•specific and non specific immunostimulation
•Immunotargetting for cancer therapy
Immunotherapy is a medical term defined as the "treatment of disease by inducing,
enhancing, or suppressing an immune response".
Tow types of immunotherapy:
Immunotherapies designed to elicit or amplify an immune response
Immunotherapies that reduce or suppress are classified as suppression immunotherapies.
• Cell based Immunotherapies are proven to be effective for some cancers. Immune
effector cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer
cells (NK Cell), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), etc., work together to defend the
body against cancer by targeting abnormal antigens expressed on the surface of the
tumor due to mutation.
Passive immunity is the transfer of active humoral immunity in the form of ready-made
antibodies, from one individual to another. Passive immunity can occur naturally, when
maternal antibodies are transferred to the fetus through the placenta, and can also be induced
artificially, when high levels of human (or horse) antibodies specific for apathogen or toxin are
transferred to non-immune individuals. Passive immunization is used when there is a high
risk of infection and insufficient time for the body to develop its own immune response, or to
reduce the symptoms of ongoing or immunosuppressive diseases.
• Naturally acquired passive immunity
• Artificially acquired passive immunity
• Immunostimulants, also known as immunostimulators, are substances
(drugs and nutrients) that stimulate the immune system by inducing
activation or increasing activity of any of its components.
Example: granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor
SPECIFIC AND NON SPECIFIC
There are two main categories of immunostimulants:
• Specific immunostimulants
provide antigenic specificity in immune response, such as vaccines or any antigen.
• Non-specific immunostimulants
Act irrespective of antigenic specificity to augment immune response of other antigen or
stimulate components of the immune system without antigenic specificity, such
as adjuvants and non-specific immunostimulators.
• Many endogenous substances are non-specific immunostimulators. For example, female sex
hormones are known to stimulate both adaptive and innate immune responses. Some
autoimmune diseases such as lupus erythematosus strike women preferentially, and their
onset often coincides with puberty. Other hormones appear to regulate the immune system as
well, most notably prolactin,growth hormone and vitamin D.
• Some publications point towards the effect of deoxycholic acid (DCA) as an
immunostimulant of the unspecific immune system, activating its main actors,
the macrophages. According to these publications, a sufficient amount of DCA in the human
body corresponds to a good immune reaction of the unspecific immune system.
• Immunotherapy is also sometimes called biologic therapy or biotherapy. It is treatment that
uses certain parts of the immune system to fight diseases such as cancer
• Stimulating your own immune system
• Giving you immune system components
• Cancer immunotherapy is the use of the immune system to reject cancer. The main premise is
stimulating the patient's immune system to attack the malignant tumor cells that are responsible
for the disease.
TYPES OF IMMUNOTHERAPY
• Monoclonal antibodies
• Cancer vaccines
• Non-specific immune therapies
ALEMTUZUMAB + CD 52 AGAINST
Cancer immunotherapy:Monoclonal antibodies
Alemtuzum ab Campath
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Hodgkin lymphoma,Anaplastic largecell lymphoma
non-Hodgkin lymphoma(with yttrium90 or indium-111
• Substances that control the level of
immune response. They are a diverse
array of recombinant, synthetic and
IL-2, IL-7, IL-12
Interferons, G-CSF, Imiquimod
CCL3, CCL26, CXCL7