The term sustainable development was first used at the Cocoyoc Declaration on Environment and Development in the early 1970 report our common It Defination is contained in future – the 1987 report of theproceeding of the World Commission on Environment and Development
Global pandemics, climate change, natural disasters, poor soil conditions, deforestation — these issues are at the heart ofsustainable development and at the heart of the work of The Earth Institute.
Ignoring the issues of sustainable developmenthas many possible consequences, such asrising sea levels, extreme droughts,erosion and loss of forests, increases in slum populations,species extinctions and collapsing fisheries.There is also increasing evidence that issuessuch as water scarcityplay a role in internal violence and regional confli.The question of "Is sustainable developmentfeasible?" is the subject of the two-dayconference, State of the Planet, taking place atThe Earth Institute on March 28-29, 2006.
WORLD COMMISSION has given the defination “Sustainable development is thedevelopment that meets the needof present without compromising the ability of future generation to meets their own need”
CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTIt implies natural resource managementthat is economically viable in short runand environmentally sustainable in longrun.It emphasize on optimum management ofland and water resources so as tomaintain a balance between productivityfunction & conservation practices throughidentification of problem area that requirealternate management practices.
Growth & Limit This concept create a complex debate about SDContinuous economic growth mademuch more eventually sensitive inorder to raise the living standard thepoor globally & break the linkbetween poverty and environment.It call for radical change in economicorganization producing much lowerrate or zero rate.
Thus sustainable development is not lookingfor industrial production for shake of profit alonenor does it purposes business . Now the issue is how to increase the wealth in eventually sound way in order to make major redistribution on income world wide.
Principal of sustainability (Principal of Equity) The principal of interageneration equity Use of natural resources in such a way to reduce the wealth gap within and between the nation. The principal of intergeneration equity Minimize the adverse impact of utilization of natural resources on future generationWe should- Reduce the pollution- Maintain ecological balance
Objective of S. DConcern for future generationProtection of environmentMaintenance of high and stable levelsof economic growthRational utilization of naturalresources.Social progress that recognizes theneeds of everyone.
Measure to promote Sustainable Development.1.Restoring the environment and combating poverty2. Sustainable mountain farming system.- Soil erosion and fertility management.- Dry land agriculture.- Shifting cultivation3. Afforestation and regeneration of degradation.4. Rangeland & grassland development5. Control desertification6. Watershed management7. Natural Hazard & disaster management
8. Healthy cropland & woodland9. To promote renewable energy sources of energy 10. Women and mountain development 11. Conservation of natural resources – water forest and soil 12. Hazardous waste management - Reuse, recycle, reduce 14. Promotion of organic farming - Application of Biofertilizer - Crop rotation - Intercropping - Multiple cropping- Promotion of traditional technologies
Characteristic of Sustainability1. Substitution:The substitution of non renewablenatural resources are the use ofrenewable energy resources.For Eg. The substitution of coal, petroland natural gases are wind, solar,geothermal and tidal energy
2. Renewability Renewable resources should be used in such a way so that the rate of utilization of a resources should be lower then or equal to the rate of regeneration of resources.3. Institutional CommitmentAn individual cant bring change. The changneed political support, constitutionalprovision, legal framework and coordinationbetween legal institutions.All level of society must be preparedthrough education , to accept and the valueof sustainable development.
4. Adaptability We have to learn to adapt to c changing environment.For eg. We have to adapt ourselves to use clay cups orordinary glasses that can be washed or used a number of time. 4. Interdependence There exist interdependence among communities andnations. Environment knows no boundaries. Air pollution created by nation spread to neighboring countries. Sointerdependence and mutual co-operation is necessary input in maintaining sustainability.
ConclusionIn order to promote sustainable development we have to take care of the following area:- Conservation of energy- Conservation of Biodiversity- Reduction in pollution- Population Control- Promotion of renewable energy resources- Promoting organic farming- Watershed Management- An approach of common decision making
Watershed ManagementWhat is Watershed?Watershed is a geographical area drained bya stream or a system connecting stream inwhich water from all over area flow undergravity to a common drainage channel.A watershed system deliver water through rills,gullies, runoff stream to a larger body ofwater.Usually slope of circular or semicircular hillyrange form a good watershed to give rise to alarge aquatic body at foothills
WatershedThe terms watershed, catchments, drainage area and riverbasin are all used to describe a land.It is determined by topographical features which include asurrounding boundary.In North America, the term “watershed” is restrictedsometimes to mean a comparatively small catchments, orsometimes to mean the upland, water-yielding portion of alarger river basin.In British Commonwealth countries it is sometimes restrictedto mean “drainage divide”. In this document we will use it tobe synonymous with catchments or river basin, particularly in the context of “integrated
Watershed ManagementWatershed management is rational utilizationof land and water resource for optimum productionwith minimum hazards to natural resources. Itessentially relate to soil and water conservation.In watershed which means proper land uses,protecting land from against all forms ofdeterioration , building and maintaining soilfertility, conserving water for farms use, propermanagement of local water for drainage , floodprotection and sediment reduction.
An integrated watershed Management includeConserving the water, soil and conservingsurplus water to recharge ground water.Minimize ploughing and forest cutting onsteeps slopes protect watershed.Promoting Afforestation, horticulture andpasture.Promote crop management system to promotesustainable farming.Constructing small dams on streams to holdback water to prevent flooding.Improving the standard of living of individualfarmer.Promoting ecological balance
Benefit of Watershed ManagementReduction in the rate of sedimentation in majordams, rivers and harbors Reduction of run-off and damaging floodsConservation of soil fertility and the maintenanceand improvement of agricultural productivityMaintenance and improvement of water qualityReduction in soil salinity and acidityProtection of wildlife habitatIncreased public awareness of the inter-relationships within watersheds and identificationof land capabilityMaintenance and improvement of tree andvegetation cover.
Strategies of Integrated Watershed Management(a) Coordination of policies, programmesand activities as they relate to integratedwatershedmanagement;(b) Promotion of community participation inintegrated watershed management;(c) Identification and rehabilitation ofnatural resource degradation;(d) Promotion of the sustainable use ofnatural resources;(e) Provision of stable and productive soils,high quality water, and protectivevegetative coverwithin individual watersheds.
Other Measures• prevent further land degradation• restore degraded natural resources• ensure that natural resources are usedwithin their capability• minimize the impacts arising from the useof natural resources• ensure that native flora and fauna areprotected• promote appropriate planning andmanagement• preserve items and places having culturalheritage values