What will we discuss today? (Goals & Agenda) Explore the life of the settlers Identify challenges of settling the west Identify innovations which changed the West Discuss resulting political movements
Three primary topics for discussion Growth of the Cattle Industry: with the decline of the buffalo and rise of railroads cattle ranching became BIG business The Farmers & Homesteaders: Federal land policy , railroads, and further innovation encouraged rapid settlement The Populist Movement: unfavorable economic cycles and difficult conditions unify farmers
Quick Q & A What is the cattle industry? What are the origins of cattle ranching?
Origins of the Cattle Industry Much of American Cattle Ranching & American Cowboy got origins from Spanish/Mexican culture Longhorn cattle Brought by the Spaniards Sturdy, short tempered accustomed to dry grasslands Mexican Vaquero Chaparreras Caballo bronco “rough horse” Charqui “jerky” Mexican Rancho Coral Rodeo
Growth of Cattle Industry Americanize Added fur to chaps Boots with pointed toes and heels The bandanna Six shooter
Growth of the Cattle Industry Not much of a industry before the Civil War Ranchers didn’t move far with cattle After the Civil War demand for beef skyrocketed Population increase in cities Railroads reach the West Chicago Union Stock Yards Open (1865) Demand after Civil War
Growth of the Cattle Industry With an increase in demand, cattle ranchers will take their herds on the Long Drive The Trails Western Trail Chisholm Trail Baxter Springs Trail Goodnight-Loving Trail
Growth of the Cattle Industry The hardships 3 months on the trail Coffee, beans, bacon, bread Sleeping on the ground, bathing in streams The dangers River crossings Lightning stampede Decline of the Industry Increasing numbers of ranchers trying to make it Competition for grazing land Sheepherders (range wars) Drought of 1883 Blizzard of 1887 68 degrees below zero Barbed wire Closing of the wide open West
Quick Q & A Which two (pull)factors drove settlement of the west? Homestead Act/ Railroads
Farmers of the Plains Faced immediate hardships Droughts/floods Fires Blizzards Locust Possible raids by Outlaws/native americans Limited trees on the plains
Farmers on the Plains Dugouts & Soddies Before farming the land settlers had to build shelter for themselves Because of lack of lumber, settlers used the prairie turf, grass and earth to make shelters Havens for snakes, insects and other pests
Innovations for the Plains 1837 (John Deere) Steel Plow 1847 reaper 1874 barbed wire By 1890 there are over 900 manufacturers of farm equipment In 1830 it took 183 minutes to produce a bushel of grain; by 1900 it took 10 minutes What does this all mean for the farmers?
Government Programs for the plains Morrill Land Grant Act 1862 & 1890 Land to states for agricultural colleges