Chapter 5


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Changes in the West

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Chapter 5

  1. 1. Chapter 5 Changes in the West 1865-1890
  2. 2. Native Americans <ul><li>Land was communal – no one person or tribe could own land </li></ul><ul><li>Buffalo was central to life </li></ul>
  3. 3. All parts of Buffalo were used
  4. 4. <ul><li>The buffalo were destroyed by settlers and tourists who shot them for sport </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1800: 65 million buffalo roamed the plains
  6. 6. By 1890, less than 1000 buffalo remained
  7. 7. Settlers Push Westward <ul><li>Viewed Native American land as unsettled </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced to claim land </li></ul><ul><li>Gold was discovered in Colorado – intensified the rush for land </li></ul>
  8. 8. Natives and Settlers Clash <ul><li>1834 – all of Great Plains set aside as “Indian Lands” </li></ul><ul><li>1850s – Policy shift – native get smaller amounts of land </li></ul>
  9. 9. Culture Clash <ul><li>Sand Creek Massacre – U.S. army attacks </li></ul><ul><li>150 native women and children killed </li></ul>
  10. 10. Custer’s Last Stand <ul><li>Colonel Custer and infantry reach Little Big Horn </li></ul><ul><li>Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull lead tribe </li></ul><ul><li>Outflank and crush Custer’s troops </li></ul>
  11. 13. Battle of Wounded Knee <ul><li>December 1890- 7 th Cavalry (Custer’s old regiment) rounded up 350 Sioux and took them to Wounded Knee, SD </li></ul><ul><li>7 th Cavalry slaughtered 350 unarmed Natives </li></ul><ul><li>The corpses were left to freeze </li></ul>
  12. 15. Assimilation
  13. 16. Dawe’s Act 1887 <ul><li>Attempted to assimilate natives </li></ul><ul><li>Would break up reservations and introduce natives into American life – farming, etc </li></ul><ul><li>By 1932 2/3rds of the land committed to Natives had been taken </li></ul>
  14. 17. Growing Demand for beef <ul><li>After the Civil war the demand for beef rose sharply </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanization and the rise of the railroad contributed to this </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago Union Stock Yards </li></ul>
  15. 18. Chisholm Trail <ul><li>Thousands of cattle driven from Texas to Kansas </li></ul><ul><li>Abilene, KS – place where trail met the railroads </li></ul>
  16. 19. The End of the Open Range <ul><li>Overgrazing, bad weather, and the invention of barbed wire led to the end of the cattle drive </li></ul>
  17. 20. Settling on the Great Plains <ul><li>Homestead Act – federal land policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave 160 free acres to any “head of household” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had to live on and farm land for 5 years </li></ul></ul>
  18. 21. Exodusters <ul><li>African Americans – moved from South to Kansas </li></ul><ul><li>Took advantage of land deals </li></ul>
  19. 22. Oklahoma Sooners <ul><li>In a less than a day 2 millions acres of government land being given away was claimed by settlers </li></ul><ul><li>Some took possession of the land before the government officially declared it open – thus Oklahoma became known as the “Sooner State” </li></ul>
  20. 23. Hardships <ul><li>Droughts, floods, fires, blizzards, locust plagues, bandits </li></ul><ul><li>No neighbors nearby </li></ul>
  21. 24. Soddies <ul><li>Homes were built from the land itself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dug out of the sides of ravines or hills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If land was flat made homes out of dirt </li></ul></ul>
  22. 25. <ul><li>Despite these hardships, the number of people living west of the Mississippi grew from 1% of the nations population to 30% by 1900 </li></ul>
  23. 26. Increased Technology Helped Farmers <ul><li>1837- John Deere steel plow – slice through heavy soil </li></ul><ul><li>1847 – reaper – invented by Cyrus McCormick </li></ul>
  24. 27. Age of the Railroads <ul><li>More people moved west and the railroads were born </li></ul><ul><li>Government gave land grants to the railroads to help it grow </li></ul>
  25. 28. Transcontinental Railroad <ul><li>Completed in 1890 with help from Chinese workers </li></ul>
  26. 29. FARMER EDUCATION SUPPORTED <ul><li>The federal government financed agricultural education </li></ul><ul><li>The Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890 gave federal land to states to help finance agricultural colleges </li></ul>
  27. 30. FARMERS AND THE POPULIST MOVEMENT <ul><li>In the late 1800s, many farmers were struggling </li></ul><ul><li>Crop prices were falling, debt increased </li></ul><ul><li>Mortgages were being foreclosed by banks </li></ul>
  28. 31. ECONOMIC DISTRESS HITS FARMERS <ul><li>Between 1867 and 1887 the price of a bushel of wheat fell from $2.00 to 68 cents </li></ul><ul><li>Railroads conspired to keep transport costs artificially high </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers got caught in a cycle of debt </li></ul>
  29. 32. FARMERS ORGANIZE FOR CHANGE <ul><li>1867 – Oliver Hudson Kelley started the Grange </li></ul><ul><li>By 1870, the Grange spent most of their time fighting the railroads </li></ul><ul><li>Soon the Grange and other Farmer Alliances numbered over 4 million members </li></ul>
  30. 33. POPULIST PARTY IS BORN <ul><li>Leaders of the farmers organization realized they needed to build a base of political power </li></ul><ul><li>Populism – the movement of the people – was born in 1892 with the founding of the Populist, or People’s Party </li></ul>THIS POLITICAL CARTOON SHOWS A POPULIST CLUBBING A RAILROAD CAR
  31. 34. POPULIST REFORMS <ul><li>economic reforms- increase of money supply (gold and silver standard), a rise in crop prices, lower taxes, a federal loan program </li></ul><ul><li>political reforms- direct election of senators, single terms for presidents </li></ul><ul><li>Populists also called for an 8-hour workday and reduced immigration </li></ul>
  32. 35. POPULISTS MAKE GAINS <ul><li>In the 1892 Presidential election, the Populist candidate won almost 10% of the vote </li></ul><ul><li>In the West, the party elected 5 senators, 3 governors and 1,500 state legislators </li></ul>FRED AND PHIL VOTED FOR THE PEOPLE’S PARTY
  33. 37. SILVER OR GOLD? <ul><li>The central issue of the 1896 Presidential campaign was which metal would be the basis of the nation’s monetary system </li></ul><ul><li>Bimetallism (those who favored using both) vs. those that favored the Gold Standards alone </li></ul>
  34. 38. BRYAN AND THE “CROSS OF GOLD” <ul><li>Republicans favored the Gold standard and nominated William McKinley </li></ul><ul><li>Democrats favored Bimetallism and nominated William Jennings Bryan </li></ul><ul><li>Despite Bryan’s stirring words, “You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold,” McKinley won the 1896 election </li></ul>BRYAN’S CROSS OF GOLD SPEECH
  35. 39. THE END OF POPULISM <ul><li>With McKinley’s election victory, Populism collapsed , burying the hopes of the farmer </li></ul><ul><li>Populism left two important legacies: 1) A message that the downtrodden can organize and be heard and 2) An agenda of reforms , many of which would be enacted in the 20 th century </li></ul>THE PEOPLE’S PARTY WAS SHORT-LIVED BUT LEFT AN IMPORTANT LEGACY