Shifting CultivationShifting Cultivation
The use of multiple plots of land,The use of multiple plots of land,
normally three or more, which arenormally three or more, which are
planted in rotation by the year as toplanted in rotation by the year as to
promote soil functionality.promote soil functionality.
Crop RotationCrop Rotation
The system of varying successive cropsThe system of varying successive crops
in a definite order on the same groundin a definite order on the same ground
especially to avoid depleting the soil andespecially to avoid depleting the soil and
to control weed diseases and pests-to control weed diseases and pests-
Ridge tillageRidge tillage
System of planting crops on ridge tops inSystem of planting crops on ridge tops in
order to reduce farm production cost andorder to reduce farm production cost and
promote greater soil conservationpromote greater soil conservation
In shifting cultivation, spreads outIn shifting cultivation, spreads out
production over the farming season byproduction over the farming season by
planting different crops in the same field.planting different crops in the same field.
A method of agriculture used in theA method of agriculture used in the
tropics, in which forest vegetation istropics, in which forest vegetation is
felled and burned, the land is cropped forfelled and burned, the land is cropped for
a few years, then the forest is allowed toa few years, then the forest is allowed to
Swidden is the plot of land that has beenSwidden is the plot of land that has been
slash-and-burned upon.slash-and-burned upon.
The science, art, or occupationThe science, art, or occupation
concerned with cultivating land, raisingconcerned with cultivating land, raising
crops, and feeding, breeding, and raisingcrops, and feeding, breeding, and raising
livestock; farminglivestock; farming
The cultivation of animals, plants, fungi,The cultivation of animals, plants, fungi,
and other life forms for food, fiber, andand other life forms for food, fiber, and
other products used to sustain life.other products used to sustain life.
A region that produces milk for a specificA region that produces milk for a specific
The area surrounding a city from which milkThe area surrounding a city from which milk
is suppliedis supplied
Market GardeningMarket Gardening
Highly intensive (in capital terms) farmingHighly intensive (in capital terms) farming
of flowers, fruit, and very perishableof flowers, fruit, and very perishable
vegetables on a commercial basis.vegetables on a commercial basis.
Located close to urban areas as anLocated close to urban areas as an
immediate market, but large enterprisesimmediate market, but large enterprises
may also distribute at a national andmay also distribute at a national and
regional scale.regional scale.
Livestock RanchingLivestock Ranching
The breeding and raising of animals,The breeding and raising of animals,
these animals are usually used for meatthese animals are usually used for meat
purposes and raised in large herds.purposes and raised in large herds.
Assistance paid to a business orAssistance paid to a business or
economic sector.economic sector.
Form of Agriculture along the side of theForm of Agriculture along the side of the
Mediterranean Sea. The sea windsMediterranean Sea. The sea winds
provide moisture for the crops andprovide moisture for the crops and
moderate winter temperatures and takesmoderate winter temperatures and takes
place in hilly, mountainous regions.place in hilly, mountainous regions.
Ex: Olives and grapesEx: Olives and grapes
Luxury CropLuxury Crop
Crops that are not essential to humanCrops that are not essential to human
survival and are sold at a high price.survival and are sold at a high price.
EX: Tobacco, Sugarcane, and cottonEX: Tobacco, Sugarcane, and cotton
Commercial agricultureCommercial agriculture
The production of crops where the mainThe production of crops where the main
goal is to turn a profit. Usually intendedgoal is to turn a profit. Usually intended
for widespread distribution to wholesalersfor widespread distribution to wholesalers
or retail outlets. –AP human geographyor retail outlets. –AP human geography
Carl SauerCarl Sauer
American geographer who studied andAmerican geographer who studied and
focused on the relationship betweenfocused on the relationship between
humans and landhumans and land
Adaptation on to intimate associationAdaptation on to intimate association
with human life.with human life.
Unplowed and unseeded during aUnplowed and unseeded during a
growing seasongrowing season
Double CroppingDouble Cropping
Harvesting twice a year from the sameHarvesting twice a year from the same
Von ThVon Th űnen’s Model ofűnen’s Model of
Land UseLand Use
States how market prices and locationStates how market prices and location
affect the production decisions ofaffect the production decisions of
individual farmersindividual farmers
The growing of fruit, vegetables, orThe growing of fruit, vegetables, or
GMO (geneticallyGMO (genetically
modified organisms)modified organisms)
Crops that carry new traits that haveCrops that carry new traits that have
been inserted through advanced geneticbeen inserted through advanced genetic
engineering methods.engineering methods.
Green RevolutionGreen Revolution
Rapid diffusion of new agriculturalRapid diffusion of new agricultural
technology, especially new high-yieldtechnology, especially new high-yield
seeds and fetilizers.seeds and fetilizers.
A form of commercial agriculture in whichA form of commercial agriculture in which
livestock graze over an extensive area.livestock graze over an extensive area.
- agriculture designed primarily to provide- agriculture designed primarily to provide
for direct consumption by the farmer’sfor direct consumption by the farmer’s
Neolithic RevolutionNeolithic Revolution
Transferring from hunter and gathering toTransferring from hunter and gathering to
cultivating plants (agriculture).cultivating plants (agriculture).
Vertical IntegrationVertical Integration
Ownership by the same firmOwnership by the same firm
of a number of companiesof a number of companies
that exist along a variety ofthat exist along a variety of
points on a commodity chain.points on a commodity chain.
Truck farmTruck farm
by mac and timby mac and tim
A type of farming that makes use of smallA type of farming that makes use of small
land close to cities or towns and theland close to cities or towns and the
farmer sales fresh produce to the public.farmer sales fresh produce to the public.
The word Truck means to trade or barter.The word Truck means to trade or barter.
TranshumanceTranshumance is the seasonalis the seasonal
movement of people with their livestockmovement of people with their livestock
between fixed summer and winterbetween fixed summer and winter
Pastoral NomadismPastoral Nomadism
Pastoralism involves the breeding andPastoralism involves the breeding and
herding of animals to satisfy theherding of animals to satisfy the
human needs for food, shelter, andhuman needs for food, shelter, and
Thomas MalthusThomas Malthus
an English scholar, influential in politicalan English scholar, influential in political
economy and demography. Malthuseconomy and demography. Malthus
popularized the economic theory of rent.popularized the economic theory of rent.
Malthus has become widely known forMalthus has become widely known for
his theories about population and itshis theories about population and its
increase or decrease in response toincrease or decrease in response to
various factorsvarious factors
Rural SettlementRural Settlement
Clustered rural settlement- a place whereClustered rural settlement- a place where
a number of families live in closea number of families live in close
proximity to each other with fieldsproximity to each other with fields
surrounding the collection of houses andsurrounding the collection of houses and
farm buildingsfarm buildings
Extensive SubsistenceExtensive Subsistence
Agriculture designed primarily to provideAgriculture designed primarily to provide
food for direct consumption by the farmerfood for direct consumption by the farmer
and the farmer’s family.and the farmer’s family.
Intensive SubsistenceIntensive Subsistence
Primary subsistence pattern of large-Primary subsistence pattern of large-
scale, populous societies. It results inscale, populous societies. It results in
much more food being produced permuch more food being produced per
acre compared to other subsistenceacre compared to other subsistence
This is done to feed people in theThis is done to feed people in the
country. This is and was done in China.country. This is and was done in China.
FARMING OF AQUATIC ORGANISMSFARMING OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS
SUCH AS FISH, SHELLFISH, ANDSUCH AS FISH, SHELLFISH, AND
EVEN PLANTS.EVEN PLANTS.
Branch of agriculture that encompassesBranch of agriculture that encompasses
the breeding, raising, and utilization ofthe breeding, raising, and utilization of
dairy animals for the production of milkdairy animals for the production of milk
and the various dairy products processedand the various dairy products processed
from itfrom it
Commercial agriculture characterized byCommercial agriculture characterized by
the integration of different steps in thethe integration of different steps in the
food processing industry, usually throughfood processing industry, usually through
ownership by large corporations.ownership by large corporations.
A management system in which naturallyA management system in which naturally
grazing animals are confined to a smallgrazing animals are confined to a small
area which produces no feed and are fedarea which produces no feed and are fed
on stored feeds.on stored feeds.
The manipulation of living organisms toThe manipulation of living organisms to
produce useful usually commercialproduce useful usually commercial
Boserup hypothesisBoserup hypothesis
Agricultural methods that depend on theAgricultural methods that depend on the
size of the population.size of the population.
Human innovation would outpaceHuman innovation would outpace
population growth. Especially foodpopulation growth. Especially food
production. Opposite to Malthus.production. Opposite to Malthus.
Commodity chainCommodity chain
Process used by multinationalProcess used by multinational
corporations where firms gathercorporations where firms gather
resources, transform them into foods orresources, transform them into foods or
commodities and, finally is distributed tocommodities and, finally is distributed to
the consumersthe consumers
““Tragedy of theTragedy of the
If a resource is used by all, then,If a resource is used by all, then,
ultimately, that resource will beultimately, that resource will be
a usually large farm or estate, especiallya usually large farm or estate, especially
in a tropical or semitropical country, onin a tropical or semitropical country, on
which cotton, tobacco, coffee, sugarwhich cotton, tobacco, coffee, sugar
cane, or the like is cultivated, usually bycane, or the like is cultivated, usually by
resident laborers.resident laborers.