Cancer immunotherapy


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types of cancer immunotherapy

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Cancer immunotherapy

  1. 1. Immunoth erapy B.Devada tha
  2. 2. What is immunotherapy? • Treatment that uses certain parts of the immune system to fight diseases such as cancer • Stimulating your own immune system to work harder or smarter to attack cancer cells • Giving you immune system components, such as man-made immune system proteins • Dr William Coley used Coley's Toxins in the late 1800s as crude immunotherapy with some success. • first therapeutic monoclonal antibodies rituximab (Rituxan) and trastuzumab (Herceptin) were approved during the late 1990s to treat lymphoma and breast cancer
  3. 3. Immune Response to Tumors
  4. 4. Types of immunotherapy • Passive immunotherapy: • Adminstration of monoclonal antibodies which target either tumour-specific or over-expressed antigens. • Active immunotherapies: • Cytokines- IL-2 / IFNs / TNFα • Cancer vaccines • Cell-based therapies • tumour-specific CTL • tumour-derived APC • DC priming
  5. 5. Monoclonal antibody therapy • monoclonal antibodies that bind only to cancer cell-specific antigens and induce an immunological response against the target cancer cell. • Naked mAbs :antibodies that work by themselves. boost a person’s immune response against cancer cells. • blocking specific proteins that help cancer cells grow. Eg. Trastuzumab-HER2 • Conjugated mAbs: are those joined to a chemotherapy drug, radioactive particle, or a toxin • Radiolabelled: Ibritumomab tiuxetan and tositumomab –CD20Ag • Chemolabeled: brentuximab vedotin -CD30 antigen • Immunotoxins: denileukin diftitox
  6. 6. Monoclonal antibodies for cancer. ADEPT, antibody directed enzyme pro drug therapy; ADCC, antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity; CDC, complement dependent cytotoxicity; MAb, monoclonal antibody; scFv single-chain Fv fragment
  7. 7. Cancer vaccines • Tumor cell vaccines: made from actual cancer cells that have been removed during surgery. • Antigen vaccines: These vaccines boost the immune system by using only one antigen rather than whole tumor cells • Dendritic cell vaccines: special immune cells in the body that help the immune system recognize cancer cells • DNA vaccines: Vectors can be given bits of DNA that code for protein antigens. • When the vectors are then injected into the body, this DNA might be taken up by cells and can instruct them to make specific antigens
  8. 8. Mechanism of action of Sipuleucel-T
  9. 9. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer vemurafenib
  10. 10. Dendritic Cell based Immunotherapy
  11. 11. cytokine based cancer therapy
  12. 12. Other drugs that boost the immune system • Thalidomide: • treatment for multiple myeloma • Lenalidomide: • Newer drug , treatment for multiple myeloma • Bacille Calmette-Guérin: • treatment of superficial forms of bladder cancer • Colorectal cancer • Lung cancer • Melanoma • Medicinal mushrooms: • Agaricus subrufescens -anticancer properties
  13. 13. Reference • Kantoff PW, Schuetz TJ, Blumenstein BA, et al. Overall survival analysis of a phase II randomized controlled trial of a Poxviral-based PSA-targeted immunotherapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:1099-1105. • Recent Advances and Current Challenges inTumor Immunology and Immunotherapy • Text books: • The biology of Cancer:R.A Weinberg 2nd ed • Kuby Immunology 8th ed • Ivan roitt Essential Immunology 12th ed
  14. 14. Thank u for your attention