physical Mental Spiritual Emotional The Medicine Wheel Model
The Medicine Wheel Model The Family or Clan Dominant Thinking Patterns Cultural & Spiritual Patterns Human Relations Physical Environment & Economy
Political & Administrative Cultural & Spiritual Economic & Environmental Social The Community The Medicine Wheel Model
The Wider World Cultural Environment Political & Ideological Environment Economic & Ecological Environment Social Environment The Medicine Wheel Model
The Medicine Wheel Model: An Integrated Systems Approach Area or Country Community Family or Clan Individual
Vision The Medicine Wheel Model: Vision The Wider World Community The Person Volition Participation Family, Clan or Group
Talking Circle Topic: Develop your own model that shows which domains of human activity need to be harmonized to achieve sustainable development.
Module III: Strategies for Implementing Sustainable Development
Three Key Strategies Systems Thinking: Using a determinants approach Transdisciplinarity: Working beyond the boundaries Working from Principle 1 . 2 . 3 .
Systems Thinking: Using a determinants approach
Brainstorming question: What are the things that people need to have a sustainable life?
Aboriginal Community- identified Determinants of Health <ul><li>Basic physical </li></ul><ul><li>needs </li></ul><ul><li>Spirituality & </li></ul><ul><li>a sense of </li></ul><ul><li>purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Life-sustaining values, morals & ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Safety & security </li></ul>Kashechewan Water Samples
<ul><li>Adequate income and sustainable economics </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate power </li></ul><ul><li>Social justice and equity </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural </li></ul><ul><li>integrity and </li></ul><ul><li>identity </li></ul>
<ul><li>Community solidarity and social support </li></ul><ul><li>Strong families and healthy child development </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy eco-system and a sustainable relationship between human beings and the natural world </li></ul>
<ul><li>Critical learning opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate human services & social safety net </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful work </li></ul><ul><li>& service to </li></ul><ul><li>others </li></ul>
Case Example: The Pathways to Prosperity Program
Pathways to Prosperity Program Presented by United Indians of All Tribes Foundation Initial funding provided by the Northwest Area Foundation
To assist our Native Community in the journey from poverty to well-being Program Goal
Critical Challenges facing the Seattle Native American Community <ul><li>30% live below the poverty line </li></ul><ul><li>Highest level of homelessness of any group </li></ul><ul><li>Real unemployment levels are near 25% </li></ul>
<ul><li>Highest levels of: </li></ul><ul><li>infant mortality rate </li></ul><ul><li>diabetes, heart disease and cancer </li></ul><ul><li>addictions and chronic mental health issues </li></ul><ul><li>disabilities </li></ul>Critical Challenges facing the Seattle Native American Community
What is poverty? Poverty is not simply “a lack of jobs or income”, but rather “a web of interwoven problems—poor schooling, bad health, family troubles, racism, crime and unemployment—that can lock families out of opportunity, permanently”. Joan Walsh “Stories of Community Building and the Future of Urban America”
What Determines Poverty? <ul><li>Poor health </li></ul><ul><li>2. Weak cultural and spiritual identity </li></ul><ul><li>3. Unmet basic needs </li></ul><ul><li>4. Lack of basic safety and security </li></ul><ul><li>5. Fractured social networks </li></ul>
What Determines Poverty? <ul><li>6. Poor education </li></ul><ul><li>7. Unemployment/low wages </li></ul><ul><li>8. Poor access to social services </li></ul><ul><li>Racism and discrimination in society </li></ul><ul><li>10. Ineffective public policy </li></ul>
Our Primary Strategy <ul><li>Transform the </li></ul><ul><li>Determinants of Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>into the </li></ul><ul><li>Determinants of Well-being </li></ul>
Determinants of Well-being Poor health Vibrant health Weak cultural and spiritual identity Strong cultural and spiritual identity Unmet basic needs Basic needs fulfilled Lack of basic safety and security Personal safety and security Fractured social networks Strong social networks
Determinants of Well-being Poor education Appropriate education and training Unemployment/low wages Adequate income opportunities Poor access to social services Appropriate and adequate social services Racism and discrimination in society A societal climate that appreciates diversity and fosters inclusion Ineffective public policy Effective public policy
Pathway to Prosperity Four Strategic Elements <ul><li>Address the Determinants of Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Use a holistic systems approach </li></ul><ul><li>3. Working from principle </li></ul><ul><li>4. Start small before scaling up </li></ul>
Pathways to Prosperity Program <ul><li>A comprehensive web of opportunities that form a pathway </li></ul>
The Journey What do people need to make the journey from chronic poverty and dependency to sustainable well-being and prosperity? Poverty Prosperity jobs skills culture help healing connect ? support
Nine Lines of Action for Promoting Prosperity and Wellbeing
– 1 – Education and Training Day Break Star College United Indians Headstart and Early Headstart Literacy Family Strengthening Early childhood development Community Development Wellness Employment skills Leadership Development Cultural Foundations Entrepreneurial Development Job Readiness Strengthening Community Institutions And Programs Parenting Education Life Skills GED
– 2 – Health and Wellness <ul><li>Healing and recovery from the impacts of trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Addiction recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Personal growth </li></ul><ul><li>Access to health services </li></ul><ul><li>Community action for health </li></ul><ul><li>Influencing public policy </li></ul>
– 3 – Cultural and Spiritual Revitalization Elders Council Drawing on Cultural Leaders Cultural Research Culturally based education and training Applying Cultural Knowledge to Development Problems Cultural events and gatherings Cultural based enterprises Culture
– 4 – Community Building Community involvement in program governance Community Learning and Planning Community-based Research and Evaluation Community Engagement in Strategic Action
– 4 – Community Building <ul><li>Specifically: </li></ul><ul><li>Bernie Whitebear Center for Human and Community Development </li></ul><ul><li>Quarterly gatherings for evaluation, learning and planning </li></ul><ul><li>Community core groups </li></ul><ul><li>Community learning processes </li></ul><ul><li>Community based enterprises </li></ul>
– 5 – Offering a “hand-up” and “bridge-building” <ul><li>Targeted small scale help to families already engaged in the journey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g.., a bus pass, help with groceries until month end, child care emergencies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Access to micro-loans </li></ul><ul><li>Access to affordable housing </li></ul><ul><li>One stop shopping and connection to support and opportunities </li></ul>
– 6 – Community Economic Development <ul><li>Building individual and community capacity for economic success </li></ul><ul><li>Job placement and support </li></ul><ul><li>Small business incubation and support </li></ul><ul><li>Social enterprise initiative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teepee Camp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salmon Bake Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northwest Canoe House </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capitalization of Native community business development </li></ul>Goal: establish a Native American Community Economic Development Corporation
– 7 – Partnership Building <ul><li>Circle of partners to be established to ensure all needed services are available </li></ul><ul><li>Special focus on partnerships with other minorities, organizations and groups working on poverty issues </li></ul>
– 8 – Strategic Communication <ul><li>Using media for education and community development </li></ul><ul><li>Community participation to ensure strong community voice </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic dialogue between partners </li></ul><ul><li>4. Communicate lessons learned to wider world, funders, and other communities </li></ul>
– 9 – Public Policy Engagement <ul><li>Policy research relevant to poverty alleviation </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic outreach to public policy makers </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on influence through constructive dialogue </li></ul>
Transdisciplinarity: Working beyond boundaries
<ul><li>environmental protection, </li></ul><ul><li>political participation </li></ul><ul><li>economic development, </li></ul><ul><li>social development </li></ul><ul><li>cultural diversity </li></ul>cannot be achieved from the stand-point of a single discipline or programmatic stream . Efforts to promote sustainable development
Global consensus agrees Sustainable development cannot be achieved until three key issues are addresses <ul><li>extreme poverty, </li></ul><ul><li>centuries-old </li></ul><ul><li>conflicts, and </li></ul><ul><li>environmental </li></ul><ul><li>degradation </li></ul>
Resolving these key issues requires: <ul><li>collaborative and </li></ul><ul><li>creative work </li></ul><ul><li>that steps outside </li></ul><ul><li>traditional boundaries </li></ul>
Transdisciplinarity is a process and way of working that transcends the boundaries of contributing disciplines and generates new logical frameworks, new methodologies and new knowledge and insights from the synergy that is created between them. (Bopp 2001)
Case Example: Sagamok Anishnawbek First Nation
In 2001, with the support of the Aboriginal Healing Foundation, the Sagamok community committed itself to an intense period of reflection, learning & action designed to rebuild the health & prosperity of the Nation.
The Community Story Process: A systematic look in the mirror <ul><li>Children </li></ul><ul><li>Youth </li></ul><ul><li>Men </li></ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>Elders </li></ul><ul><li>Families </li></ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Lands & </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul>
Sagamok Community Report Card <ul><li>Basic physical needs 7 /10 </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural integrity & identity 4 /10 </li></ul><ul><li>Unity & social support 5 /10 </li></ul><ul><li>Safety & security 3.5 /10 </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate infrastructure & social safety net 3.5 /10 </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate voice in decision making 4.5 /10 </li></ul><ul><li>Strong families & clans 3 /10 </li></ul>
Integrated Community Planning: Ten-Year Action Plan <ul><li>2 Strategic Lines of Action </li></ul><ul><li>Individual, family & community healing </li></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><li>development </li></ul>Cross-Departmental Initiatives to address critical issues
Individual, Family & Community Healing Cultural Research Community Healing Movement Professional Healing Team Crisis Inter- vention Team Families Elders Children Youth Women Men
Community Development <ul><li>Strong engine for economic growth (Saulteaux Enterprises) </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive land & resource plan </li></ul><ul><li>Sagamok Community College </li></ul><ul><li>Social Welfare Reform Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Culturally based governance system </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive housing strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional healing lodge </li></ul><ul><li>Strong, culturally relevant education system </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen voluntary sector </li></ul><ul><li>Alignment of all Band programs with 10-Year Action Plan </li></ul>
Ongoing Cross-Departmental Initiatives <ul><li>Early Childhood Development </li></ul><ul><li>& Family Engagement Project </li></ul><ul><li>Social Welfare Reform </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive Youth Development </li></ul><ul><li>Community Wellness </li></ul><ul><li>Community Economic Development </li></ul>
Cross-Departmental Initiatives E.g. Comprehensive Youth Development Strategy Spiritual & Cultural Needs Parents, Churches, Cultural leaders Safety & Protection Needs Anishnawbek Police, Parents, Youth Council Healing & Wellness Needs Health & Social Services, Youth Council Learning Needs Parents, Education Dep’t & Partners Social Support Needs Health & Social Service, Parents, Youth Council Recreation Needs Youth Council & Mentor Team Economic & Employm’t Needs Saulteaux, Educat’n, Health Social Services Leadership Development Needs Chief & Council,, Ed Dep’t, Youth Council . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Youth Population . Youth Council
A principle is a statement of truth. It describes the nature of things as they are, what is basic or essential, what works and what doesn’t, what must be included, and what cannot be left out. What is a principle?
16 Principles for Building a Sustainable World <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human beings can transform their world - The web of our relationships with others and the natural, which has given rise to the problems we face as a human family, can be changed. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>1.
<ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Development comes from within - </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>2. The process of human and community development unfolds from within each person, relationship, family, organization, community or nation.
<ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Healing is a necessary part of development - Healing the past, closing up old wounds and learning healthy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>3. habits of thought and action to replace dysfunctional thinking and disruptive patterns of human relations is a necessary part of the process of sustainable development .
<ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Justice - Every person (regardless of gender, race, age, culture, religion) must be </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>4. accorded equal opportunity to participate in the process of healing and development and to receive a fair share of the benefits.
<ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No vision, no development - A vision of who we can become, and what a sustainable world would be like, works as a powerful magnet, drawing us to our potential. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>5.
<ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authentic development is culturally based - Healing and Development must be rooted in the wisdom, knowledge and living process of the culture of the people. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>6.
Interconnectedness - Everything is connected to everything else. Therefore, any aspect of our healing and development is related to all the others (personal, social, cultural, political, 7. economic, etc.). When we work on any one part, the whole circle is affected.
No unity, no development - Unity means oneness. Without unity, the common oneness that makes (seemly) separate human beings into “community” is impossible. Disunity is the primary disease of community . 8.
No participation, no development - Participation is the active engagement of the minds, hearts and energy of the people in the process of their own healing and development. 9.
The hurt of one is the hurt of all; the honour of one is the honour of all - The basic fact of our oneness as a human family means that development 10. for some at the expense of wellbeing for others is not acceptable or sustainable.
Spirit - Human beings are both material and spiritual in nature. It is therefore inconceivable that human community could become whole and 11. sustainable without bringing our lives into balance with the requirements of our spiritual nature.
Morals and Ethics - Sustainable human and community development requires a moral foundation. When morals 12. decline and basic ethical principles are violated, development stops.
Learning - Human beings are learning beings. We begin learning 13. while we are still in our mothers’ wombs, and unless something happens to close off our minds and paralyze our capacities, we keep learning throughout our entire lives. Learning is at the core of healing and development.
Sustainability - To sustain something means to enable it to continue for a long time. Authentic 14. development does not use up or undermine what it needs to keep on going.
Move to the positive - Solving the critical problems in our lives and communities is best approached by visualizing and moving into the positive alternative that we wish to create, and by building on the strengths we already have, rather than on giving away our energy fighting the negative. 15.
Be the change you want to see - The most powerful strategies for change 16. always involve positive role modeling and the creation of living examples of the solution we are proposing. By walking the path, we make the path visible.
Case Example: A Global Perspective - Reunion of the Condor and Eagle
Reunion of the Condor & Eagle This initiative illustrates the translation of principles into practical global program action.
Background: The Fourth Way Indigenous peoples’ historical response to oppression, colonization & trauma: <ul><li>Assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Resignation </li></ul><ul><li>Confrontation and Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration and Partnership </li></ul>
Origins of the Fourth Way: Guidance of spiritual elders and cultural leaders <ul><li>Seek harmonious development approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Build collaborative relationships between peoples </li></ul><ul><li>Build on cultural resources and strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize spiritual principles to guide action </li></ul>
The Condor and the Eagle Initiative: A framework for implementing the Fourth Way <ul><li>Developed collaboratively by Indigenous leaders </li></ul><ul><li>An invitation to governments and development actors to collaborate with Indigenous Peoples </li></ul><ul><li>The implementation of guiding principles shared by Indigenous elders </li></ul>
Condor and Eagle Framework: Four Key Lines of Action 1. Prosperity development 2. Capacity building 3. Governance and civil society development 4. Building appropriate partnerships and networks
1. Prosperity Development <ul><li>Microeconomic projects </li></ul><ul><li>Access to credit, capacity building and technical support, all focused on small business development </li></ul><ul><li>Medium to larger enterprise development </li></ul><ul><li>Access to capital, capacity building of business organizations, technical assistance for product development, marketing, legal and financial support </li></ul>
<ul><li>Human and community development </li></ul><ul><li>Healing from trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Business development </li></ul><ul><li>Governance, leadership & management </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural collaboration </li></ul>2. Capacity Building
<ul><li>Building the capacity of local community organizations & institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening participatory mechanisms within culturally appropriate frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Building regional collaborative organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonizing public policy & legal processes with sustainable development requirements </li></ul>3. Governance and Civil Society Development
4. Building Appropriate Partnerships & Networks: Connecting Indigenous organizations with viable partners <ul><li>Across the Indigenous world </li></ul><ul><li>With outside development actors who can </li></ul><ul><li>add value </li></ul>
Sustainable Vision, Values & Principles 4 Key Lines of Action Governance & Civil Society Development Capacity Building (Human & Community Development, Education & Training) Building Appropriate Partnerships & Networks Prosperity Development (Micro & Macro)
Condor and Eagle Framework: Required Processes 1. Listening & visioning 2. Participatory planning 3. Capacity building 4. Building systems & mechanisms for people-centered development
<ul><li>Listening & Visioning </li></ul><ul><li>Building relation- </li></ul><ul><li>ships between </li></ul><ul><li>partners </li></ul><ul><li>Recovering </li></ul><ul><li>cultural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding local knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing a values foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Documenting the peoples’ story </li></ul><ul><li>Setting sustainable goals </li></ul>
<ul><li>Participatory Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging the hearts & minds of Indigenous peoples in: </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping their real situation </li></ul><ul><li>Defining problems </li></ul><ul><li>Discovering solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Planning strategic action </li></ul>
<ul><li>Capacity Building </li></ul><ul><li>Both formal and non-formal training for </li></ul><ul><li>development leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching and mentoring of leaders & </li></ul><ul><li>development institutions </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Daybreak Star College in Seattle </li></ul>
<ul><li>Systems Building </li></ul>The nitty-gritty work of transforming the web of relationships & collective patterns of living so that the outcome is sustainable wellbeing & prosperity. <ul><li>Families </li></ul><ul><li>Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Governance mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Livelihood practices </li></ul><ul><li>Social, economic, political and cultural relationships within & between communities, the wider world. </li></ul>
Sustainable Vision, Values & Principles Listening & Visioning System Building Capacity Building Participatory Planning Required Processes
Talking Circle Topic: How do the 3 key strategies for implementing sustainable development presented here (i.e.; systems thinking, transdiscip-linarity, working from principle) apply to your work? What did you learn from the case examples?
Characteristics of Leadership for Sustainable Development <ul><li>Values based </li></ul><ul><li>Principle centered </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative </li></ul><ul><li>Transdisciplinary </li></ul><ul><li>Learning driven </li></ul>
Values Based A value is a relatively enduring pattern of thinking & action. Not all values are equal. Some lead to life. Others lead to death.
Leadership for sustainable development is driven by values that are life-preserving and life-enhancing. “ In every deliberation we must consider the impact of our decisions on the next seven generations. ” (From the Great Law of the Iroquois Confederacy)
Principle Centered A principle is a statement of truth. It describes the nature of things as they are, what is basic or essential, what works and what doesn’t, what must be included, and what cannot be left out.
The essential merit of…principle is that it not only presents a perspective which harmonizes with that which is immanent in human nature, it also induces an attitude, a dynamic, a will, an aspiration, which facilitate the discovery and implementation of practical measures. (“The Promise of World Peace”)
Principle-centered leadership organizes thinking & action according to fundamental principles. E.g. The principle of equity reminds us that d evelopment is not sustainable if the political decisions & economic activities of some groups of people continue to jeopardize the wellbeing of people belonging to other groups or living in other parts of the world.
Collaborative Collaborate: to work together, especially in a joint intellectual or artistic effort. (The Tormont Webster’s Illustrated Dictionary)
The challenge of sustainable develop-ment is like a puzzle. Different stakeholders hold different pieces and no one has the whole picture or even knows what the whole picture is.
Collaborative leadership for sustainable development creates a holding environment for joint work across lines (disciplines, cultures, power differentials, norms & values, economic & social interests, roles)
Transdisciplinary <ul><li>Both a process and a way of working </li></ul><ul><li>Transcends the boundaries of each contributing discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Generates new logical frameworks, methodologies, knowledge & insights from the synergy that is created between participants. </li></ul><ul><li>(Bopp 2001) </li></ul>
Transdisciplinary leadership <ul><li>Communicates a tangible passion for the work of finding sustainable solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Has the capacity to facilitate collaborative consultative processes </li></ul><ul><li>Has the will & capacity to help work teams see problems with new eyes born of a fusion of disciplinary perspectives </li></ul>
<ul><li>Makes time and space and allocates resources for collaborative work </li></ul><ul><li>Effectively manages human relations challenges </li></ul>Transdisciplinary Leadership, cont’d
Learning driven Three kinds of problems: 1. Simple - following a recipe (e.g. baking a cake) Source: Westley, Zimmerman & Paton,“Getting to Maybe” Random House,2006
Three kinds of problems cont’d: 2. Complicated - e.g. sending a rocket ship to the moon 3. Complex - e.g. raising a child, ending AIDS in South Africa
Sustainable development has all three kinds of problems contained within it. Part of the work can be achieved through the application of simple and complex recipes. A great deal of the work, however, is complex. We will need to “make the path by walking it”.
<ul><li>Learning to read complex patterns & systems </li></ul><ul><li>Learning to stand still long enough to see what is around you (the context) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning to adjust thinking & behaviour as a result of reflection on experience </li></ul><ul><li>Learning new knowledge & skills related to emergent challenges </li></ul>Learning-driven leadership requires cultivating the discipline of reflective practice:
Does Canada have the Potential to Lead Sustainable Development Thinking & Action in the world? Q :
Talking Circle Topic: What will you take away from this explor-ation of the characteristics required to lead sustainable development work? What are the opportunities & constraints you face in responding to this challenge?