Characteristics of Refugees• Move with only what they can carry or easily transport.• Most move first on foot, bicycle, wagon or open boat-very low tech. transport.• Most have no official documentation such as passports, identification or other official papers.
An Example of Forced Migration-The Trail of Tears
From 12 to 30 million Africans were forced from their homelands in the 18th century. It took generations to restore the population balance.
Regions of Dislocation-Africa• Endemic African • Sub-Saharan Africa-over Problems: 8 million official• Weak and corrupt international refugees- governments. the largest # in the world.• Lack of national cohesion. • Collapse of order in Somalia• Lack of a democratic tradition • Civil Wars in Liberia and Sierra Leone• Historic ethnic conflicts • Sudan’s civil war• Excessive number of weapons left over from • Rwanda massacres and the Cold War. economic disaster.
The Sudan –Fighting in the Darfur region of the Sudan hasgenerated thousands of refugees. In eastern Chad, theIridimi refugee camp is home to almost 15,000 refugeesfrom the Darfur province, including the women in thisphoto.
Regions of Dislocation• South West & Central • South and South East Asia: Asia:• Kurds in Iraq, Turkey and • Civil War in Sri Lanka- Syria displaced during Tamils versus Sinahlese Gulf Wars. • Vietnam and Cambodia• Palestinians displaced by after the Vietnam War several wars with Israel. • Myanmar (Burma)• Afghanistan-many military rule has driven refugees during the long many to exile. Soviet occupation, Taliban regime and war.
Major Modern Migrations• Europe to North America & South America • Africa to the Americas (Slave Trade) • UK to Australia, New Zealand • India to East Africa, SE Asia • China to SE Asia • Eastern US to Western US • Western Russia to Eastern Russia
Trans-Siberian Railway increased migration to the east.
International Migration –Movement across country borders (implying a degree of permanence).
Historic US Migration• Westward to the frontier.• Black migration to northern cities in WWI and WWII period• 1950s, 60s Cubans to Florida from Castro’s Cuba• In recent decades the migration from the Rust belt to the Sunbelt took place.• Some blacks returned to the South
Waves of Immigration-US 1820-2001Changing immigration laws, and changing push and pull factors create waves of immigration.
National Migration Flows• Also known as internal migration - eg. US, Russia, Mexico
Guest Workers• Guest workers – migrants whom a country allows in to fill a labor need, assuming the workers will go “home” once the labor need subsides. - have short term work visas - send remittances to home country - France-many from Algeria - Germany-many from Turkey, Eastern Europe