Communication 1


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Communication 1

  1. 1. Fachhochschule DortmundUniversity of Applied Sciences and ArtsEuropean Masters in Project ManagementCommunication Tools to manageProject TimeAuthor: Ujjwal Kumar JoshiSubmitted To: Prof. Dr. Peter ReuschDate: May 2, 2013
  2. 2. Table of ContentsTable of Contents...........................................................................................................21.Introducing the baseline schedule ..............................................................................12.Introducing Change Control Plan.................................................................................33.Introducing Change Requests during the Project........................................................74.Introducing the Gantt chart........................................................................................85.Introducing the Logic Network Diagram....................................................................106.Introducing the Project Milestone List......................................................................127.Introducing Project scheduling tool...........................................................................138.Schedule Management Plan......................................................................................16Conclusion...................................................................................................................19
  3. 3. IntroductionThe knowledge area of time management typically refers to the skills, tools, and techniques used tomanage time when accomplishing specific tasks, projects and goals. In order to become an effectivetime manager, you should be able to clearly understand the activities of the project and have thenecessary skill set to plan, schedule, and control a project timeline. Along with these skills, you must alsobe able to utilize time management tools to help you analyse, measure, and assess your timemanagement techniques. Keeping all of this in mind, may I suggest four steps to help with project timemanagement?1. Define the Activities2. Sequence the Activities3. Estimate Activity Resources4. Develop and Control the ScheduleFrom the project management communication bible, and PMBOK, it’s well spelled out thatcommunication, communication and communication is the main tool to achieve effective timemanagement by project managers. Some of these communication channels project managers shoulduse are and not limited to the follow. A detail analysis of best communication of project managers’stakeholders is found below. (Web conference, e-mails, telephone calls, forums and bulletins)For any schedule to be introduced, project managers have to communicate stakeholders for an overview and analysis or approval.ReferencesProject Management Communications Bible, Bill Dow, Bruce TaylorProject Management Book of Knowledge 5th edition1. Introducing the baseline scheduleBaseline: In project management, a baseline is a known state by which something is measured orcompared. The value of having a baseline schedule is to track how well the project team is progressing.The baseline schedule allows for a simple comparison between two project schedules (the original andthe current) to determine whether the project is still on track or needs attention. Project managers andteam members, can use the baseline schedule throughout the project to communicate project schedulestatus and compare the two schedules regularly to prevent any possible slip or delay in the originalproject. Comparisons of these are mostly; Cost, start and finished dates and resources assignments ofany specific project.Scheduling a baseline plan is something project managers should have in place before a project goesforward from the "drawing board". The baseline plan provides estimates of project factors that anychanges can be measured against, before the final deadlines are met and the project is completed.Software packages like Microsoft project include the capacity for creating a baseline plan tool, and lotsof managers swear by this first step.
  4. 4. The purpose of a baseline tool is to establish a depiction of the initial schedule before any project workbegins. The process of baseline introduction begins in the Scope Management phase of every project.Donors, team members and stakeholders are the key persons to be informed and work closely with.Information is mostly by constant communication. Communication can by through board meetings, e-mail, face book, telephone call etc. The key to any successful project is communication withstakeholders and customers.Baseline Plan BenefitsOne way, managers and others use a baseline plan, is for defining a project to get top brass to sign offon it. The approval process depends on just the same aspects that a baseline plan covers such benefits Projected cost Projects and communicates time line Features to be included Show difference from baseline schedules to current day progressHanding supervisors or board members a baseline plan quickly fills them in on what is expected to bedone, and when, how, and for how much. Thats not to say its written in stone. A baseline plan (if putinto ink at all) should be written with an "imaginary eraser" - that is, everyone involved should knowthat the baseline plan is subject to changes. In the project management world, change is the onlyconstant, and the inevitable changes will be compared to the baseline plan to track progress.Without a baseline schedule, project managers, stakeholders and customers would have a considerableharder time understanding or seeing where there is a project slip and what project areas are causing thedelay.Types of project baselinesSince a project baseline includes many data from a project it is difficult to manage it as a whole andusually it is broken into several parts. This makes the complexity of baseline management easier to dealwith. Project baselines generally include:1. Scope Baseline: The technical, physical and functional requirements for deliverable products.2. Schedule Baseline: The project schedule and all of the elements supporting the schedule.3. Cost/Budget Basline: An approved budget usually in a time distribution format used toestimate, monitor, and control overall cost performance on the project.4. Quality/Risk Baseline: The set of known possible changes (uncertainities) that could impact theperformance of the project.To capture progress of any project, at different times and levels during the project, you may create morethan one version of the baseline schedule. For example; at the start of a project you create a baselineschedule and at the beginning of each phase or milestones. As you progress, you can better compare
  5. 5. the new baseline schedule to the current schedule and determine quickly how well the project hasmoved.Fig. Project Status Report with baseline indicatorsSource: KIDASA® Software (1991-2012). Last Updated: March 26, 2012Planning to use a baseline scheduleIn doing this the project manager must have a complete and approved project schedule without aformal activity recorded. This is done with consultation from stakeholders, in a conference format or aboard meeting. During these meetings or conference workshops, team members, stakeholdersdetermine when and how the baseline will be use, maybe at the beginning of each phase or milestoneor monthly or when a new product is introduced. It is always advisable to formulate some planningquestionsReferences Management Communications Bible, Bill Dow, Bruce TaylorProject Management Book of Knowledge 5th edition2. Introducing Change Control PlanProject stakeholders play a large role in the change control plan and procedure document and can makeor break a project by the number of changes that they request of the project team. Not every projectchange request is acceptable; in some case, the change is too great and the impact to the schedule too
  6. 6. large or he cost too high. The project manager may totally eject a large change or delay it until a laterdate in the project life cycle.Project manager should communicate to the customer how the team will react to being over whelmedwith change request work added onto their already overloaded schedule as overloading andoverworking the team members will have a negative impact to the project. A change control plancommunicates the processes and procedures, but not necessarily the impact to moral.The change control plan allows project managers to control project scope and cost by using anestablished process. It allows the project manager to identify scope creep by comparing the existingscope to the change request.Choosing the most appropriate communications media for stakeholders in Baseline schedule, controlchange and change request processes is as show below:Change can be generated by anyone, but this is not to say that the required change will be actuallyimplemented on a project. Changes to a project may be a result of a (1) deviation or waiver, (2) issuemanagement process, or (3) a change in scope as requested by the customers or stakeholders.Project managers should at least be aware of new requirements before they are implemented. Manyprojects suffer from users, business analysts, and even technical architects wandering from developer todeveloper and inserting “good ideas” into the project. While this is done with the best of intentions, ithas a terrible impact on the schedule and must be controlled.Awareness Understanding Engagement Involvement CommitmentNewslettersBusiness plansNoticeboardsInteractivestaffmeetingsAway daysandconferencesAudio conferencingComputer networksTelephoneVideo conferencingWebinarsFace bookcommunicationProject Staff attitudesurveyTraining coursesSpecial seminarsProject teammeetingsSenior managementmeetingsPlanning workshopsE-MailProject StaffsuggestionschemeSenior managementvisitsCross-functionalmeetingsLettersMemosCircularsAttitudeto ChangeAttitudetoChange
  7. 7. It is important to control the change requests that are proposed during the course of the project. Thefollowing step-by-step process will help project managers implement successful change control. (Seeappendix 2A)1. Select the recommended solution to the scope change.2. Meet with the owner to accept or reject the change.3. Implement the scope changes order, if required, and document the changes.4. Communicate to the project team so all members understand the effect of the scope change.For all the required changes, both the internal and external stakeholders have to be identified, analysetheir needs, engage these stakeholders and manage them. Below is a stakeholder management chart onhow to go about with management and communication.Starting up the Change Control planThe Change Control process will involve a combination of procedures, responsibilities and systems. Thekey to success is to have a well-controlled but efficient process. Define and agree:• On what basis changes should be approved,• Who does what?• The membership of the Change Control Board(s),• The detailed procedures, forms, etc,• Protocols for levels of authority, for example. what types of change can be approvedwithout reference to the projects business owners,• Linkage to other management procedures, for example. the issue management process,configuration management,• Which tools will be used to support and manage the process?• How to communicate and promote the process and its importance to all participantsWhen you utilized the change control plan, you are also responsible for reporting and communicatingstatus from the change request process. This could be weekly or monthly.Change Control ProcessWhat is this?Form for documenting a change someone is requesting be made to a project or, product, or servicebeing delivered by a project.The forms sections provide space to: Appendix 2A
  8. 8. Describe the change, the reason for it, and what the change would affect in terms of project deliverablesand documentation, as well as what resource time would be needed to implement and validate thechange.And space to track all the change impacts to completion (major implementation tasks and documentupdates).Why it is useful?Projects are often plagued by "scope creep" – changes get made without review, adding to the work ofthe project, and sometimes delaying the schedule, increasing the costs, or causing late issues to arise.Companies use change control to make sure the impact of any proposed change to the projectdefinition, or specific components of the project (such as hardware or software deliverables, or abusiness process associated with a service) are thoroughly understood, carefully considered, andformally approved in some fashion. The change control form in this template file shows the type ofinformation the team should get on a proposed change to fully understand its impact.Change control usually grows more stringent as project progresses, in order to protect the projectagainst late, disruptive changes.How to use it?Establish a process by which changes will be proposed and reviewed using the change control form. Theprocess should ensure that proposed changes are reviewed frequently enough to keep the projectmoving.The details of each section of the form should be customized for your project types and projectdeliverables – i.e., for what the output of your projects is, whether product, system, service, etc.Provide the form to team members and others who might need to submit a change.This form can also be used when you are using contractors or outside firms to do work on your project.In this case that outside party would be required to provide the information relevant to the work theyreperforming.Identify who should be involved in reviewing various types of changes. Document that in simpleguidelines.After the impacts have been considered, use the bottom portion of the form to document the decisionon this change: approved or not, and why. The signature lines at the bottom become the official signoffon that decision.File the change forms as important project records. (See Appendix 2A)
  9. 9. 3. Introducing Change Requests during the ProjectNot all changes follow the approved process. Often project team members will be persuaded to make achange without using the approved procedure where it seems necessary but minor. Although this canseem practical to those concerned, it represents a risk to the project. The Project Manager and ProjectOffice team should be alert for uncontrolled changes. Where necessary, changes should be painlessly re-directed into the correct procedure.The Change Control process will run continuously during the project, and potentially beyond that intolive running. The Project Office team and the Project Manager will administer and control the process.(A sample of change Request Form is found at the appendix 3A)In many ways it is similar to the Issue Submission Form. The difference is that the Change Requestaddresses specific changes to be reviewed, authorised and made, whereas the Issue Submission Formcaptures less-well-defined information. In the Change Request there is more attention to the exactnature of the changes, whether they are scope changes, where they lie in the project lifecycle, whichspecific document or deliverable references need attention, etc.Specific attention is paid to the cost and implications, identifying where work will be required and whatits impact will be in terms of cost, risk and timescale. In particular, a benefit case will be prepared tosummarise why the change should be made.The Project Manager, Change Control Board or Steering Committee will use this Benefit Case in making adecision, in line with the pre-established guiding principles.The status of the Change Request and its approval level should be tracked. In addition to the database ofChange Requests, there would be logs and various management reports to allow the project leadershipto track and control the changes.Change Request & Control Management procedure
  10. 10. Project manager can use change request form in the following situations:1. Communicates the request scope addition or removal of change, including owners who request newfunctionality within the project2. To communicate to the customers or management, a request to increase the project budget3. To communicate to the upper management and request additional project staff4. To communicate and request change found causing design errorReporting using a change requestProject managers are responsible for reporting the number of change request associated with theproject. They usually send the form to all project team members for assessment of impacts and then tothe change control board (CCB) for approval or rejection (see appendix 3A).Change Request Form (Sample)[This form is divided into three sections. Section 1 is intended for use by the individual submitting thechange request. Section 2 is intended for the use by the project manager to document/communicatetheir initial impact analysis of the requested change. Section 3 is intended for use by the Change ControlBoard (CCB) to document their final decision regarding the requested change. Appendix 3A]References Management Communications Bible, Bill Dow, Bruce TaylorProject Management Book of Knowledge 5theditionwww.method123.com4. Introducing the Gantt chartA Gantt chart is a kind of bar chart that shows the initial and the end date of the elements of a project. Itwas developed by Henry Gantt in the 1910s for illustrating project schedules. In present world, it isconsidered as one of the major instrument in the Project Manager’s toolbox that is rich in project’sinformation.It is a quite simple and convenient tool that represents and communicates the activities of a project withstart and ending dates, cost per task, resource assignments and dependencies all through the project lifecycle. Thus, a Gantt chart shows a huge amount of information related to different aspects of a projectat a single glance.
  11. 11. Moreover, a Gantt chart is considered as a key tool for planning and tracking the conference. In theconference, it acts as a Schedule management tool that allows controlling the milestones and theactivities related to conference by tracking the initial/end dates and the responsible people for theactivity. Project managers often use the Gantt chart to communicate with the customers or the team onthe regular basis regarding the progress of the project. Since the Gantt chart comprises of bars in thegraphical format, the project managers could easily review the project details and information with thestakeholders.Before developing the Gantt chart for the project, the Project Manager should know all the processesand activities involved in the project. Moreover, the project manager should have the fine knowledgeabout the dependencies between each project activities and the work packages. He/she can consultwith the stakeholders to acquire a virtual image of the project. After knowing their demands, the Projectmanager must have the relevant information about the project’s resources- costs, time, tools, humanresources and so on.References from a Gantt chartThrough a Gantt chart, the project managers could draw the information about the following:1. Cost: the total budget allocated for the activities and the actual costs required for the completion of theactivities.2. Earned value chart: the costs and the schedule performances indexes and variances.3. Time: the activities based on their schedule dates.4. Labor hours: the planned and the actual working hours for the labors.Relationship with the Conference Management and the StakeholdersOne of the benefits of the Gantt chart is the tool’s ability to break down the multiple tasks and thetimelines into a single document. Not only the timelines, it gives a fine overview about the stakeholdersand other human resources related with the activities. The entire project teams can use the Gantt chartfor the discussion about the project in meeting and even can enhance other status updates. Gantt chartoffers the entire project team the ability to focus work at the front of task timeline, means the team canconcentrates on the urgent project activities after seeing the Gantt chart for the project.In other hand, the project manager and the resource schedulers can sequence the events and reducethe potential for overburdening of the works to the team members. Also, the Project Managers caneven use combinations of charts to break-down projects into more manageable set of tasks for theeffective and efficient utilization of the resources related with the project.
  12. 12. Thus, the Gantt chart conveys fine information about the related Stakeholders, time of execution for theproject’s activities including initial and end dates along with other important information. It can beshown through a Gantt chart as follows:Fig. Gantt chart for organizing a conference along with the possible stakeholdersReferenceshttp://www.method123.com Introducing the Logic Network DiagramLogic Network Diagram is a flowchart including all the project activities and their dependencies to eachother. Logic Network Diagram shows not only the sequence of the activities in the project, but alsoshows the set of parallel activities and the links between each activity. Similarly, this diagram even givesthe information about the Predecessor and the Successor activities. Hence, Logic Network Diagrammaintains a logical stream of the activities and their inter-relationships that will lead to the completionof the entire project. It provides the information to understand and visualize how the project willcontinue.Even if the major changes occurs the project manager can revise the project may be by rearranging theactivities order with the help of network diagram. It provides a clear and understandable view of theproject tasks and their logical dealings with each other in a graphical design. It also presents theproject’s critical path that helps the project team to focus their effort for the success of the project. It
  13. 13. helps to verify if there are any tasks that are being missed on the project schedule. It is a self-analyzingtool that alerts the key sections that are being neglected out.The logic network diagram approaches in two basic designs. One is a pure logic diagram showingactivities in boxes and relationships between those activities noted by arrows. It focuses the order andrelationships between project activities. In this diagram, the activities follow one after the other.Another type is a time scale diagram where the activities are represented by the bars. These bars are ofvarying lengths that represents the duration of each activity. Hence, we can say that the length of thebare is directly proportional to the duration of the activity.Reporting from the Logic Network DiagramThe reporting of the logic network diagram can occur throughout the project lifecycle. It generally drawsthe conclusion about the dependencies of the tasks and the activities of the projects. It also reportsabout the time schedules, when the project activities have been started.Relationship with the Conference Management and the StakeholdersLogic Network diagram gives a clear picture of all the conference activities including its dates of startand completion, and the key-personnel human resources or in another word, stakeholder associatedwith the project activities. Not only that, it even shows a dependencies among the project activities.It guides all the stakeholders of the project regarding the time period needed for the completion of theproject tasks. In other word, how long the project activities should take to complete is clearly visible inLogic Network Diagram. Not only that, it also guides Project Manager regarding the estimation ofHuman resources and time resources during the execution or in the beginning of the project activities.For example, a conference is divided into several work-packages. Hence, for the easy execution of theconference, it is divided into several work-packages. These work-packages contain numbers of activities.So, it will be easy for the project team to know the progress of the conference that is going to happen.Moreover, he/she can draw the conclusion regarding the completed tasks and remaining tasks alongwith their starting and initial dates. Not only this, the entire project team can know the dependenciesbetween the work packages and the activities.Hence, it acts as a bridge between the Project activities, Project resources and the stakeholders who arerelated with the projects. It can be shown as follows:
  14. 14. Fig. Logic Network Diagram for organizing a conference along with the possible stakeholdersReferences Introducing the Project Milestone ListMilestone can be said as activity with zero duration that symbolizes an important achievement in aproject. Milestone is the point, where the goal of the work packages defined under the Work breakdownStructure (WBS) of a Project, is successfully achieved. Generally, Milestones are essential to control andmanage the project activities, but there are no tasks associated with it.
  15. 15. It is created in the planning process and is mostly used by Upper Management, project Owners,Executives, Project Managers, team Members and the media and marketing departments. The majorpurpose of the Project Milestone List is to communicate project’s milestone tasks and dates in apresentation format for the upper level of Management, customers, and the project members.Relationship with the Conference Management and the StakeholdersCommunication between the Stakeholders is a must for organizing Conference. The Stakeholders canget a fine overview regarding the progress of the Conference. The Project manager creates and updatesthe project milestone list throughout the project life cycle. After achieving the success in any activities,the project milestones lists are updated.Fig. A Milestone Diagram for organizing the ConferenceReference Introducing Project scheduling toolThe project schedule provides information regarding the overall project duration as well as eachactivity’s duration. It reflects the project schedule baseline and is used to present that baselineinformation to team members, management, and the customer. The Project Schedule is used to presentinformation on the timing of the project and its activities to a variety of stakeholders (in a variety ofways).
  16. 16. Project Schedule tool is one of the most important tool which is used to communicate projectinformation in this conference. The wealth of data within the tool can help resolve problems of complexquestions on the project. Project schedule include start and end dates, resource assignments, course peractivity, activity dependencies etc. The reason behind building project schedule from the project planbecause the project plan consists of activity duration and the logical relation between activities that allare key elements of the project schedule. Project schedule can be created through an automatedscheduling tool. The project schedule includes start and finish date for each task, calculated by thescheduling tool. Tool has to include data’s like activity duration, description and logical relationshipsbetween activities at a minimum. This will complete the calculation of the project.Project Stakeholders expect a weekly communication on the project schedule of conference. In, mostcases this is acceptable time frame because more frequently would provide too much information andless frequently could leave the customers feeling lost or out of touch. When communicating thisinformation, the project manager should start by going over the milestone dates and drill into thespecific tasks that are occurring during the timeframe presenting on the schedule. When communicatingproject schedule on a weekly basis, it provides an excellent opportunity to keep the customers in syncwith what is occurring on project at all times.ContentThe Project Schedule is so populate that before long, the stakeholders will demand nothing less fromthe Project conference manager and will learn to appreciate and the value of wealth of the project datait provides.Diligent effort has to be taken to constantly update and maintain the project schedule for conferenceprojects .The schedule may consist of a project-length timeline, as well as the specific activityinformation, including the activities: Effort Hours  Latest possible finish date Elapsed duration  Available total float Earliest possible start date  Available free float Earliest possible finish date  Relationships with other activities Working Duration  Latest possible start dateAs a complete set of project activities it can reflect all of the work in the project. As a subset of thoseactivities, or fragment (a self-contained subset of a project schedule), the project schedule can reflect atime-sensitive window of project activity.ApproachesThe varieties of display options for project schedules are legion. The most common presentation paperfor project schedules is a Gantt chart, illustrated in Figure A below, which highlights the details ofActivities and the relationships among those activities.
  17. 17. ID Task Name Duration Start Finish1 Organizinga Conference 60 days Fri 12.04.13 Thu 04.07.132 Sponsorship 40 days Fri 12.04.13 Thu 06.06.133 Initial PlanningMeeting 15 days Fri 12.04.13 Thu 02.05.134 Set Objectives, vision 3 days Sat 13.04.13 Tue 16.04.135 Develop Budget 4 days Wed 17.04.13 Mon 22.04.136 Identify tasks andresponsibilities2 days Tue 23.04.13 Wed24.04.137 Appoint General chair andConference Committee5 days Wed 17.04.13 Tue23.04.138 Prepare a chart 1 day Thu 25.04.13 Thu 25.04.139 Venue selection 3 days Fri 26.04.13 Tue 30.04.1310 Catering Selection 2 days Wed 01.05.13 Thu 02.05.1311 Monitoringand Controlling 60 days Fri 12.04.13 Thu 04.07.1312 Communication Plan andmarketingmaterials40 days Fri 26.04.13 Thu20.06.1318 Paper Management 40 days Fri 12.04.13 Thu 06.06.1324 International Participants 9 days Wed 19.06.13 Mon 01.07.1327 Run Conference 3 days Mon 01.07.13 Wed 03.07.1328 Closing 1 day Thu 04.07.13 Thu 04.07.1329 Review 1 day Thu 04.07.13 Thu 04.07.13Advisor;Member;Sub-coordinator;GovernmentAdvisor;Member;Sub-coordinatorCoordinator;Government;Member;Participants;Sub-coordinAdvisor;Coordinator;Government;Member;Participants;SubCoordinator;Member;Sub-coordinatorMar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov DecQtr 1, 2013 Qtr 2, 2013 Qtr 3, 2013 Qtr 4, 2013TaskSplitMilestoneSummaryProject SummaryExternal TasksExternal MilestoneInactive TaskInactive MilestoneInactive SummaryManual TaskDuration-onlyManual Summary RollupManual SummaryStart-onlyFinish-onlyDeadlineProgressPage 1Project: Conference.mppDate: Mon 29.04.13Fig. A typical Project Schedule used for conference managementThe choice of tool should largely depend on the application and the level of knowledge andunderstanding of the stakeholder to whom the schedule is being presented. Some team members mayfunction most effectively through a basic calendar. Management may prefer a Gantt presentation.Those with a process orientation may lean toward the network approaches.The minimum information that exists on a project schedule includes a task description, duration (inhours/weeks/days/months) and logical relationships. A project-scheduling tool cannot plan. Manuallywe have to describe every activity, estimate every duration, it has to be defined at what order/sequencethe activity to be worked. Without at least these elements, the project information cannot become aproject schedule.ConsiderationsIf simplicity in presentation is the key, the Gantt has normally the preferred approaches. If clarity ofrelationships is the most important element to understand, one of the network approaches is probablymore viable. If the approach is not mapped to the needs of the individual receiving the information, itcan be difficult or impossible to detect what is being presented. And because the approaches mayinclude baseline schedule information as well as information about the schedule in process, the sheervolume of data presented can sometimes be overwhelming.Different formats are available for reporting project schedule, the first and most commonly used formatis on paper where the project schedule is printed and analyzed with customers or stakeholders in personin a review meeting. The other method of reporting is electronic publishing of project schedule via
  18. 18. presentation, websites and emails. This reporting technique is good because the information becomesinstantly available to the customers, subcontractors, and vendors and allows them to drill into thedetails of the task of their convenience. Often companies create project dashboards that contain projectschedule information for communicating this information. This type of communication is real time andextremely valuable to customers and upper management.8. Schedule Management PlanIntroductionThis section highlights the purpose and importance of the schedule management plan. It provides ageneral description of what should be included in the schedule management plan. These items will bedescribed in more detail later in the plan under each corresponding section. The project schedule is theroadmap for how the project will be executed. Schedules are an important part of any project as theyprovide the project team, sponsor, and stakeholders a Picture of the project’s status at any given time.The purpose of the schedule management plan is to define the approach the project team will use increating the project schedule. This plan also includes how the team will monitor the project scheduleand manage changes after the baseline schedule has been approved. This includes identifying, analyzing,documenting, prioritizing, approving or rejecting, and publishing all schedule-related changes.The below A table represents typical Schedule Management plan content can be used for conference. Asyou can see from the table of contents, the major session of the plan include baseline process,parameters, change control, reporting and so on. It is not a large or complex plan, but important when itcomes to a tight control on project schedule.Schedule Management plan Overview Schedule Management ResponsibilitiesSchedule Baseline Schedule ParametersSchedule Change Control Schedule ReportsThe schedule management plan documents in detail, the process and procedures of the projectschedule change control process in conference. In this table of contents, the schedule control containsthe process and procedures for making any changes.This session includes how often you can make weekly schedule changes and who can make changes i.e.,the responsible person in the project and who provides overall approval for these changes - can beproject manager or customer. When anyone request changes, they must follow this process beforemaking changes to the schedule. Normally, schedule changes are limited to a few individuals on theproject and are rarely open to all team members. The schedule management plan includes descriptionsof required documents (e.g., network diagrams, Gantt charts, milestone charts), as well as some insighton how those documents may be developed. The major session of plan is described below: -Scheduling ProcessThe scheduling process may include both high-level and detailed descriptions of how the schedule andits components will be generated. The process includes information on when the schedule should be
  19. 19. base lined and when certain types of documents (e.g., milestone charts, team calendars) should beupdated.Scheduling ResponsibilitiesThe responsibilities should reflect who would be accountable for schedule updates and for capturingreal-time information on project and task performance. This may also include who is in charge of thescheduling tools and who is conducting data entry.Schedule ParametersAny noteworthy project schedule limitations (e.g., major milestones, finish date) should be identifiedhere.Schedule ModificationThis element of the schedule management plan ties in with change control, in that it details how andwhen the schedule may be adjusted. For organizations applying critical chain management, this may alsoinclude how buffer time may be consumed and how management should be notified when such bufferis consumed.ApproachesThis section provides a general framework for the approach, which will be taken to create the projectschedule. This includes the scheduling tool/format, schedule milestones, and schedule developmentroles and responsibilities.Project schedules will be created using MS Project starting with the deliverables identified in theproject’s Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). Activity definition will identify the specific work packages,which must be performed to complete each deliverable. Activity sequencing will be used to determinethe order of work packages and assign relationships between project activities. Activity durationestimating will be used to calculate the number of work periods required to complete work packages.Resource estimating will be used to assign resources to work packages in order to complete scheduledevelopment.The following will be designates as milestones for the project schedule:• Completion of scope statement and WBS/WBS Dictionary• Baselined project schedule• Approval of final project budget• Project kick-off• Approval of roles and responsibilities• Requirements definition approval• Completion of data mapping/inventory
  20. 20. • Project implementation• Acceptance of final deliverablesAlthough the approaches to scheduling may vary, some of the elements are consistent. The schedulemanagement plan should highlight the major milestones and who is responsible for reporting on thosemilestones (and to whom).The plan may go into extensive detail on team processing of schedule information or may simply identifya single team member with “go-to” responsibility for all scheduling issues. Because it is integrated withother baseline issues (including cost, requirements, and risk), the schedule management plan should becoordinated with any management plans that have been developed for those areas.Roles and responsibilities for schedule development in detail are as follows: The project manager will be responsible for facilitating work package definition, sequencing, andestimating duration and resources with the project team. The project team is responsible for participating in work package definition, sequencing, andduration and resource estimating. The project team will also review and validate the proposedschedule and perform assigned activities once the schedule is approved. The project sponsor will participate in reviews of the proposed schedule and approve the finalschedule before it is baselined. The project stakeholders will participate in reviews of the proposed schedule and assist in itsvalidation.Schedule Control, Changes and ThresholdsAs the project schedule is created it is important that boundary conditions are set by the project sponsorto establish the schedule parameters within which the project is expected to operate. Any event thatmay potentially cause a schedule change that exceeds these boundary conditions must have a schedulechange request submitted and approved by the sponsor before the schedule change is made. For thisexample we will use a change threshold of 10%.If any member of the project team determines that a change to the schedule is necessary, the projectmanager and team will meet to review and evaluate the change. The project manager and project teammust determine which tasks will be impacted, variance as a result of the potential change, and anyalternatives or variance resolution activities they may employ to see how they would affect the scope,schedule, and resources.
  21. 21. Fig. Schedule management plan process sequenceDuring project planning, the project team decomposes the work packages to produce an activity listcomposed of multiple activities. A goal of the project team is to develop a realistic schedule. All of theproject work, which must be accomplished, will be included in the schedule. The team will develop aschedule management plan to define how the schedule will be created, what scheduling tools will beused, a sequence of how the work will be performed, and how the schedule will be managed.The sequence to developing a schedule starts with defining activities, which are then sequenced,estimates are determined for the resources required to perform the work, estimates are determined forthe duration required to complete the work, and finally the scheduled is produced which will befollowed in project execution.ConclusionThe tools described in this time management knowledge area supports project managers and teammembers in controlling the time aspects of their projects. Managing project Schedules is an importanttask and something to take seriously throughout the project. Project manager needs to control timemanagement closely because it is something that can quickly get away from you.S.No. Process Group Process Name Key Outputs1 Planning Define Activities 1) Activity List2) Milestone List2 Planning Sequence Activities 1) Project schedule network diagrams3 Planning Estimate Activity resources 1) Activity resource requirements
  22. 22. 2) Resource breakdown structure4 Planning Estimate Activity Durations 1) Activity duration estimates5 Planning Develop Schedule 1) Project schedule2) Schedule baseline6 Monitor & Control Control schedule 1) Work performance measurements2) Change requestsTable. Time Management process and OutputsThe major or key outputs for each of the six project time management processes are indicated on thistable. In the first planning stage, we define the activities and the key outputs are an activity list and amilestone list. Second, still in the planning stage, the activities are sequenced. Key outputs of thesequencing will be a project schedule network diagram. Similarly, in the third stage, still in the planningprocess group, we will estimate activity resources. The key output of this activity is activity resourcerequirements and a resource breakdown structure. Fourth, still in the planning process group, we willperform estimations of activity durations. The key output is Activity duration estimates. Fifth, still in theplanning process group, we will develop the schedule. The key outputs of this activity are a projectschedule and a schedule baseline. And finally, we will enter the process of monitoring and controlling.We will perform the activity of controlling the schedule. The key outputs will be work performancemeasurements and change requests if the requirements of the project change.Our topic includes tools such as Schedule Management Plan, Gantt chart, Schedule Network Diagram,Project Schedule, Project Milestone List, and the Baseline Schedule. Each tool focuses on helping theproject Manager and their team members to be more efficient in the activities within the conferencemanagement. With these tools project or conference managers and team members can control theactivities on the conference and drive the team towards a successful completion.ReferencesProject Management Communications Bible, Bill Dow, Bruce TaylorProject Management Book of Knowledge 5theditionProject Management, a system approach to planning, scheduling & controlling; 7thedition; HaroldKerznerProject Management Book of Knowledge 4theditionThe Project Management Communications Toolkit, Carl Pritchard
  23. 23. 2AChange Control FormChange Request #: ___________________ Project: _______________________CHANGE REQUEST INITIATION: Originator: __________________ Phone#: (___)__________ email:___________________Date Submitted: ____/____/____ System/Product/Service Name: _________________________ VersionNumber: _________________
  24. 24. CONFIGURATION ITEM:Software: ___ Firmware: ___ Hardware: ___ Documentation: ___ Other:_______________CHANGE TYPE: New Requirement: ___ Requirement Change: ___ Design Change: __ Other:_______________________REASON: Legal: ___ Market: ___ Performance: ___ Customer Request: ___ Defect: ______ Other:_________________PRIORITY: Emergency: ______ Urgent: ______ Routine: ______ Date Required:____/____/____CHANGE DESCRIPTION: (Detail functional and/or technical information. Use attachment if necessary.)Attachments: Yes / NoTECHNICAL EVALUATION: (Use attachment to explain changes, impact on other entities, impact onperformance etc.)Received By: ___________ Date Received: ___/___/___ Assigned To: _______________________ DateAssigned: ___/___/___Type of Software/Hardware/etc.Affected_________________________________________________________________________Modules/Screens/Tables/Files Affected:_________________________________________________________________________Documentation Affected: Section # Page # Date Completed InitialRequirements Specification ___________ _______ _______/______/______ _______System Design Specification _________ ________ ________/______/______ _______System Test Plan ___________ ________ ______/______/______ _______Training Plan ___________ ________ ______/______/______ _______
  25. 25. User System Reference Manual___________ ______________/______/______ _______System Maintenance Manual ___________ ______________/______/______ _______Other (Specify) ___________ ________ ______/______/______ _______TIME ESTIMATES to make the change: (Use attachment if necessary.)Lifecycle Stage Est. Time Act. Time Date Comp. RemarksAnalysis/Design__________ __________ ____/____/______________________________________Coding/Testing__________ __________ ____/____/____________________________________Acceptance __________ __________ ____/____/_______________________________________Total Hours: ________________ ______________________________Project Impact Analysis Needed: Yes / No (If yes, include impact on budget, resources, schedule, risk etc.)APPROVALS: Change Approved: ___Change Not Approved: ____Hold (Future Enhancement): ______1. Signature ____________________________________________ Date: ____/____/____2. Signature ____________________________________________ Date: ____/____/____Appendix 3A1.) SUBMITTER - GENERAL INFORMATIONCR# [CR001]Type of CR Enhancement DefectProject/Program/InitiativeSubmitter NameBrief Description ofRequest[Enter a detailed description of the change being requested]Date Submitted [mm/dd/yyyy]Date Required [mm/dd/yyyy]Priority Low Medium High MandatoryReason for Change [Enter a detailed description of why the change is being requested]
  26. 26. Other Artifacts Impacted [List other artifacts affected by this change]Assumptions and Notes [Document assumptions or comments regarding the requested change]Comments [Enter additional comments]Attachments or References Yes NoLink:Approval Signature [Approval Signature] Date Signed [mm/dd/yyyy]2.) PROJECT MANAGER - INITIAL ANALYSISHour Impact [#hrs] [Enter the hour impact of the requested change]Duration Impact [#dys][Enter the duration impact of the requested change]Schedule Impact [WBS][Detail the impact this change may have on schedules]Cost Impact [Cost] [Detail the impact this change may have on cost]Comments [Enter additional comments]Recommendations [Enter recommendations regarding the requested change]Approval Signature [Approval Signature] Date Signed [mm/dd/yyyy]3.) CHANGE CONTROL BOARD – DECISIONDecision Approved Approvedwith ConditionsRejected More InfoDecision Date [mm/dd/yyyy]Decision Explanation [Document the CCB’s decision]Conditions [Document and conditions imposed by the CCB]Approval Signature [Approval Signature] Date Signed [mm/dd/yyyy]