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Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies
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Om lect 03_a(r0-aug08)_process selection_process design_mms_sies

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  • 1. Process Selection/ Process Design/ Process Analysis N.K.Agarwal
  • 2. Process Design • Process design is concerned with overall sequence of operations required to achieve the product specifications • It specifies the type of work stations, the machines and equipments necessary ad the quantities in which each is required • Sequence of operations determined by – – – – Nature of the product Materials used Quantities being produced, and Existing physical layout of the plant
  • 3. Process Design- Scope • Design of manufacturing process starts with the receipt of product specifications and ends with the final plan for the manufacturing of the product • Steps involved in process design are – Careful review of product design and specifications to ensure that economical manufacture is feasible – Determination of the method of manufacture that will result in the optimum manufacturing cost – Selection or development and procurement of all machines, tools, jigs and fixtures etc. required for manufacturing product at the required quantity level/rate of production
  • 4. Process Design – Layout of the production area and auxiliary spaces and installation of the manufacturing facilities – Planning for and establishing the necessary control of materials, machines and manpower to ensure effective utilisation and economical; production of the product
  • 5. Process Design- Basic Factors • Basic factors affecting the design of manufacturing process are – Volume or quantity of the product to be manufactured – The required quality of the product, and – The equipment that is available or that can be procured for the manufacture of the product • Major factors affecting process design decisions – – – – – – Nature of product/service demand Degree of vertical integration product./service and volume flexibility Degree of automation Level of product / service quality Degree of customer contact
  • 6. Process Design- Basic Factors • Nature of product / service demand – Production system has to be designed to produce products / services of the kind the customer want, when they want and at a cost that allows the firm to be profitable – Production process to have adequate capacity to produce the volume of products / services that customers want • Degree of vertical integration – Vertical integration is the amount of production and distribution chain, from suppliers of raw materials and components to the delivery of finished products to the customers, that is brought under the ownership of a company, whether towards the market or towards the sources of supply
  • 7. Process Design- Basic Factors • Product/Service and volume flexibility – Ability to respond fast to the customer’s needs is known as flexibility – Product/service flexibility • Ability of production system to change from production of one product/service to another – Volume flexibility • Ability to quickly increase or reduce the volume of product/service produced • Degree of automation – Degree of automation to be adopted and integrated into the production system is a key issue in process design, because of the high cost involved in automation and also the difficulty involved in integrating into the existing operations
  • 8. Process Design- Basic Factors • Level of product/ service quality – Mass produced products with high product quality offer a better competitive edge to the manufacturer • Degree of customer contact – In custom built product/services, the customer is the central focus of the design of production processes – In case of standardised products/services, the customer’s interaction does not affect the design of production processes in a big way
  • 9. Types of Process Designs • Basic type of production system and the finished goods inventory policy to be used must be decided at the earliest stages of process planning • Common type of production systems are – Product- focused production system – Process-focused production system – Group- technology / cellular manufacturing system
  • 10. Product Layout • Machines arranged in a line depending upon sequence of operations • Material moves in a line from the first machine to the finished product on the last machine. • Investment higher as compared to process layout BETTER SUITED FOR STANDARDISED PRODUCTS ON A MASS SCALE PRODUCTION. EX CHEMICALS,PAPER
  • 11. PRODUCTION SUB-SYSTEM RAW MATERIALS RECEIVING OPERATION B STORAGE OPERATION A MATERIAL FLOW EDP CONTROL SYSTEMS OPERATION D OPERATION C SHIPPING FINISHED GOODS INFORMATION FLOWS CONTINUOUS FLOW PRODUCTION SYSTEM (FLOW SHOP)
  • 12. Process Layout • Grouping together of similar machines in one department • Material moves from one group of machines to the other • Movement over longer distance and along criss-cross paths • May also involve part finished inventory waiting BEST SUITED FOR INTERMITTENT TYPE OF PRODUCTION/LIGHT AND HEAVY INDUSTRIES
  • 13. PRODUCTION SUB-SYSTEM RAW MATERIALS RECEIVING OPERATION A WIP MATERIAL FLOW STORAGE FINISHED GOODS EDP CONTROL SYSTEMS WIP OPERATION D SHIPPING FINISHED GOODS OPERATION B WIP WIP OPERATION C INFORMATION FLOWS INTERMITTENT FLOW PRODUCTION SYSTEM (JOB SHOP )
  • 14. Group Technology (GT)/ Cellular Manufacturing (CM) systems • A form of production that has been developed recently • In GT,the products or components being manufactured are placed in families or groups and separate manufacturing cells are used for manufacturing these groups – GT enables production of a wide variety of parts in small batches to achieve economies of line-flow production without product standardisation • CM is a subset of GT concept – A close grouping of equipments for processing a sequence of operations in multiple units of a part or a family of parts,called manufacturing cell
  • 15. Group Technology (GT)/ Cellular Manufacturing (CM) systems – Use of cells reduces the distance moved by parts between machines – Transportation costs reduced as parts do not have to moved in large batches – Reduction in w-i-p inventory, and the manufacturing cycletime or through-put time • Most common application in automobile spare parts manufacturing
  • 16. CELLULAR MANUFACTURING LAYOUT CELL # 2 CELL # 1 1 2 1 3 5 2 4 PART B 1 2 4 PRODUCTION OPERATION PART D PART X PART Y 1 PART A 3 CELL # 4 3 2 3 CELL # 3 PRODUCT OR MATERIAL FLOW
  • 17. U-Shaped Cell Layout C B A B D C B A D C A D C B D A = work station
  • 18. Group Technology Layout A A C C C B A D B C D A D D B B
  • 19. Combined Layout • Combination of product & process layout with an emphasis on either • Generally adopted in industry • In fabrication plants including assembly, fabrication tends to employ process layout while assembly areas employ product layout – Soap manufacturing industry employs product line for manufacturing of soap, but ancillaries such as heating, manufacturing of glycerin, power house etc. Are arranged on functional basis.
  • 20. PRODUCT LAYOUT RAW MATERIAL F.P. G.C. H.T. G.G. FINISHED PRODUCTS (GEARS) PROCESS LAYOUT RAW MATERIAL F.P. G.C. H.T. G.G. G.C. F.P. = FORGING PRESS G.C. = GEAR CUTTING H.T. = HEAT TREATMENT FURNACE G.G. = GEAR GRINDING MACHINE COMBINATION LAYOUT OR HYBRID LAYOUT FOR GEAR MANUFACTURING
  • 21. Process Technology • Refers to the equipment, people and systems used to produce a firm’s products and services • Five types of process technologies are – Job shop technology • Suitable for a variety of custom-designed products in small volume – Batch technology • Suitable for a variety of products in varying volumes – Assembly line technology • Suitable for a narrow range of standardised products in high volumes – Continuous flow technology • Suitable for producing a continuous flow of products like chemical plants, oil refineries – Project technology • Suitable for producing products that are tailor made to the unique requirements of each customer
  • 22. Process Technology Life Cycle • Manufacturing cost per unit decreases in mature products over a period of time • Life cycle starts from the stage of ‘start up’ and ends in the stage of ‘decline’ • Manufacturing process undergo a change from job shop through batch production, assembly line production and continuous flow production • Output volumes ,rates of process innovation and degree of automation also changes from the first stage to the last stage – Low at start-up and high during maturity stage
  • 23. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE AND PRODUCTIVE SYSTEM TYPES PROCESS FOCUSSED, TO ORDER, BATCH PRODUCT FOCUSSED, TO STOCK, BATCH PRODUCT FOCUSSED, TO STOCK, CONTINUOUS STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT DECLINE MATURITY GROWTH INTRODUCTION SALES VOLUME PROCESS FOCUSSED, TO ORDER, JOB SHOP
  • 24. Manufacturing cost/unit Job shop Batch Assembly line Time The Process Life Cycle Continuous flow
  • 25. Process Selection/ Process Design • Process design is concerned with overall sequence of operations required to achieve the product specifications • Selection of appropriate process technology affects the economics of operation and hence needs to be done considering various associated aspects
  • 26. References • Production & Operations Management: Aswathappa / Bhat • Production and Operations Management: Chunnawalla/Patel • Modern Production / Operations Management: Buffa / Sarin • Operations Management: R.G.Schroeder
  • 27. Thank You
  • 28. PRODUCT- PROCESS MATRIX LOW VOLPRODUCT CYCLE LOW STANDARDISA TION, ONE OF A KIND HIGHER VOLFEW MAJOR PRODUCTS NONE JOB SHOP PROCESS LINE JOB SHOPBATCH PROCESS ASSEMBLY LINE CONTINUOUS / FLOW SHOP LOW VOLMULTIPLE PRODUCTS HIGHER VOL-HIGH STANDARDISATION ,COMMODITY PRODUCTS NONE
  • 29. Process alternatives- Decision • Depends upon various factors – Batch size and Product variety – Capital requirement – Economic analysis • Batch size and Product variety – – – – For a single product having a large demand Product focused organisation dedicated to the single product Gives low production cost per unit System very inflexible • Equipments specialised to the product and employees specifically trained make it impossible to change the system to produce any other product
  • 30. Process alternatives- Decision • Product-focused batch system appropriate when number of product design increases and batch size of the products decrease – System relatively inflexible but possible with some difficulty to change the equipments and employees for other products • Job shop producing unique products in batches of a single item appropriate for production of many oneof-a kind products – System has highest flexibility • Cellular manufacturing of some of the production parts within a job shop becomes appropriate when the number products decreases and batch size of products increases as compared to the previous case
  • 31. Process alternatives- Decision • Capital requirements – Capital required for the production system depends upon on the type of production processing organisation – Requirement maximum for product focused, dedicated systems and diminishes for product focused batch systems and cellular systems – Requirement minimum for process focused job shop production systems • Economic analysis of Production process – As fixed and variable costs tend to differ from one form of production process to another, economic analysis used for comparing alternative processing plans for the production of products – Cost function of processing alternatives, the concept of operating leverage, break-even analysis and financial analysis are important aspects of economic analysis
  • 32. Process Design/Selection • Process selection is a major strategic decision as it involves allocation of resources of a long nature • The transformation process is expected to generate an output desired by the market and should be done in the most cost efficient way • Process selection has a business dimension – To get into the market and stay there, and once this is done – To win orders

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