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Westward expansion

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Westward expansion Westward expansion Presentation Transcript

  • Westward Expansion
  • What will we discuss today? (Goals & Agenda)
    Explore the life of the settlers
    Identify challenges of settling the west
    Identify innovations which changed the West
    Discuss resulting political movements
  • Three primary topics for discussion
    Growth of the Cattle Industry: with the decline of the buffalo and rise of railroads cattle ranching became BIG business
    The Farmers & Homesteaders: Federal land policy , railroads, and further innovation encouraged rapid settlement
    The Populist Movement: unfavorable economic cycles and difficult conditions unify farmers
  • Quick Q & A
    What is the cattle industry?
    What are the origins of cattle ranching?
  • Origins of the Cattle Industry
    Much of American Cattle Ranching & American Cowboy got origins from Spanish/Mexican culture
    Longhorn cattle
    Brought by the Spaniards
    Sturdy, short tempered accustomed to dry grasslands
    Mexican Vaquero
    Chaparreras
    Caballo bronco “rough horse”
    Charqui “jerky”
    Mexican Rancho
    Coral
    Rodeo
  • Growth of Cattle Industry
    Americanize
    Added fur to chaps
    Boots with pointed toes and heels
    The bandanna
    Six shooter
  • Growth of the Cattle Industry
    Not much of a industry before the Civil War
    Ranchers didn’t move far with cattle
    After the Civil War demand for beef skyrocketed
    Population increase in cities
    Railroads reach the West
    Chicago Union Stock Yards Open (1865)
    Demand after Civil War
  • Growth of the Cattle Industry
    With an increase in demand, cattle ranchers will take their herds on the Long Drive
    The Trails
    Western Trail
    Chisholm Trail
    Baxter Springs Trail
    Goodnight-Loving Trail
  • Growth of the Cattle Industry
    The hardships
    3 months on the trail
    Coffee, beans, bacon, bread
    Sleeping on the ground, bathing in streams
    The dangers
    River crossings
    Lightning
    stampede
    Decline of the Industry
    Increasing numbers of ranchers trying to make it
    Competition for grazing land
    Sheepherders (range wars)
    Drought of 1883
    Blizzard of 1887
    68 degrees below zero
    Barbed wire
    Closing of the wide open West
  • Quick Q & A
    Which two (pull)factors drove settlement of the west?
    Homestead Act/ Railroads
  • Farmers of the Plains
    Faced immediate hardships
    Droughts/floods
    Fires
    Blizzards
    Locust
    Possible raids by Outlaws/native americans
    Limited trees on the plains
  • Farmers on the Plains
    Dugouts & Soddies
    Before farming the land settlers had to build shelter for themselves
    Because of lack of lumber, settlers used the prairie turf, grass and earth to make shelters
    Havens for snakes, insects and other pests
  • Innovations for the Plains
    1837 (John Deere) Steel Plow
    1847 reaper
    1874 barbed wire
    By 1890 there are over 900 manufacturers of farm equipment
    In 1830 it took 183 minutes to produce a bushel of grain; by 1900 it took 10 minutes
    What does this all mean for the farmers?
  • Government Programs for the plains
    Morrill Land Grant Act 1862 & 1890
    Land to states for agricultural colleges