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HumanHuman
GeographyGeography
AgricultureAgriculture
Shifting CultivationShifting Cultivation
 The use of multiple plots of land,The use of multiple plots of land,
normally t...
Crop RotationCrop Rotation
 The system of varying successive cropsThe system of varying successive crops
in a definite or...
Ridge tillageRidge tillage
 System of planting crops on ridge tops inSystem of planting crops on ridge tops in
order to r...
IntertillageIntertillage
 In shifting cultivation, spreads outIn shifting cultivation, spreads out
production over the fa...
Slash-and-BurnSlash-and-Burn
(swidden)(swidden)
 A method of agriculture used in theA method of agriculture used in the
t...
AgricultureAgriculture
 The science, art, or occupationThe science, art, or occupation
concerned with cultivating land, r...
MILKSHEDMILKSHED
 A region that produces milk for a specificA region that produces milk for a specific
communitycommunity...
Market GardeningMarket Gardening
 Highly intensive (in capital terms) farmingHighly intensive (in capital terms) farming
...
Livestock RanchingLivestock Ranching
 The breeding and raising of animals,The breeding and raising of animals,
these anim...
SubsidySubsidy
 Assistance paid to a business orAssistance paid to a business or
economic sector.economic sector.
MediterraneanMediterranean
AgricultureAgriculture
 Form of Agriculture along the side of theForm of Agriculture along the...
Luxury CropLuxury Crop
 Crops that are not essential to humanCrops that are not essential to human
survival and are sold ...
Commercial agricultureCommercial agriculture
 The production of crops where the mainThe production of crops where the mai...
Carl SauerCarl Sauer
 American geographer who studied andAmerican geographer who studied and
focused on the relationship ...
DomesticationDomestication
 Adaptation on to intimate associationAdaptation on to intimate association
with human life.wi...
FallowFallow
 Unplowed and unseeded during aUnplowed and unseeded during a
growing seasongrowing season
Double CroppingDouble Cropping
 Harvesting twice a year from the sameHarvesting twice a year from the same
feildfeild
Von ThVon Th űnen’s Model ofűnen’s Model of
Land UseLand Use
 States how market prices and locationStates how market pric...
HorticultureHorticulture
 The growing of fruit, vegetables, orThe growing of fruit, vegetables, or
flowersflowers
GMO (geneticallyGMO (genetically
modified organisms)modified organisms)
 Crops that carry new traits that haveCrops that ...
Green RevolutionGreen Revolution
 Rapid diffusion of new agriculturalRapid diffusion of new agricultural
technology, espe...
RanchingRanching
 A form of commercial agriculture in whichA form of commercial agriculture in which
livestock graze over...
SubsistenceSubsistence
AgricultureAgriculture
- agriculture designed primarily to provide- agriculture designed primarily ...
Neolithic RevolutionNeolithic Revolution
 Transferring from hunter and gathering toTransferring from hunter and gathering...
Vertical IntegrationVertical Integration
 Ownership by the same firmOwnership by the same firm
of a number of companiesof...
Truck farmTruck farm
by mac and timby mac and tim
 A type of farming that makes use of smallA type of farming that makes ...
TranshumanceTranshumance
 TranshumanceTranshumance is the seasonalis the seasonal
movement of people with their livestock...
Pastoral NomadismPastoral Nomadism
 Pastoralism involves the breeding andPastoralism involves the breeding and
herding of...
Thomas MalthusThomas Malthus
 an English scholar, influential in politicalan English scholar, influential in political
ec...
Rural SettlementRural Settlement
 Clustered rural settlement- a place whereClustered rural settlement- a place where
a nu...
Extensive SubsistenceExtensive Subsistence
AgricultureAgriculture
 Agriculture designed primarily to provideAgriculture d...
Intensive SubsistenceIntensive Subsistence
FarmingFarming
 Primary subsistence pattern of large-Primary subsistence patte...
AQUACULTURE!!!AQUACULTURE!!!
 FARMING OF AQUATIC ORGANISMSFARMING OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS
SUCH AS FISH, SHELLFISH, ANDSUCH A...
DairyingDairying
 Branch of agriculture that encompassesBranch of agriculture that encompasses
the breeding, raising, and...
AgribusinessAgribusiness
 Commercial agriculture characterized byCommercial agriculture characterized by
the integration ...
FeedlotFeedlot
 A management system in which naturallyA management system in which naturally
grazing animals are confined...
BiotechnologyBiotechnology
 The manipulation of living organisms toThe manipulation of living organisms to
produce useful...
Boserup hypothesisBoserup hypothesis
 Agricultural methods that depend on theAgricultural methods that depend on the
size...
Commodity chainCommodity chain
 Process used by multinationalProcess used by multinational
corporations where firms gathe...
““Tragedy of theTragedy of the
Commons”Commons”
 If a resource is used by all, then,If a resource is used by all, then,
u...
PlantationPlantation
 a usually large farm or estate, especiallya usually large farm or estate, especially
in a tropical ...
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Agriculuture vocabulary

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Agriculuture vocabulary

  1. 1. HumanHuman GeographyGeography AgricultureAgriculture
  2. 2. Shifting CultivationShifting Cultivation  The use of multiple plots of land,The use of multiple plots of land, normally three or more, which arenormally three or more, which are planted in rotation by the year as toplanted in rotation by the year as to promote soil functionality.promote soil functionality.
  3. 3. Crop RotationCrop Rotation  The system of varying successive cropsThe system of varying successive crops in a definite order on the same groundin a definite order on the same ground especially to avoid depleting the soil andespecially to avoid depleting the soil and to control weed diseases and pests-to control weed diseases and pests- dictionary.comdictionary.com
  4. 4. Ridge tillageRidge tillage  System of planting crops on ridge tops inSystem of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production cost andorder to reduce farm production cost and promote greater soil conservationpromote greater soil conservation
  5. 5. IntertillageIntertillage  In shifting cultivation, spreads outIn shifting cultivation, spreads out production over the farming season byproduction over the farming season by planting different crops in the same field.planting different crops in the same field.
  6. 6. Slash-and-BurnSlash-and-Burn (swidden)(swidden)  A method of agriculture used in theA method of agriculture used in the tropics, in which forest vegetation istropics, in which forest vegetation is felled and burned, the land is cropped forfelled and burned, the land is cropped for a few years, then the forest is allowed toa few years, then the forest is allowed to reinvade.reinvade.  Swidden is the plot of land that has beenSwidden is the plot of land that has been slash-and-burned upon.slash-and-burned upon.
  7. 7. AgricultureAgriculture  The science, art, or occupationThe science, art, or occupation concerned with cultivating land, raisingconcerned with cultivating land, raising crops, and feeding, breeding, and raisingcrops, and feeding, breeding, and raising livestock; farminglivestock; farming  The cultivation of animals, plants, fungi,The cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, andand other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life.other products used to sustain life.
  8. 8. MILKSHEDMILKSHED  A region that produces milk for a specificA region that produces milk for a specific communitycommunity  The area surrounding a city from which milkThe area surrounding a city from which milk is suppliedis supplied
  9. 9. Market GardeningMarket Gardening  Highly intensive (in capital terms) farmingHighly intensive (in capital terms) farming of flowers, fruit, and very perishableof flowers, fruit, and very perishable vegetables on a commercial basis.vegetables on a commercial basis.  Located close to urban areas as anLocated close to urban areas as an immediate market, but large enterprisesimmediate market, but large enterprises may also distribute at a national andmay also distribute at a national and regional scale.regional scale.
  10. 10. Livestock RanchingLivestock Ranching  The breeding and raising of animals,The breeding and raising of animals, these animals are usually used for meatthese animals are usually used for meat purposes and raised in large herds.purposes and raised in large herds.
  11. 11. SubsidySubsidy  Assistance paid to a business orAssistance paid to a business or economic sector.economic sector.
  12. 12. MediterraneanMediterranean AgricultureAgriculture  Form of Agriculture along the side of theForm of Agriculture along the side of the Mediterranean Sea. The sea windsMediterranean Sea. The sea winds provide moisture for the crops andprovide moisture for the crops and moderate winter temperatures and takesmoderate winter temperatures and takes place in hilly, mountainous regions.place in hilly, mountainous regions.  Ex: Olives and grapesEx: Olives and grapes
  13. 13. Luxury CropLuxury Crop  Crops that are not essential to humanCrops that are not essential to human survival and are sold at a high price.survival and are sold at a high price.  EX: Tobacco, Sugarcane, and cottonEX: Tobacco, Sugarcane, and cotton
  14. 14. Commercial agricultureCommercial agriculture  The production of crops where the mainThe production of crops where the main goal is to turn a profit. Usually intendedgoal is to turn a profit. Usually intended for widespread distribution to wholesalersfor widespread distribution to wholesalers or retail outlets. –AP human geographyor retail outlets. –AP human geography website.website.
  15. 15. Carl SauerCarl Sauer  American geographer who studied andAmerican geographer who studied and focused on the relationship betweenfocused on the relationship between humans and landhumans and land
  16. 16. DomesticationDomestication  Adaptation on to intimate associationAdaptation on to intimate association with human life.with human life.
  17. 17. FallowFallow  Unplowed and unseeded during aUnplowed and unseeded during a growing seasongrowing season
  18. 18. Double CroppingDouble Cropping  Harvesting twice a year from the sameHarvesting twice a year from the same feildfeild
  19. 19. Von ThVon Th űnen’s Model ofűnen’s Model of Land UseLand Use  States how market prices and locationStates how market prices and location affect the production decisions ofaffect the production decisions of individual farmersindividual farmers
  20. 20. HorticultureHorticulture  The growing of fruit, vegetables, orThe growing of fruit, vegetables, or flowersflowers
  21. 21. GMO (geneticallyGMO (genetically modified organisms)modified organisms)  Crops that carry new traits that haveCrops that carry new traits that have been inserted through advanced geneticbeen inserted through advanced genetic engineering methods.engineering methods.
  22. 22. Green RevolutionGreen Revolution  Rapid diffusion of new agriculturalRapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yieldtechnology, especially new high-yield seeds and fetilizers.seeds and fetilizers.
  23. 23. RanchingRanching  A form of commercial agriculture in whichA form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area.livestock graze over an extensive area.
  24. 24. SubsistenceSubsistence AgricultureAgriculture - agriculture designed primarily to provide- agriculture designed primarily to provide for direct consumption by the farmer’sfor direct consumption by the farmer’s family.family.
  25. 25. Neolithic RevolutionNeolithic Revolution  Transferring from hunter and gathering toTransferring from hunter and gathering to cultivating plants (agriculture).cultivating plants (agriculture).
  26. 26. Vertical IntegrationVertical Integration  Ownership by the same firmOwnership by the same firm of a number of companiesof a number of companies that exist along a variety ofthat exist along a variety of points on a commodity chain.points on a commodity chain.
  27. 27. Truck farmTruck farm by mac and timby mac and tim  A type of farming that makes use of smallA type of farming that makes use of small land close to cities or towns and theland close to cities or towns and the farmer sales fresh produce to the public.farmer sales fresh produce to the public. The word Truck means to trade or barter.The word Truck means to trade or barter.
  28. 28. TranshumanceTranshumance  TranshumanceTranshumance is the seasonalis the seasonal movement of people with their livestockmovement of people with their livestock between fixed summer and winterbetween fixed summer and winter pastures.pastures.
  29. 29. Pastoral NomadismPastoral Nomadism  Pastoralism involves the breeding andPastoralism involves the breeding and herding of animals to satisfy theherding of animals to satisfy the human needs for food, shelter, andhuman needs for food, shelter, and clothing.clothing.
  30. 30. Thomas MalthusThomas Malthus  an English scholar, influential in politicalan English scholar, influential in political economy and demography. Malthuseconomy and demography. Malthus popularized the economic theory of rent.popularized the economic theory of rent.  Malthus has become widely known forMalthus has become widely known for his theories about population and itshis theories about population and its increase or decrease in response toincrease or decrease in response to various factorsvarious factors
  31. 31. Rural SettlementRural Settlement  Clustered rural settlement- a place whereClustered rural settlement- a place where a number of families live in closea number of families live in close proximity to each other with fieldsproximity to each other with fields surrounding the collection of houses andsurrounding the collection of houses and farm buildingsfarm buildings
  32. 32. Extensive SubsistenceExtensive Subsistence AgricultureAgriculture  Agriculture designed primarily to provideAgriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmerfood for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer’s family.and the farmer’s family.
  33. 33. Intensive SubsistenceIntensive Subsistence FarmingFarming  Primary subsistence pattern of large-Primary subsistence pattern of large- scale, populous societies. It results inscale, populous societies. It results in much more food being produced permuch more food being produced per acre compared to other subsistenceacre compared to other subsistence patterns.patterns.  This is done to feed people in theThis is done to feed people in the country. This is and was done in China.country. This is and was done in China.
  34. 34. AQUACULTURE!!!AQUACULTURE!!!  FARMING OF AQUATIC ORGANISMSFARMING OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS SUCH AS FISH, SHELLFISH, ANDSUCH AS FISH, SHELLFISH, AND EVEN PLANTS.EVEN PLANTS.  www.Maine.govwww.Maine.gov
  35. 35. DairyingDairying  Branch of agriculture that encompassesBranch of agriculture that encompasses the breeding, raising, and utilization ofthe breeding, raising, and utilization of dairy animals for the production of milkdairy animals for the production of milk and the various dairy products processedand the various dairy products processed from itfrom it
  36. 36. AgribusinessAgribusiness  Commercial agriculture characterized byCommercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in thethe integration of different steps in the food processing industry, usually throughfood processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.ownership by large corporations.
  37. 37. FeedlotFeedlot  A management system in which naturallyA management system in which naturally grazing animals are confined to a smallgrazing animals are confined to a small area which produces no feed and are fedarea which produces no feed and are fed on stored feeds.on stored feeds.
  38. 38. BiotechnologyBiotechnology  The manipulation of living organisms toThe manipulation of living organisms to produce useful usually commercialproduce useful usually commercial productsproducts
  39. 39. Boserup hypothesisBoserup hypothesis  Agricultural methods that depend on theAgricultural methods that depend on the size of the population.size of the population.  Human innovation would outpaceHuman innovation would outpace population growth. Especially foodpopulation growth. Especially food production. Opposite to Malthus.production. Opposite to Malthus.
  40. 40. Commodity chainCommodity chain  Process used by multinationalProcess used by multinational corporations where firms gathercorporations where firms gather resources, transform them into foods orresources, transform them into foods or commodities and, finally is distributed tocommodities and, finally is distributed to the consumersthe consumers
  41. 41. ““Tragedy of theTragedy of the Commons”Commons”  If a resource is used by all, then,If a resource is used by all, then, ultimately, that resource will beultimately, that resource will be destroyed.destroyed.
  42. 42. PlantationPlantation  a usually large farm or estate, especiallya usually large farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country, onin a tropical or semitropical country, on which cotton, tobacco, coffee, sugarwhich cotton, tobacco, coffee, sugar cane, or the like is cultivated, usually bycane, or the like is cultivated, usually by resident laborers.resident laborers.

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