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LULUCF actions in EU Member States

Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP)
Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP)
Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP)Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP)

Presentation by Kamila Paquel on the LULUCF actions in EU Member States as reported under Article 10 of the LULUCF desicion.

LULUCF actions in EU Member States

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www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu
LULUCF actions in EU Member States
as reported under Article 10 of the LULUCF Decision
Kamila Paquel, 6 November, COP23 - Bonn
www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu
Outline
• Policy and legal context
• Project background and aims
• Methodology
• General findings
• Main areas of intervention
• Policy instruments used to support the actions
• Mitigation potential of actions: challenge of data availability
• Potential enhanced mitigation actions
• Summary - conclusions
www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu
Policy and legal context
• Decision No 529/2013/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council
(LULUCF Decision)
‒ Establishes accounting rules on GHG emissions and removals
‒ Requires information on LULUCF actions at national level and their estimated impacts
(Article 10)
• Paris Agreement
‒ Long term climate mitigation objectives achieved with a contribution from the LULUCF
sector
• EU post 2020 climate and energy framework
‒ Inclusion of LULUCF mitigation in EU action to deliver Paris commitments
‒ Continuation of the reporting obligations in alignment with UNFCCC requirements
(streamlining)
‒ Governance of the Energy Union: climate plans (targets, policies and measures) and Long-
term low emission strategies, including LULUCF
www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu
Project background and aims
• Project developed by IEEP, Ricardo-AEA, and Wageningen
Environmental Research (Alterra) for DG CLIMA of the European
Commission
• Project start: May 2017, finish: November 2017
• Aims:
‒ to analyse the LULUCF action initial reports (submitted by the Member
States to the Commission in 2014 or 2015) and progress reports
(submitted in 2016)
‒ to enhance the understanding of the strategic and forward-looking
aspects of LULUCF-related policies in the EU
‒ to generate understanding of the potential for enhanced LULUCF
mitigation action
www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu
Methodology
Review of the (initial and progress) reports based
on a set of indicators (e.g. scope, sources of
finance, aim, impact)
Synthesis – creation of a database with
information extracted from the 51 reports
Analysis of the results to answer a set of research
questions, supported with literature review and
expert judgment
Consolidation of findings – final study
preparation and outreach
www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu
General findings
• Some 679 measures and policies
identified in the reports
• Wide array of ongoing and planned
activities
• Heterogeneous level of detail and of
types of information
• Most frequently reported areas and
subareas of intervention:
‒ Forest management,
‒ Protection against natural disturbances
‒ Afforestation and reforestation
‒ Biodiversity/nature conservation
measures
‒ Biomass for energy use
‒ Grassland, grazing land and/or pasture
management
‒ Nutrient, tillage and water
management
‒ Conservation of carbon in existing
forests
‒ Restoration of degraded land
‒ Organic farming
‒ Substitution of GHG intensive materials
with harvested wood products (HWP)
(excluding energy feedstocks)

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LULUCF actions in EU Member States

  • 1. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu LULUCF actions in EU Member States as reported under Article 10 of the LULUCF Decision Kamila Paquel, 6 November, COP23 - Bonn
  • 2. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Outline • Policy and legal context • Project background and aims • Methodology • General findings • Main areas of intervention • Policy instruments used to support the actions • Mitigation potential of actions: challenge of data availability • Potential enhanced mitigation actions • Summary - conclusions
  • 3. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Policy and legal context • Decision No 529/2013/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council (LULUCF Decision) ‒ Establishes accounting rules on GHG emissions and removals ‒ Requires information on LULUCF actions at national level and their estimated impacts (Article 10) • Paris Agreement ‒ Long term climate mitigation objectives achieved with a contribution from the LULUCF sector • EU post 2020 climate and energy framework ‒ Inclusion of LULUCF mitigation in EU action to deliver Paris commitments ‒ Continuation of the reporting obligations in alignment with UNFCCC requirements (streamlining) ‒ Governance of the Energy Union: climate plans (targets, policies and measures) and Long- term low emission strategies, including LULUCF
  • 4. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Project background and aims • Project developed by IEEP, Ricardo-AEA, and Wageningen Environmental Research (Alterra) for DG CLIMA of the European Commission • Project start: May 2017, finish: November 2017 • Aims: ‒ to analyse the LULUCF action initial reports (submitted by the Member States to the Commission in 2014 or 2015) and progress reports (submitted in 2016) ‒ to enhance the understanding of the strategic and forward-looking aspects of LULUCF-related policies in the EU ‒ to generate understanding of the potential for enhanced LULUCF mitigation action
  • 5. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Methodology Review of the (initial and progress) reports based on a set of indicators (e.g. scope, sources of finance, aim, impact) Synthesis – creation of a database with information extracted from the 51 reports Analysis of the results to answer a set of research questions, supported with literature review and expert judgment Consolidation of findings – final study preparation and outreach
  • 6. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu General findings • Some 679 measures and policies identified in the reports • Wide array of ongoing and planned activities • Heterogeneous level of detail and of types of information • Most frequently reported areas and subareas of intervention: ‒ Forest management, ‒ Protection against natural disturbances ‒ Afforestation and reforestation ‒ Biodiversity/nature conservation measures ‒ Biomass for energy use ‒ Grassland, grazing land and/or pasture management ‒ Nutrient, tillage and water management ‒ Conservation of carbon in existing forests ‒ Restoration of degraded land ‒ Organic farming ‒ Substitution of GHG intensive materials with harvested wood products (HWP) (excluding energy feedstocks)
  • 7. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Main areas of intervention (1/6) 22 23 25 28 69 71 91 92 150 152 174 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Substitute of GHG intensive… Organic farming Nutrient, tillage and water… Biodiversity/nature… Afforestation and… Forest management
  • 8. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Main areas of intervention (2/6) distribution per EU Member State 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 AT BE BG HR CY CZ DK EE FI FR DE EL HU IE IT LV LT LU MT NL PL RO SI SK ES SE UK Forest management Protection against natural disturbances in forests Afforestation and reforestation Biomass for energy use Grassland, grazing land, pasture management Conservation of carbon in existing forests Organic farming Restoration of degraded land Substitute of GHG intensive materials with HWP Biodiversity/nature conservation measures Numbers reflect granularity of reporting rather than level of effort
  • 9. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Conservation of carbon in forests (3/6) Forest Carbon Farms in Poland • Government project consisting in an enhanced forest management on designated areas (initially 26 forest districts of the State Forests, with a total surface area of more than 20 000 ha). • Aim: to increase public awareness of the role of forests in climate mitigation; and improve knowledge and tools for data collection and measurement of “the forest carbon balance”. • The project is currently in its pilot stage, implemented by the State Forests Holding. Photo credit: BULiGL Bialystok
  • 10. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Grassland management (4/6) Submerged drains in pastures on peat soils in the Netherlands • an innovative solution to reduce CO2 emissions from peat subsidence on Dutch peat soils used as permanent pastures for dairy farming. • The submerged drains are installed around 15 cm below ditchwater levels so that the water can be infiltrated to rewet the soil in dry periods when the groundwater levels go below the ditchwater levels. • There is a vast potential for carbon emission reduction linked to this action as the emissions from decomposition of peat soils are estimated at about 20 ton/ha/year of CO2 . • The use of submerged drains is currently in a pilot stage in a number of areas in the Netherlands. Photo credit: Wageningen Environmental Research
  • 11. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Substitute of GHG intensive materials with HWP (5/6) Tall Wooden Buildings Plan in France • Part of the “Wood Industries Plan” launched in 2014 by the French president. • The ambition of the plan is to construct 30- storey wooden buildings by 2030 and by consequence allow France to become a world pioneer in the field of tall wooden constructions. • An initial step is to demonstrate that the construction of tall buildings made of wood is feasible and to spread the relevant technical solutions by constructing 36 large scale "showcase" buildings by 2018. • According to the Plan, there will be French tall wooden buildings constructed also beyond the French borders. Photo credit: Batijournal
  • 12. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Biodiversity/nature conservation e.g. rehabilitation of moorland, protection and management of Natura 2000 network, shelter belt restoration Forest management e.g. enhancing production in forests, forest certification, construction of roads, sustainable forest management Nutrient, tillage, and water management e.g. conservation tillage, organic farming, improved management of water resources, return of organic matter to soil Afforestation, reforestation and avoiding deforestation e.g. dedicated afforestation plans, rural development measures, climate acts and policies Biomass for energy use e.g. promotion of use of woody biomass, Heat Fund, biomass action plan, energy advisory and training services Restoration of degraded land e.g. restoration of land damaged by: erosion, fire, peat extraction; laws on land reclamation
  • 13. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Policy instruments used to support the actions (1/4) • Majority of actions supported with economic incentives, particularly grant funding ‒ Common Agricultural Policy funds ‒ To smaller extent also other EU funds e.g. LIFE • Plans and strategies ‒ National Renewable Energy Action Plans ‒ Cross-sectoral strategies • Legal requirements ‒ Forest codes, EU law e.g. Nitrates Directive Economic incentive Plan or strategy Legal requirements and standards Other voluntary initiatives Information/awareness raising Other/not specified
  • 14. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Policy instruments used to support the actions (2/4) Common Agricultural Policy • CAP funds are the main funding sources of the reported LULUCF actions Pillar I: greening and cross compliance • the European Agricultural Guarantee Fund, EAGF • e.g. requirements to maintain permanent pasture, and to establish and maintain ecological focus areas Pillar II: rural development programmes • the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development, EAFRD • e.g. agri-environment-climate commitments, forest investment, and forest-environmental and climate services • high degree of flexibility in terms of choice of climate actions; but also competition with other rural development priorities
  • 15. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Policy instruments used to support the actions (3/4) Forestry policies • National forestry policies shaped in part to reflect the concept of sustainable forest management • Multi-functional forests often mentioned by the Member States ‒ forests as providers of goods and services, including biomass for energy and other commercial uses, and climate mitigation • Forest management as the most frequently reported LULUCF activity covering a broad range of actions ‒ including many designed to enhance forest productivity and resilience to fires • A bulk of forestry policy implementation actions are supported under the CAP.
  • 16. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Policy instruments used to support the actions (4/4) other instruments • Additional EU policy instruments reported by the Member States as encouraging the LULUCF actions include: ‒ LIFE programme, Cohesion Fund ‒ Natura 2000 legislation, ‒ Nitrates Directive, ‒ INSPIRE Directive, and ‒ Renewable Energy Directive. • Only a few policy tools designed at national level e.g. fiscal instruments to encourage a higher biomass uptake • Little sign of going beyond the minimum compliance to maximise GHG impacts of actions
  • 17. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Mitigation potential of actions: challenge of land use data availability • The Article 10 Reports provide only little information about the methodologies to monitor land use applied by the Member States • The latest findings from other studies show that most Member States use spatially explicit data for grazing land and cropland activities for the purposes of their National Inventory Reports submitted under UNFCCC in 2017 ‒ No harmonised approach ‒ Increasing but still limited use of the existing Earth Observation tools • Significant challenges in terms of land use data availability hampering the feasibility/ accuracy of mitigation potential estimates • Opportunities for improvement of data availability (both land use and GHG emission related) in the future
  • 18. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Potential enhanced mitigation actions • What actions could be enhanced (=> fostered beyond the current practices) in order to pursue their mitigation potential post 2020? • The reports generally do not provide much information on possible future enhancements; but there is a wide array of enhanced actions that could be considered for implementation in the future • In forestry: forest management, avoiding deforestation, and increased use of harvested wood products for non-energy purposes seem to carry the highest potential for enhancement (based on the reports and literature review) • In agriculture: soil carbon sequestration on large areas across the EU, including reducing emissions from organic soils have the highest identified potential for enhancement. (based on the reports and literature review)
  • 19. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Summary - conclusions • EU Member States take positive actions to pursue the LULUCF’s mitigation potential – a wide variety of activities mainly in forestry and agriculture • We are at an early stage in expertise on quantifying the impacts ‒ the underlying challenge of land use data availability requires further attention ‒ but we can expect this to change following the inclusion of LULUCF in the EU target framework • Common Agricultural Policy is a critical driver of LULUCF actions in the EU, any future CAP reforms may be key to the extent and effectiveness of LULUCF actions post 2020 • Adopting long term strategies framing LULUCF actions could be beneficial from cost-efficiency, environmental integrity, and climate integrity perspectives