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Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
Cellular respiration
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Cellular respiration

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process that feeds the biosphere biological process

process that feeds the biosphere biological process

Published in: Education
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  • 1. CELLULAR RESPIRATION: THE PROCESS OF ENERGY PRODUCTION
  • 2. WHAT IS CELLULAR RESPIRATION? THE PROCESS THAT USES FOOD AND OXYGEN TO PRODUCE ENERGY (ATP). WATER AND CARBON DIOXIDE IS FORMED AS BYPRODUCTS. CELLULAR RESPIRATION CAN BE SUMMARIZED IN THE FOLLOWING EQUATION: • C6H12O6 + O2 • (GLUCOSE) • CO2 + H2O + ATP  OPPOSITE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS.
  • 3. WHO OR WHAT CAN UNDERGO CELLULAR RESPIRATION? ALL LIVING ORGANISMS CAN UNDERGO CELLULAR RESPIRATION TO PRODUCE ENERGY USED TO DRIVE METABOLIC.. SOME ORGANISMS EAT PLANTS TO OBTAIN FOOD FOR CELLULAR RESPIRATION. OTHERS EAT OTHER ORGANISMS.  CELLULAR RESPIRATION IS DEPENDENT ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS sunlight energy water + carbondioxide PHOTOSYNTHESIS sugar oxygen molecules AEROBIC RESPIRATION
  • 4. MITOCHONDRION
  • 5. MITOCHONDRIA IN A TYPICAL CELL
  • 6. COENZYMES USED DURING RESPIRATION • • NAD+ IS A COENZYME AND ELECTRON ACCEPTER, IT ACCEPTS 2 ELECTRONS AND A HYDROGEN ION (H+)AND FORM NADH. NADH CAN ALSO GIVE OF ELECTRONS AND HYDROGEN IONS TO FORM NAD+ AGAIN. • FAD -IT IS A COENZYME AND ELECTRON ACCEPTER, IT ACCEPTS 2 ELECTRONS AND 2 HYDROGEN IONS TO FORM FADH2.
  • 7. GETTING ENERGY TO MAKE ATP THERE ARE 3 STAGES OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION. 1. GLYCOLYSIS (ANAEROBIC) 2. THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE (KREBS CYCLE) 3. HYDROGEN TRANSFER SYSTEM. (AEROBIC)
  • 8. ENERGY OF GLYCOLYSIS
  • 9. GLYCOLYSIS: PHOSPHORYLATION OF GLUCOSE OCCURS IN THE CYTOPLASM OF THE CELL.  NO OXYGEN IS NEEDED FOR THIS STAGE: ANAEROBIC • RESPIRATION STAGE. GLUCOSE IS ACTIVATED BY MEANS OF A HIGH ENERGY PHOSPHATE DERIVED FROM ATP. GLUCOSE PHOSPHATE, A 6C COMPOUND, IS FORMED. • • • GLUCOSE + ATP GLUCOSE PHOSPHATE + ADP
  • 10. GLYCOLYSIS: PHOSPHORYLATION OF PGAL GLUCOSE PHOSPHATE (6C) IS CONVERTED INTO • • FRUCTOSE DIPHOSPHATE (6C) USING THE ENERGY AND PHOSPHATE FROM ATP  FRUCTOSE DIPHOSPHATE IS SPLIT INTO 2 X PHOSPHOGLYCERALDEHYDE (PGAL) (3C)
  • 11. GLYCOLYSIS: FORMATION OF PHOSPHOGLYCERIC ACID (PGA) PGAL converted into 2 x phosphoglyceric acid (PGA) (3C) Conversion with the release of 4 H+ and 2 ATP. NAD+ is a H+ acceptor, and is reduced by this released H+ to NADH. This NADH will enter the last stage.
  • 12. GLYCOLYSIS: FORMATION OF PYRUVIC ACID/ PYRUVATE  2 X PGAL ARE CONVERTED INTO 2 X PYRUVIC ACID MOLECULES  WITH THE RELEASE OF 2 X PHOSPHATE GROUPS USED TO FORM 2 X ATP.
  • 13. • PYRUVIC ACID (3C) • 2H • • (DECARBOXYLATION) CO2 2 C COMPOUND (2C) + CO-ENZYME A • ACETYL-CO-ENZYME A (2C) •+ OXALIC ACID(4C) • • 4H • ACID (6C) • 4 C ACID • CO2 • 2H • 5C acid CITRIC CO2 2H
  • 14. CITRIC ACID CYCLE/ KREB CYCLE OCCURS IN THE MITOCHONDRION REACTION NEEDS OXYGEN – AEROBIC RESPIRATION STAGE PYRUVIC ACID (C3) LOSES 2 X H ATOMS (OXIDATION) AND ONE MOLECULE CO2, (DECARBOXYLATION). FORMS A 2C COMPOUND: ACETYL-GROUP. COMBINES WITH CO-ENZYME A , TO FORM ACETYL-CO-ENZYME A (2C)
  • 15. ACETYL-CO-ENZYME A (2C)ENTER KREB CYCLE. REACT WITH OXALIC ACID (4C) FORM CITRIC ACID (6C) – CO-ENZYME A IS RELEASED. CITRIC ACID LOSES CO2 AND 2 X H ATOMS (OXIDATION)- FORM A 5C COMPOUND. 5C COMPOUND LOSSES ONE CO2 AND 2 H ATOMS TO FORM A 4C COMPOUND. THE 4C COMPOUND LOSES 4 H ATOMS TO FORM OXALIC ACID AGAIN. CYCLE STARTS AGAIN.
  • 16. ALL H ATOMS WILL COMBINE WITH THE H ACCEPTER: NAD+ TO FORM NADH THIS CYCLE HAS TO BE COMPLETED TWICE TO OXIDIZE ONE MOLECULE GLUCOSE (2 PYRUVIC ACIDS)
  • 17. HYDROGEN TRANSFER SYSTEM/ OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION OCCURS IN THE INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE. AEROBIC RESPIRATION STAGE – NEED OXYGEN 24 HIGH ENERGY H ATOMS FROM PREVIOUS STAGES – NADH IS USED IN THIS STAGE. NAD TRANSFER THE HYDROGEN TO SEVERAL OTHER H-ACCEPTORS – CYTOCHROMES. EACH TRANSFER OF A H-ATOM RELEASES A LITTLE ENERGY AS ATP. THE FINAL H ACCEPTOR IS OXYGEN AND WATER IS FORMED IN THE END 36 - 38 ATP HAVE BEEN PRODUCED.
  • 18. HYDROGEN TRANSFER SYSTEM
  • 19. OTHER WAYS TO MAKE ATP FERMENTATION FERMENTATION OCCURS AFTER GLYCOLYSIS. IS A PROCESS OF MAKING ATP WHEN THERE IS NO OXYGEN PRESENT. (ANAEROBIC PROCESS) EX. HAPPENS DURING HEAVY EXERCISE, WHEN YOUR CELLS ARE WITHOUT OXYGEN FOR A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME.
  • 20. FERMENTATION • THERE ARE TWO MAJOR TYPES OF FERMENTATION 1. LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION 2. ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION
  • 21. LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION • THE SORENESS FEELING YOU GET AFTER YOU WORKOUT IS DUE TO THE BUILD UP OF LACTIC ACID IN THE MUSCLES CELLS. • THE LACTIC ACID IS TRANSFERRED FROM MUSCLE CELLS, WHERE IT IS PRODUCED DURING STRENUOUS EXERCISE, TO THE LIVER THAT CONVERTS IT BACK TO PYRUVIC ACID.
  • 22. ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION • IS USED BY YEAST CELLS AND SOME BACTERIA TO PRODUCE CO2 AND ETHYL ALCOHOL. EX. WHEN MAKING BREAD, YEAST CELL PRODUCE CO2 THAT FORMS BUBBLES IN THE DOUGH.
  • 23. SUMMARY OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION
  • 24. PICTURES BEER- WWW.SINGLEBLACKMALE.ORG DOUGH - WWW.RIPPEDCLUB.NET THANK YOU – WWW.LAUGHINGCHERUB.COM RESPIRATION – STAFF.JCCC.NET INSPIRATION MIKEU74 FEB-2014 (SLIDESHARE) JOLIE YUO NOV-2009 (SLIDESHARE) RUCKERSD OCT-2013 9SLIDESHARE) MS WILLIAMSON –LIFE SCIENCES (FET) FOR EDUCATION (UNIVERSITY OF JOHANNESBURG)

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