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presentation during the kick-off meeting of the EC IEE financed BIOEUParks project in April 2013

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  1. 1. http://www.eubionet.netSolutions for biomass fuel marketbarriers and raw material availability-EUBIONET III 1.9.2008-31.8.2011Philipp von BothmerAgency for Renewable Resources
  2. 2. 30/04/132Project objectivesPhotos: DTI & Vapo Oy• To boost sustainable,transparent internationalbiomass fuel trade,• To secure the most costefficient and value-addinguse of biomass for energyand industry• To boost investments in bestpractice technologies andnew services on biomassheat sector
  3. 3. Project actions• Biomass resources, trade and biomass usein new industry sectors,• Wood fuel prices and price mechanism,• Sustainability, standards, and legalincentives• New biomass raw materials,• Biomass heating and cooling,• Forest industry and bioenergy30/04/133
  4. 4. 30/04/134Project partners• VTT, Coordinator, Finland• DTI, Denmark• ECB, Slovakia• Ekodoma, Latvia• FNR, Germany• SLU-Bio, Sweden• UPEI VUT, Czech• UMB, Norway• CRA-W, Belgium• FJ-BLT, Austria• AEBIOM, Belgium• CRES, Greece• UU, Netherlands• UNIFI, Italy• LEI, Lithuania• ICSTM, UK• CBE, Portugal• ApE, Slovenia• AAE, Spain• Subcontractors (Hungary, Ireland,France, Romania)• Cooperation mit IEA BioenergyTask 40
  5. 5. Biomass resources and trade• Estimated annual biomass potential is 157 Mtoe inEU24 (exluding waste)– Of which 48% is currently utilised– Greatest potential for increased use lies on forestresidues and herbaceous biomass– Pellets use exceed production by 20%• New industry sectors found for increased biomass use(17 success stories and summary reprot published)– Cement industry, food industry, chemical industry• Customs statistic CN code (4401 30 20) for woodpellets developed in cooperation with EUROSTAT30/04/135
  6. 6. Unexploited agro-industrial biomassresidues in EU• 54 new unexploitedagro-industrialresidues identifiedestimated annualpotential 18–22 milliontons drymatter annually – or270–330 PJ (6.5–7.9Mtoe)30/04/136
  7. 7. Price mechanisms for wood fuels• Two price surveys in European countries– Pellets, wood chipls, brickettes, log wood• Vergleich der Verfügbarkeit und Qualität derHolzbrennstoffstatistiken in EU-Ländern• Report on price mechanisms• Price index for industrial wood pellets developed incooperation with Foex Indexes30/04/137
  8. 8. Bioenergy and forest industry• Target to understand the competition situation ofwoody biomass between forest industry and energyuse and the impacts of different policy instruments onwood availability and price level• To illustrate the competition situation in EU-27, thewood flows were shown in EU and in each country.– Result of EU-27 is shown in next slide• A large share of bioenergy in Europe originates fromby-products and residues from the forest industry,both from mechanical and chemical processing, thatare not suitable for further processing for otherproducts.• A large amount of forest growth is not used, and anestimated annual increment of wood stock is over 300million solid m3.30/04/138
  9. 9. Wood flows in EU27, 200830/04/139Energy use 240.8 m³ Final products 291.2 m³
  10. 10. Biomass heating and cooling• About half of the final energy demand is used forheating in EU27• Biomass used for heating is about 55 Mtoe• Estimated used of electricity for cooling is 270 TWh• 35 case studies collected of biomass heatingsubstituting fossil fuels– The potential to reduce CO2 equivalent emissionsrange from 90 to 95%, depending on the fuel whichis replaced (gas or heating oil), the new biomassfuel and the capacity of the new heating system.– Average reduction 330 – 410 kg CO2/MWh,maximum 1 020 kg CO2/MWh• Catalogue of 59 boiler manufacturers collected30/04/1310
  11. 11. Sustainability• Evaluated 44 different national or internationalsustainability criteria for biomass, biofuel andbioenergy– Measuring and quantifying sustainability of bioenergy is avery complicated issue.– The meaning of sustainability can be defined in differentways, depending on the context and own values andinterests.– It is almost a philosophical question how to measuresomething, those three dimensions (environmental,social, and economic) sometimes are even in conflict witheach other.• Questionnaire of sustainability criteria– 475 answers from 34 countries received and 285 used foranalysis30/04/1311
  12. 12. Results of sustainability questionnaire30/04/1312All countries0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%Minimization of GHG emissionsOptimization of energy balanceMinimization of deforestationConservation of High Conservation Value areasMinimization of (indirect) land-use changesSustaining the yield of the landProtection of soil quality and quantityProtection of w ater quality and quantityProtection of air qualityMinimization of loss of biodiversityPriority for local food & construction product supplyPriority for energy securitySocial w ell-being (labour and human rights compliance)Minimization of child-labourMinimization of indirect social and economic impactsLand-use rights complianceLocal w elfare (improvement local economy)Effect of the end-use on the local environmentMost relevant Very relevant Relevant Not relevant
  13. 13. 13Indication of importance to includesustainability criteria in a Europeanbiomass and bioenergy certificationsystem:Top 3 (all responses):1. GHG emission reduction2. Optimalisation energy balance3. Water quality and quantityThe stakeholder and country groups show a differencein:• Degree of importance for criteria and;• Priorities between criteria.30/04/13
  14. 14. Remarks from the questionnaire:• Do you think that European certification system isneeded?– 81% YES (although there are limitations and should belinked to existing systems and declarations)• Certification increases the credibility of Europeancertified biomass as renewable energy source:– 83% YES• Certification stimulates the discussion aboutcertification of biomass use for other non-food(industrial raw) materials and food applications:– 76% YES30/04/1314
  15. 15. Conclusions I• Based on the country reports the evaluation reportcontains 44 appendixes, which describe variousnational and international systems and initiatives toguarantee the sustainability of biomass• For the market the variety of the certification systemsis confusing30/04/1315
  16. 16. Conclusions II• Respondents of the questionnaire stress the need for alevel playing field in the market, meaning that theEuropean sustainability requirements for biomass andbioenergy should be extended to other geographicalworld regions and to other feedstock and renewableenergy sources• The large variety of geographical areas, crops,residues, production processes and end-uses is seenas key area of attention that limits the developmenttowards a harmonized certification system forsustainable biomass and bioenergy• Many respondents consider the risk for administrativeburdens high• Most important criterion for the stakeholder in ourquestionnaire was the criterion on the ‘minimization ofGHG emissions’30/04/1316
  17. 17. Conclusions III• There is an interest for including socio-economiccriteria in a certification system for biomass andbioenergy• The aim should be to develop some basic principleswhich apply for all agriculture and forestry toguarantee a sustainable land use in aim to producebioenergy• It could be even considered not only to expandsustainability certification to all bioenergy, but also toall biomass usage30/04/1317
  18. 18. • Thank you!• For questions on EUBIONET 3 and published reports,you can contact Aino Martikainen,a.martikainen@fnr.de30/04/1318
  19. 19. 19Forest certifications• The highest certification rate has Austria, 100 % ,followed by Finland, 95%• Low certification rates in Greece (0,6), Spain(4,5%), Bulgaria (4,8%) and Italy (7,1%)• Big differences between the systems: Finlandalmost only PEFC, the Baltic states only FSCPEFC ha FSC ha Forest andother woodedarea ha% certified ofthe forest area58 352 825 26 269 446 188 333 000 44,9%Results for EU-2630/04/13
  20. 20. Forest certifications• Greenhouse gas emissions not fully covered by thecriteria• Biodiversity issues covered, but without referencedate• No protection of high carbon land20 30/04/13