Leading the change process
Ujjwal Kumar Joshi
Introduction to Change
Change Management is defined as “the ongoing
adjustment of the corporate strategies and
structures to cope up with the changing
There exists a direct correlation between managing
change and the success of the business.
Following are the widely used Change Management
1. Lewin’s Change Management Model
2. McKinsey 7-S Model
3. Kotter’s 8 Step Change Model
Overview of the Model
Make it stickMake it stick
Don’t Let-upDon’t Let-up
Create short-term winsCreate short-term wins
Enable actionEnable action
Communication for buy-inCommunication for buy-in
Create a Change VisionCreate a Change Vision
Build guiding teamsBuild guiding teams
Increase urgencyIncrease urgency
Prof. Dr. John Kotter studied the progress of over 100
companies during the change situation.
In 1995, Prof. Dr. John Kotter introduced 8 steps for
leading Change in his book called “Leading Change”.
It is an appropriate organizational development tool,
providing a three-dimensional linkage between
individuals, groups, and the organization.
Thus, this model causes change to become a
campaign for the change management.
Step 1. Increase urgency
Plan and take a action to initiate for the required changes; the
actions should be motivating and booming.
The state of the organization should be determined before
conducting this phase as:
Strategy that should be adopted are as follows:
Explaining and realizing the benefit of change
Creating and developing opportunities for the users
Clear communication and information procedure
Convincing the major supporting groups and motivating them.
Value creating and inspiring proposal for the change
Step 2. Build guiding teams
Guiding teams must be formed so that the activities such as
Developing Vision, Communication and so on can be performed.
Effective team must be constructed and trust should be developed
between the team members.
Strategies that should be followed are:
The team as a whole should reflect enough Power so that those left
out cannot block progress.
All relevant viewpoints should be represented so that informed
intelligent decisions can be made with strong trust and commitment.
The group should be seen and respected by those in the firm so that
the group can enhance their credibility.
Recognize the opportunities and build the capacity of leading the
Step 3. Create a Change vision
Gives an appropriate feel of understanding the reason for the
Vision must be focused, flexible and easy to communicate.
Strategies to develop the vision are:
They convey a clear picture of what the future will look like
and should be imaginable
Stakeholders should show interest with high desirability
The goal should be realistic and attainable for the vision
It should be focused and proper enough for providing
guidelines for decision making process.
Vision should be flexible with the space of expansion as per
They should be easy to communicate and can be explained
Step 4. Communication for buy-
in The developed vision, as it is updated, must be
communicated among the members.
Strategies for the communication of the vision are:
Communication should be done in simple and formal
language which should be understandable and usable.
It should be vivid using verbal pictures which is more worthy
than a thousand words – use metaphor, analogy, and
Ideas should be able to be spread by anyone to anyone
because there are various parties to whom it should be
repeated again and again.
Two-way communication is always more powerful than
Step 5. Enable Action
In this step, the guiding teams turns their attention in the
mitigation of the obstacles that do not support the
It also involves the investment in the employee for their
managerial training and development.
Strategies for empowering change action are given
Hire change leaders to deliver results on the vision
Gain consistent feedback, recognize and reward people for the
implementation of change.
Determine the compatibility of the change vision with the
organizational structure, performance and other functionalities
of the organization.
Immediate action to remove obstacles that block the change.
Step 6. Create short-term
wins A short-term win can be defined as an effective organizational
improvement that can be achieved within 6 to 18 months.
A short-term win must follow following criteria:
Its success must be unambiguous
It should be visible throughout the organization
It should be related with the change effort.
Short-term wins are necessary to prevent the loss of momentum
and to keep the organization engaged in the change activities.
Strategies in order to create short-term wins are as follows:
Implement only small changes whose result can be obtained quickly.
Select cost effective targets that can be easily obtained.
Analyze targets to avoid failure- use pros and cons to determine early
Recognize the people who help to meet the targets through the
Step 7. Do not Let up
The senior leadership must keep the urgency level
high to effect the change using the organizational
power and the lower level managers must work with
the guiding coalition to identify and remove the
unnecessary dependencies and bring the change
project to the position as it is expected.
Strategies to build the change in the organization
After successful implementation of the change in the
organization, analyze what worked and what did not.
Develop new goals to maintain and continue the
change growth in the organization.
Step 8. Make it stick
Senior leadership must work with the guiding coalition and other manager on the
Identifying the norms and values that support the changes.
Ensuring selection, promotion and succession processes according to the new
norms and values of the organization.
Modify the reward system aligned with the new norms and values of organization.
Provide trainings and development activities to fulfill the skills and competencies
associated with the changes.
Modify and eliminate organizational processes and procedure that does not
support the changes.
Strategies to stick the changes in organization are:
Conduct a discussion program with the employees about the progress timely.
Explain the importance of change ideals and values when hiring the people and
conducting the trainings.
Develop new policies and processes that reinforce the value of change.
Motivating and inspiring
Establish a direction
Prof. Dr. Kotter suggested some respective functions for change procedures for
Managers and Leaders, which is being followed in today’s business. So, the
differentiation are as follows:
Leadership is very much related to change.
As the pace of change accelerates, there is
naturally a greater need for effective
----- Prof. Dr. John Kotter